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Article

Irén Kertész Wilkinson

çingene ’, ‘ cigány ’ or ‘gypsy’. Spanish Gypsies refer to themselves as Gitan (‘Gypsy’). Others opt for a different name all together. In German speaking areas, the ‘Gypsy’ group who suffered most during the Holocaust stress this through their name, Sinti. In Finland they call themselves Kale. Within the broad categories of Roma, Sinti or Gitan, there are further subdivisions according to type and level of descent, language use and religion, all of which serve as a framework for Roma social structure. Many Roma groups are divided according to their previous or present

Article

Owen Wright, Christian Poché and Amnon Shiloah

reshuffling conventional stroke sequences, but for all their variety and complexity, it is difficult to think of the cycles as a systematic exploitation of combinatorial possibilities. The 19th century was a period of increasing exposure to (and subjugation by) the West. In reaction, there were efforts at political, educational and cultural renewal and reform. As far as music was concerned, conscious attempts at Westernization, the military band apart, still lay in the future. Despite the obvious symbolism of the Cairo Opera House, which opened in 1869 with a performance

Article

Gini Gorlinski

its original repertoire. The garantung was also featured in an ensemble known as uning-uningan , which accompanied opera Batak , a type of musical theatre particularly popular in the 1920s. The instrumentation of the uning-uningan resembled that of the gondang hasapi , with the addition of an odap (small double-headed drum) and a sulim (side-blown flute). During the second half of the 20th century, both the uning-uningan and the opera Batak repertoire were essentially absorbed by gondang hasapi primarily to provide entertainment at recreational events

Article

Alan R. Thrasher

and haotong were formerly used in military functions and official processions; nowadays they are used in celebrations, ritual events, and occasionally with suona bands. Changhao with curved-back bells—known as laba in southern China—are also employed backstage in traditional opera to signal the arrival of military officers. See also Niujiao hao ; Suona . Bibliography Hayashi Kenzō : Dongya yueqi kao [Investigations of East Asian musical instruments] (Beijing, 1962), 352–60 Yuan Bingchang and Mao Jizeng , eds.: Zhongguo

Article

Luo  

Alan R. Thrasher

finger under the rim of the instrument and struck with an unpadded slip of wood. Its ‘gong heart’ is thinner than its shoulder and rim, and its mid-register pitch ascends. Gongs of this type were in use in Kunqu opera by about the 16th or 17th centuries. Since the 18th century, they have been used in opera traditions throughout China, notably in Beijing opera, but also in shifan luogu and Chaozhou daluogu percussion ensembles. (iii) Large basin-shaped gongs, generally with deep rims at about 90 degrees. Variants include the large Chaozhou shenbo (literally