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Owen Jander, Lionel Sawkins, J.B. Steane, Elizabeth Forbes, Ellen T. Harris and Gerald Waldman

remarkable role of the magician Zoroastro in Orlando ( 1733 ). The ‘rage aria’ was cultivated even in the oratorio; the most famous of all is ‘Why do the nations so furiously rage together?’ in Messiah . In French opera, with no castratos for male roles, the bass retained more importance than it did in opera seria . Cavalli's only opera for Paris, Ercole amante ( 1662 ), has a bass title role. The importance of the bass in French opera was remarked on in François Raguenet's Paralèle des italiens et des françois ( 1702 ; Eng. trans., 1709 ): ‘When the Persons of


Bruno Nettl, Rob C. Wegman, Imogene Horsley, Michael Collins, Stewart A. Carter, Greer Garden, Robert E. Seletsky, Robert D. Levin, Will Crutchfield, John Rink, Paul Griffiths and Barry Kernfeld

frequently indicated, but sometimes written either in skeletal form (bass line alone, or bass with treble) or not at all. Luigi Rossi’s Il palazzo incantato ( 1642 ) begins with a sinfonia, for which only a bass line is given. Cavalli’s Didone ( 1641 ) at one point has the rubric ‘all the instruments enter’, although no parts are written, and at another point, ‘aria with all the instruments’, accompanied by continuo only. There are many instances in operas of the Contarini Collection ( I-Vnm ) in which a dance is indicated in the score, but no music is supplied; in


Owen Jander, J.B. Steane, Elizabeth Forbes, Ellen T. Harris and Gerald Waldman

Offenbach's La belle Hélène ( 1864 ), Barbe-bleue ( 1866 ) and La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein ( 1867 ). At the Opéra-Comique, the lyric baritone Alexandre Taskin sang from 1878 to 1894 , creating the three villains of Les contes d'Hoffman ( 1881 ) and also Lescaut in Massenet's Manon ( 1884 ). 3. 20th century. The early 20th century witnessed an outpouring of new baritone roles in French, Italian and German opera. At the Opéra-Comique in 1902 , the two baritones in the première of Pelléas et Mélisande were of dissimilar types, Jean Périer (Pelleas)


Elizabeth Forbes

revised by Owen Jander, J.B. Steane, Ellen T. Harris and Gerald Waldman

mezzo-soprano voice was more esteemed in Italy than in France, but referred to the acclaim for a certain Mlle Gondré, ‘a very fine bas-dessus ’. Mozart's use of the treble voices in his serious operas remained similar to his Baroque predecessors. He wrote young, heroic male roles for castrato (Idamantes in Idomeneo and Sextus in La clemenza di Tito ); his female roles are all for soprano, but some fall into the mezzo range including Cherubino (a breeches role), Dorabella and, in La clemenza di Tito , Annius (another breeches role) and arguably Vitellia. 2. 19th


David D. Boyden

revised by Robin Stowell

Rameau's idea, in the first violin part of his opera Platée ( 1749 ), of depicting the words ‘Ce sont des pleurs’ (Act 3 scene iv) by ‘sliding the same finger, and making audible the two quarter-tones between e ′ and f ′. In ex.2 , taken from the second movement of Bartók's Fourth String Quartet, the composer indicated a sliding by a diagonal line – he used no terms. Obviously, at the prestissimo tempo of the movement, the slide must be a portamento, there being no time to distinguish any intervening notes. All four instruments of the quartet are directed


James G. Smith and Percy M. Young

that the designation ‘coro’ was sometimes used in these early operas to refer to an ensemble which, although it functioned dramatically as a chorus, was composed of only one singer for each part. Except at the German and Austrian courts, where operas were produced on a grander scale, this latter practice became the norm for all Italian operas after about 1640 . In Handel’s operas, for example, the final ensembles, although designated ‘coro’, were performed by the principals. The chorus in French opera was at first no larger than its Italian predecessor. Cambert’s


Keith Polk, Janet K. Page, Stephen J. Weston, Armin Suppan, Raoul F. Camus, Trevor Herbert, Anthony C. Baines, J. Bradford Robinson and Allan F. Moore

Repertory. Armin Suppan Outside the major centres, music in the 19th century was provided to a great extent by local bands, who played an important role in the dissemination of music of all kinds. Besides marches, much of the repertory of both military and civic bands throughout the century consisted of arrangements or transcriptions of overtures, symphonies, operas and oratorios by composers including Beethoven, Weber, Rossini, Liszt, Verdi, Tchaikovsky, Brahms and Bruckner. Arias were performed by solo instruments while the remainder of the band took the


Hugh Davies

tuning systems or to give accurate tuning in temperaments other than the ‘standard’ 12-note Equal temperament (ET). This article covers all such approaches, thus including not only unequal temperaments but also equal subdivisions of the octave that are more (occasionally less) than 12. Although some specialists limit the meaning of ‘microtonal’ to intervals that are less than a quarter-tone, others more logically apply it to all intervals that are smaller than the semitone, adopting the term ‘macrotonal’ for the few tunings that use larger intervals (primarily nine-


Julie Anne Sadie and Terence M. Pamplin

barytons more appropriately called cellitons was built, but, due to advances in research, light sonorous instruments are now being made again. Barytons from all periods survive. Important 17th-century instruments may be seen in London (3), Linz (2), Vienna, Berlin and Nuremberg. 14 are known from the 18th century, three from the 19th and at least 30 from the 20th. As befits the ‘instrument of kings’, almost all barytons are finely decorated with carved heads (painted or plain), purfling, inlay and herring-bone edging, in materials such as ivory, ebony and mother-of-pearl


V.E. Negus, Owen Jander and Peter Giles

never so called), when employed in choirs ecclesiastical or secular, professional or amateur, mainly sang on the alto line, though also took the top line in music for men’s voices. In northern Europe as a whole, where castrati were generally a phenomenon of imported Italian opera, choirs of all types continued to make wide use of falsetti (though not always so called), sometimes singing with the boys or more often taking the alto part, until the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The practice had grown less common in some countries from the mid-18th century as it


John Spitzer, Neal Zaslaw, Leon Botstein, Charles Barber, José A. Bowen and Jack Westrup

job is to watch the director and duplicate his beat so that ‘all the choirs sing to the same beat without dragging’. The time-beater, sometimes depicted as a keyboardist rather than a singer, endured well into the 18th century, particularly in church music. In their correspondence of the 1770s and 80s Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart still distinguished between the verbs tactieren or Tact schlagen (time-beating in church music and oratorio) and dirigieren (directing with an instrument in opera or concert music). With the advent of basso continuo practice



Peter Crossley-Holland, John MacInnes and James Porter

north-eastern England and southern Scotland) until the 6th century. The bards of antiquity may have used the crwth, a relative of the lyre, said by Venantius Fortunatus ( c 530/40– c 600) to be played in Britain (F. Leo, ed.: Venanti Honori Clementiani Fortunati presbyteri italici opera poetica , MGH, Auctorum antiquissimorum , iv/1, 1881 / R , 64). 2. Medieval and post-medieval Wales and Cornwall. Peter Crossley-Holland Throughout the British Isles local kings, princes and chieftains maintained bards, bestowing gifts upon them for their services. The



David Fallows, Owen Jander, Elizabeth Forbes, J.B. Steane, Ellen T. Harris and Gerald Waldman

Beatrice di Tenda , 1833 ) for Alberico Curioni, all with heavier and lower voices – shows the care Bellini took in writing for individual singers. During the 1820s and 30s many roles were written for the leading tenor at the Opéra-Comique, Jean Baptiste Chollet, including Auber's Fra Diavolo ( 1830 ); his most popular creation was Chapelou in Adam's Le postillon de Lonjumeau ( 1836 ), in which he was able to display his magnificently strong and secure d″ . The tenor roles in Rossini's works for the Opéra ( 1826–9 ) were all adapted to the voice of Adolphe Nourrit, who



James Blades

revised by Edmund A. Bowles

ion, raised demands on the player to a new level. He took for granted the availability of four pedal drums, and often required the performer to tune while playing, count measures in changing time signatures and watch the conductor all at the same time. His innovations commenced with Till Eulenspiegel ( 1894–5 ) and peaked in his operas Salome ( 1905 ) and Elektra ( 1909 ), the former including descending and ascending scales and passages of semiquavers so rapid that the composer asked for the drums to be ‘rearranged’ so that the player could alternately strike


Peter Williams and David Ledbetter

kinds of decoration for the ‘ornamental’ continuo instruments, and contemporary sources of English consort music, written out in full for all instruments, may suggest some of the ‘mille belles variétés et une vitesse de main incroyable’ heard from Italian lute players by André Maugars. By definition Hume's lyra viol parts ( ex.3 ) are not basso continuo parts, but nor were many contributions made by continuo instruments in early opera. Hume wrote out the parts, but good players could have improvised them. According to Agazzari, lute, theorbo and harp players seem to have


Kenneth Kreitner, Mary Térey-Smith, Jack Westrup, D. Kern Holoman, G.W. Hopkins, Paul Griffiths and Jon Alan Conrad

forms to all the major European musical centres. An increasing number of Italian composers were offered positions in foreign courts; there they either rearranged earlier works or composed new pieces to suit the local conditions. Inevitably, the need for diversity created a much broader spectrum in orchestration than the one they had left behind in Italy. Court opera developed in two major new locations, Vienna and Paris, both with considerable instrumental resources. Under Emperor Leopold I, the Habsburg court developed a permanent musical establishment for opera and oratorio



Owen Jander, Elizabeth Forbes, Stanley Sadie, J.B. Steane, Ellen T. Harris and Gerald Waldman

Agathe to all others. Henry Chorley ( Modern German Music , London, 1854 ) described her voice as: ‘a strong soprano – not perfect in quality … but with an inherent expressiveness of tone, which made it more attractive on the stage than a more faultless organ’. Schröder-Devrient also excelled in lieder, and it was she who persuaded Goethe of the merits of Schubert's Erlkönig . In France, the coloratura demands of the early 19th century were met in the voice of Laure Cinti-Damoreau ( 1801–63 ), the leading soprano at the Opéra. The soprano roles in Rossini's operas written


Kenneth Kreitner, Louis Jambou, Desmond Hunter, Stewart A. Carter, Peter Walls, Kah-Ming Ng, David Schulenberg and Clive Brown

‘people have recently begun to indicate such appoggiaturas according to their true value’; among composers who began to do so during the second half of the century were Gluck (from the time of his Paris operas), Haydn (from about 1762 ) and Mozart. Many other composers were much more casual, especially Italians, who often did not trouble to indicate appoggiaturas at all in places where the singer or instrumentalist might have been expected to supply them. Confusion over this type of notation remained a serious problem for many at the end of the 18th century. In the fifth


Renato Meucci

to supersede all existing low brass instruments in Italian orchestras; in 1851 , he devised the even larger generale pelittone . The fashion for ever-increasing bore size and sound was strongly opposed by Verdi in 1881 when he expressed his dissatisfaction with these huge instruments. (3) In 1881 G.C. Pelitti ( 1837–1905 ) created, at Verdi’s request, a new low brass instrument, the trombone basso Verdi . In spite of its ‘basso’ epithet, it was in fact a contrabass trombone pitched in B♭. Verdi scored for this instrument in his subsequent operas, Otello (


Peter Walls

player to re-use the same fingers for notes on higher strings ( ex.4 ). In each of these cases, the player has no option but to make the chord ripple from bottom to top; the notes cannot be sounded simultaneously and sustained equally. Ex.3 Veracini: Dissertazione … sopra l’opera quinta del Corelli Ex.4 J.-A. Mathieu: op.1 no.4, 4th movt (1756) In Baroque music the word ‘arpeggio’ appears frequently; in other cases the performer must arpeggiate even without instruction, as in the Chaconne of Bach’s second partita for solo violin. In most cases the