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Article

Edwin Seroussi, Joachim Braun, Eliyahu Schleifer, Uri Sharvit, Sara Manasseh, Theodore Levin, Tang Yating, Kay Kaufman Shelemay, Jehoash Hirshberg, Philip V. Bohlman, Israel J. Katz, Bret Werb, Walter Zev Feldman, Don Harrán, Alexander Knapp, David Bloch and Emily Thwaite

of the French government, he proceeded to reshape the music of the Paris synagogue, aiming to create a model for all the French Jewish communities, which were united under the governmental system of Consistoires israélites . Naumbourg's Zemiroth Yisrael ( 1847–64 ), which contains compositions for ḥazzan and male choir, consists of traditional chants and recitatives in the south-German style and modern compositions influenced by French grand opéra choruses. Naumbourg's influence spread far and wide in France and its colonies. The innovations of Sulzer and Naumbourg

Article

Richard Taruskin

comparable prestige in opera when a Singspiel (albeit one billed as a Romantische Oper ), Weber’s Der Freischütz ( 1821 ), won wide acceptance, both at home and abroad, as the exemplary German opera, a mirror of the nation and an answer to the eternal question, ‘Was ist deutsch?’. Peasants, until now visible on the operatic stage only as accessories (and, as always, representing their class, not their country), formed virtually the entire cast: not just sidekicks and comic relievers but heroes and heroines, villains and all the rest. Weber’s opera gained its great national

Article

Singing  

Owen Jander, Ellen T. Harris, David Fallows and John Potter

instrument affected all repertories. Singers of songs could and sometimes did have smaller voices than their operatic counterparts, but this was not essential and, indeed, much of the song repertory called for strength and endurance in the upper register, such as Schubert's ‘Suleika’ songs. The primary effect was to draw a clear distinction between operatically trained and ‘popular’ singers, a distinction that had not existed in the 18th century, when the English tenor John Beard could move easily among Italian opera, English oratorio, popular ballad opera and English song

Article

Hugh Macdonald

seen at the Opéra. The Act 1 procession and the Act 3 festival became famous for their splendour. One newspaper thought the procession, with all the leading figures on horseback, was the eighth wonder of the world. Nothing is missing in this prodigious resurrection of a distant century. The costumes of the warriors, civilians and ecclesiastics are not imitated but reproduced in the smallest detail. The armour is not paste-board, it is real metal. One sees men of iron, men of silver, men of gold! The Emperor is a glittering ingot from head to foot! The Opéra may become

Article

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

little old woman’, but recorded that she sang well. Oxberry wrote of her in 1825 : ‘As a singer, we never heard her equal; she had all the requisites for a first-rate vocalist – compass, power, feeling, taste, flexibility, and sweetness’. (2) James Bland ( b London , March 5, 1798 ; d London , July 17, 1861 ). Bass-baritone and actor , son of (1) Maria Theresa Bland. He sang in the company of the English Opera House at the Lyceum ( 1826–30 ) and then, after a brief period acting minor roles at Drury Lane, achieved fame in J.R. Planché's burlesque

Article

Joseph  

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

his identity and forgives them. The pharaoh has granted them sanctuary on Joseph’s request, and all thank God for his goodness and mercy. In writing Joseph , Duval and Méhul sought to capitalize on two current French interests: an Egyptian craze, partly the result of Napoleon’s campaign there ( 1798–9 ), and a marked religious revival, partly in reaction to the anti-clericalism of the Revolution. The result was Méhul’s longest-lasting and most widely performed opera. Duval’s libretto is intentionally austere. Unlike other contemporary theatrical treatments of the

Article

Choctaw  

Victoria Lindsay Levine

“Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.” The composer george Quincy , who trained and later taught at the Juilliard School, has written music for chamber ensembles, ballet, film, and television. His opera Pocahontas at the Court of James I ( 2006 ) was commissioned by the Queen’s Chamber Band. In 2010 Arizona Opera commissioned him to write Young Woman Warrior who Came Home , an opera based on Navajo history. Selected recordings American Indian Music of the Mississippi Choctaws , i–ii (Choctaw Central High School, 1974); Choctaw-Chickasaw Dance Songs

Article

Israel  

Jehoash Hirshberg, Natan Shahar, Edwin Seroussi and Amnon Shiloah

invented folksong, with new art music limited to a handful of works, notably the first Hebrew folk opera, The Pioneers ( 1924 ) by Jacob Weinberg ( 1870–1958 ). The dominating spirit of socialism spearheaded by the idealistic kibbutz (communal village) movement and the idealization of agricultural pioneer work were the backdrop for the Institute for the Promotion of Music among the People, which sponsored lectures, workers' choruses and courses for choral conductors all over the country. The economic depression of the late 1920s and the deterioration of Arab-Jewish

Article

Irén Kertész Wilkinson

çingene ’, ‘ cigány ’ or ‘gypsy’. Spanish Gypsies refer to themselves as Gitan (‘Gypsy’). Others opt for a different name all together. In German speaking areas, the ‘Gypsy’ group who suffered most during the Holocaust stress this through their name, Sinti. In Finland they call themselves Kale. Within the broad categories of Roma, Sinti or Gitan, there are further subdivisions according to type and level of descent, language use and religion, all of which serve as a framework for Roma social structure. Many Roma groups are divided according to their previous or present

Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography

Article

were not sufficient to ensure immortality and even La Juive has now all but vanished from the stage. Works printed works published in Paris unless otherwise stated Stage first performances in Paris unless otherwise stated PO Opéra POC Opéra-Comique Les bohémiennes, 1819–20, unperf., lost Marco Curzio, 1822, unperf. [finale only] Les deux pavillons, ou Le jaloux et le méfiant (oc, J.B.C. Vial), c 1824, unperf. Pygmalion (opéra, 1, Patin and Arnoult), c 1824, unperf. Erostrate (opéra, 3, Arnoult and L. Halévy), c 1825, inc. L’artisan (oc, 1, J.-H.V. de

Article

Winton Dean

Galli, Caterina ( b ? Cremona , c 1723 ; d Chelsea , Dec 23, 1804 ). Italian mezzo-soprano . After singing in Bergamo in 1742 , she was engaged for the 1742–3 Italian opera season in London, appearing at the King’s Theatre in Brivio’s Mandane , Galuppi’s Enrico and Sirbace and Porpora’s Temistocle (she took male parts in all four operas). In 1745 she was in a pasticcio, L’incostanza delusa , at the New Haymarket Theatre, but she made her name in Handel’s Covent Garden oratorio seasons from 1747 to 1754 . She appeared first in revivals

Article

Hugh Macdonald

oratorio!’, he said, ‘no, let’s make it an opera!’, and he began to dig through the Bible while I outlined the plan of the work, even sketching scenes, and leaving him only the versification to do. For some reason I began the music with Act 2, and I played it at home to a select audience who could make nothing of it at all. Despite many precedents, most people expressed alarm at a biblical subject on the stage. After one more hearing of Act 2 Saint-Saëns abandoned his opera. Only after the appearance in 1872 of his third opera, La princesse jaune , did he feel sufficiently

Article

Encore  

Peter Walls

their crying out encore or altro volto , the performer is so obliging as to sing it over again’. In this period, the word had a fashionable status. Pope ( 1742 ) has the ‘harlot form’ of Opera telling Dullness (‘in quaint Recitativo’): To the same notes thy sons shall hum or snore And all thy growing daughters cry encore . ( The Dunciad , iv. 59). In both concerts and operas the progress of a work was freely interrupted for the repetition of arias or movements. Today, an ‘encore’ usually means an extra piece played at the end of a solo or chamber recital, or by

Article

Jürgen Maehder

revised by Antonio Rostagno

Pompei , written in collaboration with Giordano on a posthumous libretto by Illica ( 1921 , Rome), which Giordano described as a ‘satirodia’, to the pre-Fascist opera Glauco ( 1922 , Naples), containing some ingredients typical of later propaganda operas on subjects connected with the glory of ancient Rome. Works Operas first performed at Milan, La Scala, unless otherwise stated; all printed works published in Milan Asrael (leggenda, 4, F. Fontana), Reggio nell’Emilia, Municipale, 11 Feb 1888 (1888) Cristoforo Colombo

Article

James Freeman

composer-in-residence for the Delaware Valley Opera Company. Among his commissions are works for the Fromm Foundation, the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and Orchestra 2001 . Finko’s Russian-Jewish heritage is an important aspect of his music, often providing the subject matter (especially for his operas and tone poems) as well as motivating the thematic content. Musorgsky and Shostakovich, the music of the Russian Orthodox Church and Jewish folksong and synagogue music are all clear influences on his style. He has been

Article

Matthias Brzoska

other grand operas, Le prophète retained its place in the repertories of all the major international opera houses for decades, and was in the repertory of the Paris Opéra until 1912 . The spectacular Paris première of L’Africaine was created by Marie Sasse (Sélika), Marie Battu (Inès), Emilio Naudin (Vasco), and Jean-Baptiste Faure (Nélusko), in a production directed by Alexis Colleville and conducted by Georges-François Hainl ( see fig.5 ). Being so clearly conceived as a work for soloists, it was the most frequently performed of Meyerbeer’s operas in the 20th

Article

Edward Garden and Stuart Campbell

been less coherent; the opera’s historical gaffes could scarcely have been more glaring; nor, despite the composer’s claims, was it at all short on conventional operatic trappings or formal numbers, many – especially the folklike ones – of a triviality it was only too easy to expose. Vrazh′ya sila (‘The Power of the Fiend’) occupied the composer for more than five years, but remained unfinished because of the huge, paralysing rift that developed between the cantakerous composer and his librettist Ostrovsky. It was a great pity, for the opera was on its improbable

Article

Nicholas Temperley and Nigel Burton

Rise of English Opera (London, 1951/ R ) E.D. Mackerness : ‘Leigh Hunt's Musical Journalism’, MMR , 86 (1956), 212–22, esp. 217 B. Carr : ‘The First All-Sung English 19th-Century Opera’, MT , 115 (1974), 125–6 G. Balanchine and F. Mason : Balanchine's Complete Stories of the Great Ballets (New York, 1977), 603–4 N. Temperley , ed.: Music in Britain: the Romantic Age 1800–1914 (London, 1981/ R ) E.W. White : A History of English Opera (London, 1983) E.W. White : A Register of First Perfomances of English Operas and Semi-Operas (London, 1983)

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

Jerusalem, with its division into culturally self-contained ethnic, national and religious quarters, and the all-Jewish, middle-class extrovert Tel-Aviv soon became conspicuous and is still acknowledged. With the foundation of Israel in 1948 Jaffa was integrated with Tel-Aviv and thenceforth the city grew, connecting with adjacent towns to form the country's largest metropolitan area. Also in 1948 the soprano Addis de Philippe founded the Israeli Opera, which lasted until 1982 . The Palestine Orchestra, renamed the Israel PO, moved in 1957 to its permanent home