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Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography

Article

were not sufficient to ensure immortality and even La Juive has now all but vanished from the stage. Works printed works published in Paris unless otherwise stated Stage first performances in Paris unless otherwise stated PO Opéra POC Opéra-Comique Les bohémiennes, 1819–20, unperf., lost Marco Curzio, 1822, unperf. [finale only] Les deux pavillons, ou Le jaloux et le méfiant (oc, J.B.C. Vial), c 1824, unperf. Pygmalion (opéra, 1, Patin and Arnoult), c 1824, unperf. Erostrate (opéra, 3, Arnoult and L. Halévy), c 1825, inc. L’artisan (oc, 1, J.-H.V. de

Article

Jürgen Maehder

revised by Antonio Rostagno

Pompei , written in collaboration with Giordano on a posthumous libretto by Illica ( 1921 , Rome), which Giordano described as a ‘satirodia’, to the pre-Fascist opera Glauco ( 1922 , Naples), containing some ingredients typical of later propaganda operas on subjects connected with the glory of ancient Rome. Works Operas first performed at Milan, La Scala, unless otherwise stated; all printed works published in Milan Asrael (leggenda, 4, F. Fontana), Reggio nell’Emilia, Municipale, 11 Feb 1888 (1888) Cristoforo Colombo

Article

James Freeman

composer-in-residence for the Delaware Valley Opera Company. Among his commissions are works for the Fromm Foundation, the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and Orchestra 2001 . Finko’s Russian-Jewish heritage is an important aspect of his music, often providing the subject matter (especially for his operas and tone poems) as well as motivating the thematic content. Musorgsky and Shostakovich, the music of the Russian Orthodox Church and Jewish folksong and synagogue music are all clear influences on his style. He has been

Article

Matthias Brzoska

other grand operas, Le prophète retained its place in the repertories of all the major international opera houses for decades, and was in the repertory of the Paris Opéra until 1912 . The spectacular Paris première of L’Africaine was created by Marie Sasse (Sélika), Marie Battu (Inès), Emilio Naudin (Vasco), and Jean-Baptiste Faure (Nélusko), in a production directed by Alexis Colleville and conducted by Georges-François Hainl ( see fig.5 ). Being so clearly conceived as a work for soloists, it was the most frequently performed of Meyerbeer’s operas in the 20th

Article

Edward Garden and Stuart Campbell

been less coherent; the opera’s historical gaffes could scarcely have been more glaring; nor, despite the composer’s claims, was it at all short on conventional operatic trappings or formal numbers, many – especially the folklike ones – of a triviality it was only too easy to expose. Vrazh′ya sila (‘The Power of the Fiend’) occupied the composer for more than five years, but remained unfinished because of the huge, paralysing rift that developed between the cantakerous composer and his librettist Ostrovsky. It was a great pity, for the opera was on its improbable

Article

Nicholas Temperley and Nigel Burton

Rise of English Opera (London, 1951/ R ) E.D. Mackerness : ‘Leigh Hunt's Musical Journalism’, MMR , 86 (1956), 212–22, esp. 217 B. Carr : ‘The First All-Sung English 19th-Century Opera’, MT , 115 (1974), 125–6 G. Balanchine and F. Mason : Balanchine's Complete Stories of the Great Ballets (New York, 1977), 603–4 N. Temperley , ed.: Music in Britain: the Romantic Age 1800–1914 (London, 1981/ R ) E.W. White : A History of English Opera (London, 1983) E.W. White : A Register of First Perfomances of English Operas and Semi-Operas (London, 1983)

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arrangements into operas as separate numbers – the operas of the 1930s were, in their first versions, essentially conversational dramas with aria-songs and instrumental dance episodes – and then (from about 1940 ) to the harmonic enriching of folk melodies and their organic development into large-scale sonata-symphonic forms. The experiment of introducing a kyui into the symphony proved particularly successful; apart from the Third, the Sixth, on a theme by the folk musician Kurmangaza, is notable in this respect. Works ( selective list ) all first performed in

Article

Wilhelm Pfannkuch

revised by Gerhard J. Winkler

an monarchy in the last third of the 19th century. His next opera, Merlin ( 1886 ), to a libretto by Mahler’s mentor Siegfried Lipiner, was also a great success. After this Goldmark composed the fairy tale opera Das Heimchen am Herd (after Dickens’s The Cricket on the Hearth ); it owes a debt to Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel and looks back to the comic operas of Lortzing. Its music employs a deliberate simplicity (one of the choruses even quotes the beginning of a German folksong). His next opera, Die Kriegsgefangene ( 1899 ), probably prompted by Bungert’s

Article

Nelli Grigor′yevna Shakhnazarova

employed for the first time in the Trombone Concerto, and, interpreted freely, they gave added expressivity to Frid's tragic voice. The high point of Frid's art are the two opera monologues – Dnevnik Annï Frank (‘The Diary of Anne Frank’) ( 1969 ) and Pis′ma Van Goga (‘The Letters of Van Gogh’) ( 1975 ) – which are both distinctive for their documentary style and chamber proportions. Both operas and the song cycle Federiko Garsiya Lorka (‘Federico García Lorca’) strikingly present the composer's preoccupations with tragedy and the ability to retain one's faith in

Article

Robert Henderson

revised by Thomas S. Hansen

librettos. During the 23 years of his collaboration with Richard Strauss, Hofmannsthal not only restored the words in opera to their former position of creative equality with the music, but wrote librettos which number among the few that can be read with pleasure as literature. Hofmannsthal was born into a cultured Viennese family of mixed Austrian, Italian, Swabian and Jewish origins. He inherited a naturally cosmopolitan spirit and an instinctive sympathy with all that was best in the arts. A boy of precocious literary gifts and of abnormally sensitive intelligence, by the

Article

Buxton Orr

production was in a remarkable output of symphonies, a form which he unfashionably held to remain ‘a wholly viable vehicle for the expression of the most compelling musical thought’. Eight symphonies appeared between 1958 and 1971 , all concerned in a variety of ways with serial techniques. A single 12-note series is employed in all movements of both the Second and the Sixth; in the other symphonies individual movements tend to have their own series, to be freely diatonic or to apply serial techniques to other than 12-note material. The second movement of the Fifth

Article

Larry Stempel

America during the Great Depression and World War II; and, while most of his later songs did not have a similar cultural resonance, the best of them remain among the most exquisite examples of musical craft and invention within the popular domain. Works Stage all are musicals and all dates are those of first New York performance, unless otherwise stated librettists and lyricists are listed in that order in parentheses You Said It (J. Yellen, S. Silvers; Yellen, T. Koehler), orchd H. Jackson, 19 Jan 1931 [incl. Sweet and Hot, While You are

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

Ringer has observed that ‘Tal’s marked dramatic and philosophical propensities find total expression only in opera’ ( Grove6 ). At first Tal’s operatic activity in Israel was limited by financial difficulties. A breakthrough came with the commissioning of Ashmedai ( 1969 ) by Hamburg City Opera, and its première in 1971 paved the way for his ensuing prolific operatic output, mostly in collaboration with poet Israel Eliraz ( b 1936 ). Tal’s operas were produced mostly in Germany, as well as in Israel and in New York. Tal was awarded the Israel Prize ( 1971

Article

Ketevan Bolashvili

individualized form (mainly in the wordless voice part), later to dissolve into polylinear, aleatory and sonoristic structures. Depth of thought, vivid emotional response, a fine sense of timbre and clear constructional thinking are all displayed in this work. Attracted to rock music, Bardanashvili composed one of the first Georgian rock operas in collaboration with R. Sturua and the band ‘75’; during the 1980s and 90s he has shown an interest in theatrical genres. Works ( selective list ) Stage Balada kalze [Ballad about a Woman] (ballet, 1, Bardanashvili, after Ye.

Article

Fritz Hennenberg

Lena ( 1976–8 ), based on Büchner, reflects unease with the realities of society, and thus implicitly criticizes accruals of the socialist ideal. The lyrical sections of the score create a glassy, fragile effect, slanting the comedy towards cynicism. Works Operas and incidental music all Berlin premières at Deutsche Staatsoper Giuditta (op, M. May), 1910–12, inc. Die Reisen des Glücksgotts (op, B. Brecht), 1945, inc. Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) (op, Brecht), 1949–51, Berlin, 1951 Puntila (op, P. Palitzsch, M. Wekwerth, after

Article

Christopher Smith

for reflecting it all too accurately. Carmen , written for Bizet, who was married to Geneviève Halévy (the daughter of Fromental and the cousin of Ludovic), is perhaps the most famous product of the Halévy-Meilhac collaboration, but not a very typical one, even though it was cast in the form of an opéra comique . There is some justice in the complaint that the remarkable style of Mérimée’s original narrative is lost. Halévy also wrote novels ( La famille Cardinal of 1883 was the source for A. Willemetz and P. Brach’s libretto of the opera Les petites Cardinal

Article

Christopher Hailey

direction), as well as the concert première with piano of his first opera, Flammen , in the Bösendorfer-Saal on 24 April 1902 . Several of his early works and most of his songs were published (by this time he had dropped the second ‘c’ in his surname), and his Intermezzo won first prize in a competition sponsored by the Neue musikalische Presse . Probably in the midst of this flurry of early success, though possibly as late as 1904 , he began Der ferne Klang , for which, as with all his subsequent operas, he wrote his own libretto. He had begun conducting in 1895

Article

John Beckwith

letters, legal proceedings, shipping lists, and other documents. Central to both works (Anhalt calls them operas, though their performances have not included staging) is the episode of the voyage itself. In both, moreover, religious themes – French Catholic or Church of England – intrude significantly. In the late 1970s and early 80s Anhalt’s work took two new directions. Firstly, his interest in extended vocal techniques (exhibited in Cento , Foci and the two operas) led to a period of research in the works of other composers (especially Berio, Ligeti, Lutosławski

Article

Bruce Saylor

epigrammatic musical ideas to punctuate events or sections. Perhaps Weisgall’s most theatrically successful full-length opera, The Stronger , only 25 minutes long, is his best-known work. An orchestra of eight players sets the scene, a bar, with pseudo-cocktail music, then fades in and out of focus following the singer’s deepening psychological crisis; all stage directions are inherent in the coloratura vocal line. The pitch materials of these three operas range from rich polychords to dissonant atonal structures, the application of each depending on dramatic exigencies