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Owen Jander, Ellen T. Harris, David Fallows and John Potter

instrument affected all repertories. Singers of songs could and sometimes did have smaller voices than their operatic counterparts, but this was not essential and, indeed, much of the song repertory called for strength and endurance in the upper register, such as Schubert's ‘Suleika’ songs. The primary effect was to draw a clear distinction between operatically trained and ‘popular’ singers, a distinction that had not existed in the 18th century, when the English tenor John Beard could move easily among Italian opera, English oratorio, popular ballad opera and English song



Owen Jander, Lionel Sawkins, J.B. Steane and Elizabeth Forbes

Méphistophélès (his favourite role) in the 500th performance of Faust and Friar Laurence in the first performance of Roméo et Juliette ( 1867 ) at the Opéra. His prowess as a Wagner singer was legendary: at Covent Garden and the Metropolitan, usually with Jean, he excelled as King Henry, King Mark, Pogner, the Wanderer and Hunding. (ii) German opera. In the early 1820s German basses were still mainly all-purpose singers; a good example was Heinrich Blume, who created Caspar in Der Freischütz ( 1821 ); although Don Giovanni was considered his best role he


works, and the translations cited are all to English unless otherwise stated. Journals relating specifically to opera are listed in Periodicals; some of these, such as the NATS Bulletin , published since 1944 by the National Association of Teachers of Singing, contain numerous articles on technique. Further information about singing can be found in the entries on individual singers elsewhere in this dictionary. For further bibliography see Castrato (opera) , Countertenor (opera) , Ornamentation , Soprano (opera) (opera) and Tenor .


Owen Jander

Crescentini's Raccolta di esercizi per il canto all’uso del vocalizzo , c 1810 ), but it is often used in a more general sense for the practice of singing to vowel sounds or with closed lips ( see Bocca chiusa and Cantilena ). Vocalization in this sense may be for solo voice, as in Vaughan Williams's Pastoral Symphony , or for chorus, as in Debussy's ‘Sirènes’ from the Nocturnes and Holst's The Planets . To use the word, as some have done, for the melismas of Gregorian chant and the coloratura of 18th-century opera is to dilute its usefulness as a musical term


James Wierzbicki

revised by Jonas Westover

the Stuttgart RO and the Bavarian RO. In 1980 she won the Naumburg International Voice Competition, and the following year she made her opera debut as Mimì with Opera St. Paul (Minnesota), in addition to giving her first recitals at Lincoln Center and the Kennedy Center; since then she has been increasingly active as a recitalist. Gubrud’s wide expressive range and sure technique allow her to meet the demands of music from all periods. She has recorded widely on a variety of labels and has been a regular participant in the Aspen, Blossom, and Meadowbrook festivals


Sofia Kontossi

where he also took classes in composition and conducting. His career was launched in the Staatstheater Braunschweig ( 1967 ) as a performer of leading operatic roles of the Italian repertory, and expanded thereafter into all of Europe, America, and Australia. Acclaimed for his Lieder and song performances, he distinguished himself also in contemporary opera. Equally oriented towards concert repertory and experimental music, he gave an impressive number of world premières of works including those by Cage, Crumb, Xenakis, Ligeti, Bialas, Christou, Antoniou, Apergis, Kounadis


Lana Paćuka

to appear in renowned opera houses across Western Europe, the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and the USA. She cooperated with prominent conductors such as Lovro Matečić, Milan Horvat, Oskar Danon, Leopold Hager, Zubin Mehta, and Robert Stanovski. She has been praised by music critics for her refined technique and musicality. She has been the recipient of several awards and recognitions, particularly for the role of Mařenka in the opera The Bartered Bride (B. Smetana), and in her performances of Janaček’s music (Prague, 1978 ). She recorded for all major broadcasting companies


Charles Hamm

revised by Kimberly Greene

two octaves, was perfectly modulated, and was renowned for its execution of the portamento. Sir Walter Scott described Braham as “a beast of an actor, though an angel of a singer.” He composed songs and operas, including The English Fleet in 1342 ( 1803 ), and also wrote arias for interpolation in the operas of other composers, particularly for his own roles. “All’s Well” from The English Fleet was the most popular duet in the United States during the first half of the 19th century; other favorite songs were “Tho’ love is warm awhile,” “Is there a heart that never


provoked a heated debate in the critical press. Gauthier’s personality, intelligence, and secure, expressive voice—which encompassed a wide range—all contributed to her artistic stature. Her recordings include French-Canadian folksongs and a Malay slumber song. She taught at the American Theater Wing and contributed a number of articles to books and musical journals, including The Etude , Musical Record , and Opera News . She was awarded the Campion Citation in 1949 , and after her death the Eva Gauthier Society for Living Song (headed by Virgil Thomson) acknowledged