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J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography


Fritz Hennenberg

Lena ( 1976–8 ), based on Büchner, reflects unease with the realities of society, and thus implicitly criticizes accruals of the socialist ideal. The lyrical sections of the score create a glassy, fragile effect, slanting the comedy towards cynicism. Works Operas and incidental music all Berlin premières at Deutsche Staatsoper Giuditta (op, M. May), 1910–12, inc. Die Reisen des Glücksgotts (op, B. Brecht), 1945, inc. Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) (op, Brecht), 1949–51, Berlin, 1951 Puntila (op, P. Palitzsch, M. Wekwerth, after


Christopher Hailey

direction), as well as the concert première with piano of his first opera, Flammen , in the Bösendorfer-Saal on 24 April 1902. Several of his early works and most of his songs were published (by this time he had dropped the second ‘c’ in his surname), and his Intermezzo won first prize in a competition sponsored by the Neue musikalische Presse. Probably in the midst of this flurry of early success, though possibly as late as 1904 , he began Der ferne Klang , for which, as with all his subsequent operas, he wrote his own libretto. He had begun conducting in 1895


John Beckwith

letters, legal proceedings, shipping lists, and other documents. Central to both works (Anhalt calls them operas, though their performances have not included staging) is the episode of the voyage itself. In both, moreover, religious themes – French Catholic or Church of England – intrude significantly. In the late 1970s and early 80s Anhalt’s work took two new directions. Firstly, his interest in extended vocal techniques (exhibited in Cento , Foci and the two operas) led to a period of research in the works of other composers (especially Berio, Ligeti, Lutosławski


William Y. Elias

Festival. The following year he conducted the première of Tal’s opera Die Versuchung at the Munich Festival and became musical director of the Jerusalem SO, a post he held until 1986. During this time he created the annual Liturgica Festival, which features sacred music from all periods. In 1981–3 he served as music adviser to the Detroit SO, and from 1983 to 1991 he was chief conductor of the Cologne RSO. From 1987 until his resignation in 1990 he was music director and Intendant of the Frankfurt Opera. At Frankfurt he conducted the première of Cage’s Europeras


Michal Ben-Zur

Exiles’, 1952 ). His most performed work, Symphonic Suite on Greek Themes ( 1943 ), received the 1951 Engel prize. Works ( selective list ) Operas Nedarim [Vows] (Salomon), 1954–5 David and Goliath (A. Bär), solo vv, chorus, ob, str qt, 1965 Four Times Methuselah: Methuselah Laughs Last (ob, Salomon), 1965–6 Vocal The Tone (cant., A. Nedel), 1933 Adon olam [Lord of All], T, chorus, org, 1949 Kibbutz ha’galuyot [Gathering of Exiles] (cant., Bible), 1952 Le’ma’an Yerushalayim [For the Sake of Jerusalem] (cant., Bible), 1958 Halo


Edward Greenfield

well as of Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 , but generally Previn’s unashamedly eclectic idiom owed more to Walton and Britten than to American models. September 1998 brought a landmark in his composing career, with the première in San Francisco of his biggest work to date, the opera A Streetcar Named Desire , based on Tennessee Williams’s play with a libretto by Philip Littell. A recording of the work was issued the following year. Following the pattern set by Bernstein, Previn throughout his career defied the cult of specialization predominant in the modern world


Douglas Townsend

intention of creating ‘a polyrhythmic kaleidoscope in which melody, harmony and speech mingle’, the neo-classical Clarinet Concerto ( 1988 ), and the opera Masada ( 1995 ), both of which make use of aleatory and 12-note techniques. Underlying all his music is a sense of balance and formal design showing a discipline and control which reflects his early classical training. Works Dramatic A Children’s Opera (Kaufman), 1967 The Nothing Ballet, 1971 Ballet Music, 1975 Masada (op, 3, C. Eisendrath), 1995 Orch and choral Sym. no.1, str, 1966 Conc.,


Peter Franklin

t Magyar aristocrat Count Géza Zichy. His agenda, supported by the conservative press and the new political climate, was clear: to remove from Mahler all executive power over artistic decisions. Zichy, a one-armed pianist with pretensions as a poet and composer, imposed his own artistic views with a determination that was coloured by anti-Semitic prejudice. Mahler's final triumph in Budapest was another Mozart opera, mounted before Zichy took over: a production of Don Giovanni in which he aimed for an unfashionable degree of ‘authenticity’ by restoring the original


Reinhold Sietz

revised by Matthias Wiegandt

adverse criticism. An indication of Hiller's pre-eminent position in musical life is given by his voluminous correspondence with composers, performers and publishers, which has yet been edited only partially. Works printed works published in Leipzig unless otherwise stated Operas all published in vocal score Romilda (os, G. Rossi), Milan, Scala, 8 Jan 1839, selected pieces (Milan, c 1839) Der Traum in der Christnacht (3, C. Gollmick, after E. Raupach), Dresden, 9 April 1845 ( c 1845) Konradin, der letzte Hohenstaufen (R. Reinick), Dresden, 13 Oct 1847 Der Advokat


Martin Eastick

45; 2 Etudes de Concert, op.48 Suite, G, op.50 (1892) Frühling, 5 Stücke, op.57 (1896) [8] Tristesses et Sourires, op.58 (1896) 3 Mazurkas, op.60 (1898) 4 Morceaux, op.68 (1902) Valse de concert, F, op.69 (1902) 15 Etudes de virtuosité, ‘Per aspera’, op.72 (1903) Chanson bohème de l'opéra ‘Carmen’ de G. Bizet, transcription de concert (1906) 10 Pièces mignonnes, op.77 (1907) Grande valse de concert, G♭, op.88 (1912) [5] Tanzmomente, op.89 (1912) Isolden's Tod, Schluss-Szene aus Tristan und Isolde von Richard Wagner, paraphrase (1914) 6 Morceaux, op.93 (1916)