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Article

Erik Levi

revenge by locking her husband in the cupboard to share her lover’s fate. As the story is somewhat insubstantial, the action is framed by a prologue and epilogue in which the three characters are identified with a modern honeymoon couple and their lay-brother tourist guide. Of all Schillings’s operas, Mona Lisa enjoyed the greatest longevity on the stage and became a notable vehicle for his second wife Barbara Kemp, as well as Maria Jeritza. The score is a typical late-Romantic effusion which perhaps lacks thematic distinction, but demonstrates considerable expertise

Article

Oldřich Pukl

In the sphere of Czech music, he revived the classics and included cycles of operas by Smetana ( 1924 , 1927 and 1934 ), Dvořák ( 1929 and 1934 ), Fibich ( 1925 and 1932 ), Foerster ( 1929 ) and Novák ( 1930 ). He conducted a new production of Jenůfa in 1926 , gave the première of The Excursions of Mr Brouček , and introduced all Janáček's postwar operas to Prague immediately after their world premières in Brno. With the exception of From the House of the Dead he conducted all of them himself. Among the other Czech stage works whose first performances he

Article

August Scharnagl

revised by Robert Münster

was the monastery's assistant director of music ( 1755 ), organist and director of the Tafelmusik ( 1757 ), leader of the Figuralchor ( 1760 ) and singing master ( 1761–2 ). In 1763 , to encourage his compositional activity, Abbot Meinrad Moosmüller sent him to visit the Italian Opera in Munich. In 1767 he became the music director and leader of the boys’ classes at the Andechs monastery. In 1772–4 and 1791–4 he was a priest at the convent of Lilienberg, Munich. Madlseder was considered an outstanding theoretician and contrapuntist and was highly regarded

Article

John C.G. Waterhouse and Virgilio Bernardoni

fiaba, prol., 3, C.V. Lodovici, after C. Gozzi), op.50, 1928–31, Rome, Opera, 17 March 1932 La favola d’Orfeo (chbr op, 1, C. Pavolini, after A. Poliziano), op.51, 1932, Venice, Goldoni, 6 Sept 1932 Il deserto tentato (mistero, 1, Pavolini), op.60, 1936–7, Florence, Comunale, 19 May 1937 La camera dei disegni (Balletto per Fulvia) (ballet), op.64, Rome, Arti, 28 Nov 1940 [partly after 11 pezzi infantili, op.35, pf] La rosa del sogno (ballet, 1), op.66, Rome, Opera, 16 March 1943 [partly after Paganiniana, op.65, orch] Other

Article

Hans Åstrand and Bo Wallner

Schubert centenary ( 1928 ). Some of his five operas and his two best ballets had many performances in Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, particularly in Germany. Best known of these was the ballet De fåvitska jungfrurna (‘The Foolish Virgins’, 1920 ), written for the Ballets Suédois of Paris. Bäckahästen (‘The White Horse’, 1923–4 ), with its naive folkloristic tone and Singspiel character, also met with success, and Fanal ( 1929–32 ) is an effective, ballad-style drama of freedom in 16th-century Germany. All Atterberg’s stage works rely on decorative effect

Article

Manica Špendal

revised by Jernej Weiss

Ljubljana Cathedral to the European level. His contribution was all the more valuable because he was one of the very few thoroughly educated professional musicians in Ljubljana at the time. Among his other compositions are sacred works (eight mass settings in Latin, three in Slovenian, a Glagolitic Mass, several collections of Graduale, Offertorium, and Tantum ergo, and four Te Deum), secular occasional cantatas ( Domovini , ‘To My Homeland’, 1883 ; Turki na Slevici , ‘Turks in Slevica’, 1907 ), a five-act opera, Dom in rod (‘Home and Family’, 1920–23 , to a libretto

Article

Michael Fend

to the fore in the thematic development of the final movement. In a similarly experimental fashion, in Quartet no.6 the openings of all the previous movements are quoted in the finale. In Quartet no.1, his most popular quartet, movements are linked thematically and by emphasizing contrapuntal technique; its Scherzo is a ‘Spanish’ genre piece with refined texture and colourful instrumentation. Cherubini's overtures to his French operas became popular concert overtures in their own right during the 19th century. He quickly replaced the Italian overture of Ifigenia in

Article

Christopher Hailey

direction), as well as the concert première with piano of his first opera, Flammen , in the Bösendorfer-Saal on 24 April 1902 . Several of his early works and most of his songs were published (by this time he had dropped the second ‘c’ in his surname), and his Intermezzo won first prize in a competition sponsored by the Neue musikalische Presse . Probably in the midst of this flurry of early success, though possibly as late as 1904 , he began Der ferne Klang , for which, as with all his subsequent operas, he wrote his own libretto. He had begun conducting in 1895

Article

Warren M. Sherk

educated at the Vienna Conservatory and University of Vienna, studying violin with Jakob Grün and Arnold Rosé and composition with Robert Fuchs. After playing violin with the Vienna Court Opera, he immigrated to the United States in 1907 . He was the concertmaster at the Manhattan Opera house until 1911 , then conducted Klaw & Erlanger productions for three years and the Century Opera Company for one. As music director of three Broadway film theaters from 1916 to 1925 under Samuel L. Rothafel, then Paramount, he oversaw a large staff of composers, arrangers, copyists

Article

Raoul F. Camus

appeared on the Chautauqua circuit from 1910 to 1916 . While pursuing his band activities, he organized an opera company in 1918 that continued for five years. The Depression brought about a decline in professional bands, and in 1936 he became conductor of the New York City Symphonic Orchestra, formed under the auspices of the WPA. A year later he became bandmaster of the New York State Symphonic Band, also a WPA group. In 1939 he brought grand opera to the Bronx, New York, but had to cancel after two successful performances. He continued to make appearances

Article

and broke off all relations with Vitzthumb. The theatre’s financial difficulties obliged Compain to resign in 1775 , leaving Vitzthumb to carry on by himself. Hoping to increase receipts he decided to stage operas in Flemish (the Spectacles Nationaux) at La Monnaie, and formed the Troupe Nationale for that purpose, with artists who included his two daughters Anne-Marie ( 1757–77 ) and Marie-Françoise ( 1758–1820 ), and singers he had discovered in the Compagnies Bourgeoises (his future son-in-law Henry Mees, Joseph Debatty and the Borremans sisters, all trained by

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

1844 , from teaching in 1854 and from directing the institute in 1858 . Although he composed a number of original works, including church music, symphonic music, an unperformed opera Scipio ( 1818 ), songs and much chamber and piano music, it is for his teaching manuals and theoretical and critical writings that Fröhlich is renowned. As a theorist he was thorough and above all practical in his approach; as a teacher he demanded that theory and practice should go hand in hand; as a critic, especially for the journal Caecilia , he showed an alert understanding

Article

David Scott

e for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946 . Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music. In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these

Article

Bálint Vázsonyi

this field are all of a high standard. The rest of his output is variable, but he composed excellent works in almost every genre. They show an unerring mastery of form and instrumentation, fluency, and a rich but utterly natural sense of harmony, which enabled him to make unbridled chromatic excursions without ever losing the tonal centre. He succeeded in blending the ‘Brahmsian’ preservation of classical form with the Lisztian concept of motivic strands binding together a large-scale work. His best opera, Der Tenor , is one of the few true comic operas written in the

Article

Norbert Carnovale and Richard Dyer

Steuermann, both of whom became his friends and mentors, through his wife, Marjorie Black, a singer and pianist. Schoenberg’s theories, life, and work were particularly influential to Schuller throughout his subsequent career. From 1945 to 1959 Schuller played in the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, spending nine seasons as principal and working with many prominent conductors. During this period, he pursued his interest in jazz, sparked by an Ellington concert he had heard in Cincinnati. He listened to recordings obsessively and comprehensively, notating path-breaking

Article

Reinhold Sietz

concertos avoid grand soloistic mannerisms, and his own style of playing, with hands still and fingers curved, reflected his belief in classical practice. Of his three symphonies, the first employs small forces, while the second is a cyclically organized work on a grand scale. His operas, despite their Wagnerian trappings, were not successful; his better-known musical fairy tales, based in part on his own texts (written under the name Heinrich Carsten), were composed in a tasteful folk-style. Gifted in many fields, he was also a talented painter and poet. His lucidly