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conductor . A prodigiously gifted musician of great versatility, he, along with Parry and Mackenzie, did much to forge the new standards of the so-called ‘renaissance’ in British music at the end of the 19th century. As a composer he brought a technical brilliance to almost all genres, though success in opera, in which he aspired to excel, generally eluded him until the end of his life. In spite of his stature as a composer (particularly in the province of church music), he is perhaps best known as a teacher of several generations of British composers who passed through his

Article

Sérgio Azevedo

Gregoriano de Lisboa ( 1980–90 ) and the Escola Superior de Música de Lisboa (from 1985 ), of which he is the present director and head of composition. In 1984 he became conductor of the Portuguese Youth Orchestra. Bochmann has composed a large number of works in almost all genres except opera, and he has written regularly for young musicians and amateurs. Until the 1980s his music used many of the techniques of the avant garde of the 1950s and 1960s; subsequently, contact with musicians without specialist experience of contemporary music has resulted in greater

Article

Philippe Mercier

chamber music avoids theatrical effects. Fétis commented that, in spite of many strong sections and good musical organization, Pauwels’s operas are hindered by their weak librettos. Marie-Anne-Jeanne (or Jeanne-Catherine) Pauwels ( 1795–1839 ), a pianist and composer active in Brussels, was apparently unrelated to this family. Works printed works published in Brussels, unless otherwise indicated Stage All first performed at Brussels, Théâtre de la Monnaie La maisonnette dans les bois (oc, 1), 3 Aug 1796 L’auteur malgré lui (oc, 1, Claparède)

Article

Zofia Chechlińska

tsar’s royal chapel, director of the opera and teacher of music theory and head of singing classes at the school of drama. In 1841 , after a visit to Italy, he settled in Paris. His other compositions were mainly sacred vocal and chamber works. He also wrote a two-volume textbook, Szkoła śpiewu konserwatorium muzycznego w Warszawie (‘School of Singing of the Music Conservatory in Warsaw’). Works Operas all operas performed Milan, Scala, unless otherwise stated La testa di bronzo, ossia La campana solitaria (opera comica, 2, F. Romani), 3 Sept 1816

Article

Ferenc Bónis

of the theatre. Heinisch was one of the pioneers of opera in Hungary, and his compositions and arrangements contributed significantly to the enlargement of the repertory of the Hungarian theatre. He composed mainly in the international opera style of his time but could also express himself in the verbunkos style. Although possessing little originality himself, he was one of the forerunners of the ‘father of Hungarian opera’, Erkel. His compositions and arrangements, all left in manuscript, include an opera, three ballets, a pantomimed comedy, incidental music and

Article

Tom Wine

ly creative language. He wrote his own librettos for all four of his operas: Tartuffe (premiered in 1980 by the San Francisco Opera); John Brown (premiered 2008 by the Lyric Opera of Kansas City); The Rivals ; and Pride and Prejudice (premieres of the latter not announced in 2010 ). His symphonies were premiered by the San Francisco Symphony under Josef Krips and led to an all-Mechem symphonic concert by the USSR Radio-Television orchestra in 1991 . Works ( selective list ) Opera (all librettos by Mechem) Tartuffe, 1980

Article

Thérèse Radic

Musica Viva Australia, the Festival of Perth, and the Festival of Sydney. His literary interests are the basis for much of his music in all forms and his five operas, Inner Voices , Metamorphosis , Whitsunday , Wide Sargasso Sea , and Sophia’s Child , as well as the musical The Enchanted Rainforest and the early music-theatre work, Dodici schedi e musica , demonstrate his particular strength in translating dramatic action into music. Stylistically, his work exhibits a rigorously structured formalism, graced by his response to the stimulus of the vocal line in choral

Article

Adeodatas Tauragis

the J. Naujalis music school ( 1920–33 ), then at the conservatory, where he conducted the orchestra and directed opera class; in 1948 he was appointed professor. As head of the music section of the Lietuvių Meno Kūrėjų Draugija (Lithuanian Creative Artist's Society), along with the famous singer Kipras Petrauskas and others he co-founded the Opera Theatre and was its principal conductor during the years 1920–41 and 1944–8 . More than 30 operas and standard works of the symphonic repertory were performed under his baton. In 1948 he became the first Chairman

Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography

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Frank Howes

Orchestra, with which he remained for five years. In 1958 he accepted the post of director of the proposed Sydney Opera, but because of the delay in the completion of the opera house he never had the chance to take up the appointment. His opera Deirdre of the Sorrows (based on J.M. Synge's play) won one of the prizes offered by the Arts Council for the Festival of Britain in 1951 , but was not produced. He continued to compose symphonies, eight in all, which however, like his string quartet (first performed at Graz in 1936 ), remain unpublished.

Article

Geoffrey Self

conducting took priority over composition. In 1913 the Covent Garden Syndicate sent him to Paris to rehearse Wagner operas for Nikisch and Weingartner. Building on this experience, he became a fine Wagner conductor, especially for the Beecham Opera Company ( 1915–19 ). With Ronald he directed the Scottish Orchestra ( 1920–23 ) and then returned to work for Beecham as principal conductor of the British National Opera Company ( 1922–4 ). He was Director of Opera at the RAM ( 1924–9 ) and from 1930 to 1939 conducted the Hastings Municipal Orchestra, raising the standard

Article

Giles Bryant

preludes ( 1956–8 ), show the same tautness of construction. For Hart House Theatre, Willan composed music to 15 plays. A few years later he wrote or assembled the music for five ballad operas. Commissions by the CBC enabled him to continue this interest in dramatic music: Transit through Fire ( 1941–2 ) and Brébeuf ( 1943 ) were succeeded by his most important work in the genre, the opera Deirdre ( 1943–5 ). This was later adapted for the stage and, in this guise, received several performances. Not above criticism for a certain lack of dramatic fire and a general

Article

David Charlton

some of Paul Vidal’s works) for wind ensembles. Works all printed works published in Paris Stage all first performed in Paris Eros (fantaisie lyrique, 3, J. Noriac, A. Jaime and M. Bouchor), Bouffes-Parisiens, 22 April 1892, vs (1892) L’amour dans les enfers (1, A. Pigeon) (1892) Guernica (drame lyrique, 3, P. Gailhard and P.B. Gheusi), OC (Lyrique), 7 June 1895, vs (1895) La Burgonde (opéra, 4, E. Bergerat and C. de Sainte-Croix), Opéra, 23 Dec 1898 (1898) Ramsès (drame, 1, L. de Pesquidoux)

Article

Robert W. Oldani

little understanding of that opera – they probably should not be construed as ill-disposed. For over half a century Nápravník was a leading figure in Russian musical life. Although his primary career as a conductor gave him little time to compose, Kutateladze ( 1959 ) cites 77 works in all genres, published and unpublished, dating from Nápravník's years in Prague to 1906 . By temperament Nápravník was drawn strongly to Glinka and Tchaikovsky, whose influence is apparent in both the lyric and dramatic moments of his music. His four operas were produced successfully

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Kostas Kardamis

most of his fellow composers of the time, he actively and creatively participated in the quest for ‘national Greek music’ well before the coinage of the term by Kalomiris in 1908 . In addition to his two operas and three operettas, his works include songs, ballets, orchestral, piano, choral, and wind band music. Nearly all of his compositions, including his last opera Selefkos Nikator (Seleucus Nicator) , have been donated to the Corfu Philharmonic Society.

Article

Richard S. James

revised by Anders Tobiason

abandoned this course in favor of the approaches of such composers as Berio, Crumb, and Carter. About 1970 , he began to relinquish his responsibilities as an opera director to concentrate on composing; all of his subsequent works focus on the declamation of texts, around which he weaves delicate, timbrally subtle accompaniments, often with chamber ensembles, percussion instruments, and extended techniques for piano. His music frequently employs contrapuntal textures and calls for the spatial separation of performance forces. Blumenfeld was the first composer to devote

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revised by Gérard Streletski, Gustave Chouquet and David Charlton

individual inspiration; they were described by the Revue musicale as functioning like a ‘sample or prospectus’ for new operas. His evident versatility was shown in two more serious projects of the early 1830s: a set of three string quartets and the beginnings of a Nouvelle méthode de composition musicale , of which four instalments were received by the Revue musicale by February 1833 . Works Gérard Streletski ( selective list ) all published in Paris Quadrilles Beethoven, quadrille brillant, pf, vn, fl, hn/cornet (1842) Le bal masqué,

Article

Keith Horner

ill-planned season of grand opera at the Drury Lane Theatre, beginning in December 1847 with Berlioz as conductor, caused his first bankruptcy in England. Berlioz’s grimly amusing account describes him as fundamentally honest but with ‘the incontestable character of a madman’. A publishing business started in 1844 had to be sold to pay off debts. The production of his own reputedly extravagant opera Pietro il grande at Covent Garden in August 1852 was withdrawn after five performances. The full score is lost, as are the scores for all his major works (some of

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Julian Rushton

La mort du Capitaine Cook (pantomime), 1788 Bacchus et Ariane (ballet-héroïque), Opéra, 11 Dec 1791 La mort d’Hercule (pantomime), 1796 La latière polonaise (pantomime), 1798 Kanko (pantomime), 1798 Descente d’Orphée aux Enfers (pantomime), 1798, pasticcio; Le mont terrible, ou Les amants piémontais (pantomime), 1799 La masque de fer, ou Le souterrain (pantomime); Diane enchaîné par l’Amour (comédie ballet); La Vestale (pantomime); La prise de Grenade, Pn Other works all printed works published in Paris Vocal 3 motets, perf. Paris, Concert

Article

Lewis Foreman

heard in Eastbourne in 1934 . His father, who had encouraged him to write operas, became his librettist and their opera Iernin ( 1933–4 ), on a Cornish legend, was produced in Penzance in November 1934 . Frank Howes, music critic for The Times , hailed the work as ‘spontaneous, melodious and dramatic’. The New English Opera Company was established to stage Iernin at the Lyceum Theatre, where it ran for three weeks, the third longest run in British operatic history. Impressed by the opera, John Ireland recommended Lloyd’s Third Symphony ( 1933 , rev. 1935 ) to