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Article

Jon Bagüés

exemplified by French comic opera. His works were written to his own librettos, and privately performed. His comic opera El borracho burlado , performed in Azcoitia in 1764 , consisted of 35 scenes divided into two acts; it was the first opera in which the text was sung in Basque, though the spoken parts were in Spanish. In 1781 he wrote El amo querido , a comic opera for the students at the Real Seminario Patriótico Bascongado in Vergara. He died while he was composing La paz , another comic opera for the same school. All his operas are lost.

Article

composition. He is best known for his more than 30 operas, most of which are in one act and ideally suited for student or amateur productions. The most frequently performed are Chanticleer , A Game of Chance , Little Red Riding Hood and The Toy Shop . Works selective list Chanticleer (comic op, 1, M. C. Richards, after G. Chaucer: The Nun’s Priest’s Tale ), Aspen, co , Wheeler Opera House, 4 Aug 1956, vs (New York, 1964) A Game of Chance (comic op, E. Manacher, after F. and C. Ryerson: All on a Summer’s Day ), Rock Island, il , 11 Jan 1957

Article

Mary Lou Humphrey

with Walter Piston and Randall Thompson, Mechem spent three years in Vienna refining his compositional skills. A composer of more than 150 works in nearly all genres, Mechem is particularly renowned for his choral works. His musical style, characterized by melodiousness, lyricism, tonal clarity, wit and humour, is free of any specific compositional school. Mechem’s first opera, Tartuffe , is a three-act comic opera set to a libretto by the composer after the Molière play. Cast in traditional operatic forms and exuding a lighthearted, Falstaffian spirit, Tartuffe

Article

Christopher Smith

stress. They wrote in the light-hearted vein of opéra bouffe , and among the more important composers who set their texts were Lecocq, Chabrier and Offenbach. Writings all written in collaboration with Albert Vanloo Le Petit Poucet (opéra bouffe), L. de Rillé , 1868; Madeleine (oc), H. Potier , 1869; La nuit du 15 octobre (opérette), G. Jacob , 1869; Nabucho (opéra bouffe), A. de Villebichet , 1871; Giroflé-Girofla (opéra bouffe), Lecocq, 1874; Le voyage dans la lune (opéra féerie, with A. Mortier ), Offenbach, 1875;

Article

Andrew Stiller

and there wrote Rappaccini’s Daughter , her best-known composition, completing it in 1983 after nearly a decade of work. In 1984 she left Muhlenberg College to devote all her time to composition. A slow and cautious composer, Garwood has written little besides her four operas – some songs and chamber music, a widely performed children’s ballet and a cantata. Like most successful American opera composers before Philip Glass, she is an extremely conservative musician: her style has at various times been likened to that of Debussy, Delius, Cilea or Richard Strauss

Article

Patrick O’Connor

director and as artistic director of Skylight Opera in Milwaukee, where his first production was L’incoronazione di Poppea ( 1982 ), followed by Orfeo and Il ritorno d’Ulisse in patria . For Bernstein he wrote the libretto of A Quiet Place ( 1983 ), which he also directed at La Scala and in Vienna. His productions of Gluck’s Orphée ( 1988 , Seattle), and Handel’s Xerxes ( 1985 , Milwaukee), Alcina ( 1987 , St Louis) and Partenope ( 1988 , Omaha) all furthered his concern with the modern interpretation of Baroque opera. He has also translated Monteverdi’s

Article

Andrew D. McCredie

performing arts, having shown creative flair as a playwright and as a composer. His stage works were produced in Australia, New Zealand and in Britain. Those performed included the comic operas Estrella (Sydney, 27 September 1884 ), Bobadill (Sydney, 22 November 1884 ) and Isadora , re-titled The Black Rover (Melbourne, 7 July 1885 ). All three operas follow the techniques of light opera in which spoken dialogue is interspersed with solo, ensemble and chorus settings, entr’actes and incidental music, often culminating in ensemble finales. A contemporary review of

Article

Anita Hardeman

composer and as an incomparable performer and teacher of the fortepiano and organ. A master at the Seminario Vescovile in Verona, he composed his four Metastasian operas and several cantatas (including Ero e Leandro , 1811 ) for the college with which the seminary was associated. His dramatic works were described by Sala as melodious and well-managed, reminiscent of Paisiello, Cimarosa and Gluck. Works all first performned at the Collegio Vescovile, Verona La clemenza di Tito (os, 3, P. Metastasio), 1779 Attilio Regolo (os, 3, Metastasio)

Article

J. Merrill Knapp

through the ‘different Tones of the Voice … without approaching to what we call a Tune or Air ’. In the preface to Calypso and Telemachus (his only opera, set by J. E. Galliard, 1712 ), he emphasized how ‘Dramatical Entertainments … shou’d be perform’d in a Language understood by the Audience’, and how an opera ‘is to be consider’d as a Species of Poetry, compounded out of Lyrick and Dramatick Kinds, admitting of all the Beauty of the first, united with part of the latter’. Hughes wrote essays for the Tatler , the Spectator and the Guardian , and was closely

Article

William Ashbrook

half of the 19th century, he belonged to the group of writers around Scribe (sneeringly described by Wagner as ‘die Scribefabrik’). He began by writing one-act opéras comiques and in his last years wrote for the Opéra. Only one of the texts he participated in has survived, that for Donizetti’s La fille du régiment ; the other eight opera and opéra comique texts that he may be securely identified with – all joint efforts – have receded into obscurity. His works for the spoken stage seem to have been equally ephemeral. Writings La médecine sans

Article

George Leotsakos

by Grekas) written by Isabella Galleti-Gianoli, who sang the leading soprano role in Olema la schiava , it is clear that after 1857 Lambelet had settled in Naples, where his operas are said to have been performed; he later returned to Greece, however, where most of his manuscripts were lost during a flood. His three operas, all on Italian texts, were important items of the early Greek opera repertory. Both Olema la schiava and Il castello maledetto were composed for the S Giacomo Theatre, Corfu. Galleti-Gianoli praised Olema la schiava for its ‘nobility of

Article

Arthur Jacobs

n, his libretto was described by Ernest Newman as ‘the best poetic opera text since Hofmannsthal’. Later he was Bliss’s librettist for Tobias and the Angel ( 1960 ). His literary resourcefulness and theatrical expertise, combined with a technical knowledge of music, led to commissions to translate a number of operas and operettas, including Bluebeard’s Castle ( 1957 ), Lehár’s The Merry Widow ( 1958 ), Dvořák’s Rusalka ( 1959 ), and Die Fledermaus ( 1959 ), all for Sadler’s Wells Opera; the Strauss achieved the unusual distinction of being printed in the

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

the theatrical administration and held the post until 1795 . His duties included writing prologue and cantata texts for special occasions and vetting and adapting librettos for operas produced in all Neapolitan theatres. His Ifigenia in Aulide , set by Vicente Martín y Soler for Naples in 1779 , was reset by Alessio Prati for Florence in 1784 . Serio’s version of this often reworked opera seria plot can be identified by the absence of Clytemnestra and the presence of Elisena, the ‘other’ Iphigenia, who dies instead of the heroine. This calls into question attributions

Article

Elise Kirk

Research Centre. A widely recognized Chinese composer, Jin has written in all genres. His operas comprise A Warm Breeze Outside ( 1980 ), Savage Land ( 1987 , First International Art and Music Festival, Beijing) and Sunrise ( 1990 ). In 1989 Savage Land won a prize at the Third International Music Theater Workshop in Munich. It was given its North American stage première in January 1992 by the Washington Opera (Eisenhower Theater, Kennedy Center, Washington, DC) to great acclaim, the first opera with a Chinese libretto (by Wan Fang, after her father’s play Wilderness

Article

John Tyrrell

Záboj , E. Chvála , 1918 Works on which operas have been based J. Vrchlický Noc na Karlštejně [A Night at Karlštejn] (play, 1885): V. Novák , 1916, as Karlštejn Pomsta Catullova [Catullus’s Revenge] (play, 1887): Chlubna, 1921 Satanella (epic poem, 1874): Rozkošný, 1898 Bratří [Brothers] (play, 1889): E. Němeček , 1934, inc. Trojí políbení [Three Kisses] (play, 1892): Němeček, comp. 1915, unperf. Bar Kochba (epic poem, 1897): Suda, 1905 Bibliography ČSHS [incl. texts used for all musical genres] L. Kundera : ‘Jaroslav Vrchlický

Article

Harris S. Saunders

Italian librettist . His first libretto was for the Teatro ai Saloni, a small Venetian theatre used by academics for plays and only intermittently for opera. On the title-page, he styles himself the somnolent follower of Tasso (‘sonnolento tassista’), in his letter to the reader, he emphasizes that he is not a professional. His two other librettos were for successive seasons at the Teatro S Angelo. In all three works the emphasis is on lively, often comic, stage interaction, with plots loosely based on history. Odoacre , for example, mixes matters of war, love

Article

Marita P. McClymonds

and Ludwigsburg, may account for the appearance of some extravagant French-inspired machine spectacle in the form of an aerial ballet in the middle of Durandi’s Annibale in Torino , an otherwise military opera replete with battle scenes and cavalry displays with elephants. This libretto enjoyed a revival in Turin 20 years later. Writings all opere serie Ecuba , Celoniati, 1769; Armida , Anfossi, 1770 (Manfredini, 1770; Sacchini, 1772); Berenice , I. Platania, 1771; Annibale in Torino , Paisiello, 1771 (Zingarelli, 1792) Bibliography

Article

Adrian Thomas

its effectiveness as an opera-ballet for children. Works all unpublished Morze jedności odnalezionej [The Sea of Recovered Unity] (poetic radio op, 3 pts, B. Ostromęcki), Polish Radio, 1967 Galileusz [Galileo], 1969 (musical drama, 2, M. Konopnicka), unperf. Vir sapiens dominabitur astris (radio opera-oratorio, Z. Jasińska, after Copernicus, St Francis, Dante Alighieri, Michelangelo, Słowacki, Norwid and others), Polish Radio, 1973 Łyżki i księżyc [The Spoons and the Moon], 1973–6 (opera-burlesque, 3, Fotek, after

Article

Curtis Price

17th-century English attitude towards all-sung opera, which ranged from indifference to hostility. During the 1670s, Purcell’s formative years, attempts to introduce both French and Italian opera into England had failed miserably. Among other writers, John Dryden, the poet laureate, dramatist and formidable critic of the arts, declared the English language and temperament incompatible with the aesthetic of Italian opera. Though he later changed his mind and became Purcell’s eloquent advocate and enthusiastic collaborator, all-sung opera in English did not take root in England

Article

Galina Grigor′yeva

1957 , is based on Božena Němcová’s collection of Czech folktales. Alexandrov’s final opera, Levsha (‘Lefty’), received over 100 performances after its première at the Detskiy Muzïkal’nïy Teatr (Children’s Music Theatre) in Moscow on 8 February 1976 . This children’s opera, which comprises 24 scenes in two acts, has the subtitle ‘A Tragicomic Performance with Song, Dance, Dialogue, Symphonic Music and a Shoed Flea’. A mixture of Russian fairground farce and 18th-century comic opera, the music features three Russian folksongs: ‘Vdol’ po rechke’ (‘Along the River’),