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his first 12-note works (apart from the three songs of op.48) since the opera, and with it the culminating productions of this period of his work. They are cast in the respective three- and four-movement moulds traditional in such works, but the individual movements abandon strict Classical layout. The first-movement recapitulations no longer correspond to the measure of the expositions, but are engulfed in the development, which continues unchecked to the close. The forward urge that marks all Schoenberg’s music asserts itself so forcefully here that a return to s

Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland and Robert Philip

He made many recordings, principally with the orchestra of the Berlin Staatsoper, including a famous recording of Beethoven's Violin Concerto with Kreisler. During his lifetime he achieved considerable success with his own operas, particularly Das war ich ( 1902 , Dresden), Alpenkönig und Menschenfeind ( 1903 , Dresden), and, most popular of all, Versiegelt ( 1908 , Hamburg). His stage works were said to show a deft lightness of touch in the tradition of Humperdinck. He also wrote orchestral, choral and chamber works, and songs. Bibliography

Article

Jürgen Maehder and Antonio Rostagno

Pompei , written in collaboration with Giordano on a posthumous libretto by Illica ( 1921 , Rome), which Giordano described as a ‘satirodia’, to the pre-Fascist opera Glauco ( 1922 , Naples), containing some ingredients typical of later propaganda operas on subjects connected with the glory of ancient Rome. Works Operas first performed at Milan, La Scala, unless otherwise stated; all printed works published in Milan Asrael (leggenda, 4, F. Fontana), Reggio nell’Emilia, Municipale, 11 Feb 1888 (1888) Cristoforo Colombo

Article

James Freeman

composer-in-residence for the Delaware Valley Opera Company. Among his commissions are works for the Fromm Foundation, the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, the Pennsylvania Council on the Arts and Orchestra 2001 . Finko’s Russian-Jewish heritage is an important aspect of his music, often providing the subject matter (especially for his operas and tone poems) as well as motivating the thematic content. Musorgsky and Shostakovich, the music of the Russian Orthodox Church and Jewish folksong and synagogue music are all clear influences on his style. He has been

Article

Hans Åstrand

influenced by Hebrew cantillation. Den judiska sången ( 1944 ) is a central work, and the orchestral Rapsodia ebraica , written in protest at the massacres under the Nazis and parodying Deutschland über alles , is another Jewish-inspired piece. Pergament's major works also include the ballet Krelantems och Eldeling , composed for the Ballets Suédois, the chamber opera Himlens hemlighet , choral works, songs, various orchestral pieces and chamber compositions of many kinds. Works ( selective list ) Stage Krelantems och Eldeling (ballet), 1920–21

Article

arrangements into operas as separate numbers – the operas of the 1930s were, in their first versions, essentially conversational dramas with aria-songs and instrumental dance episodes – and then (from about 1940 ) to the harmonic enriching of folk melodies and their organic development into large-scale sonata-symphonic forms. The experiment of introducing a kyui into the symphony proved particularly successful; apart from the Third, the Sixth, on a theme by the folk musician Kurmangaza, is notable in this respect. Works ( selective list ) all first performed in

Article

Wilhelm Pfannkuch

Reviser Gerhard J. Winkler

an monarchy in the last third of the 19th century. His next opera, Merlin ( 1886 ), to a libretto by Mahler’s mentor Siegfried Lipiner, was also a great success. After this Goldmark composed the fairy tale opera Das Heimchen am Herd (after Dickens’s The Cricket on the Hearth ); it owes a debt to Humperdinck’s Hänsel und Gretel and looks back to the comic operas of Lortzing. Its music employs a deliberate simplicity (one of the choruses even quotes the beginning of a German folksong). His next opera, Die Kriegsgefangene ( 1899 ), probably prompted by Bungert’s

Article

Nelli Grigor′yevna Shakhnazarova

employed for the first time in the Trombone Concerto, and, interpreted freely, they gave added expressivity to Frid's tragic voice. The high point of Frid's art are the two opera monologues – Dnevnik Annï Frank (‘The Diary of Anne Frank’) ( 1969 ) and Pis′ma Van Goga (‘The Letters of Van Gogh’) ( 1975 ) – which are both distinctive for their documentary style and chamber proportions. Both operas and the song cycle Federiko Garsiya Lorka (‘Federico García Lorca’) strikingly present the composer's preoccupations with tragedy and the ability to retain one's faith in

Article

Robert Henderson and Thomas S. Hansen

librettos. During the 23 years of his collaboration with Richard Strauss, Hofmannsthal not only restored the words in opera to their former position of creative equality with the music, but wrote librettos which number among the few that can be read with pleasure as literature. Hofmannsthal was born into a cultured Viennese family of mixed Austrian, Italian, Swabian and Jewish origins. He inherited a naturally cosmopolitan spirit and an instinctive sympathy with all that was best in the arts. A boy of precocious literary gifts and of abnormally sensitive intelligence, by the

Article

Buxton Orr

production was in a remarkable output of symphonies, a form which he unfashionably held to remain ‘a wholly viable vehicle for the expression of the most compelling musical thought’. Eight symphonies appeared between 1958 and 1971 , all concerned in a variety of ways with serial techniques. A single 12-note series is employed in all movements of both the Second and the Sixth; in the other symphonies individual movements tend to have their own series, to be freely diatonic or to apply serial techniques to other than 12-note material. The second movement of the Fifth

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

Ringer has observed that ‘Tal’s marked dramatic and philosophical propensities find total expression only in opera’ ( Grove6 ). At first Tal’s operatic activity in Israel was limited by financial difficulties. A breakthrough came with the commissioning of Ashmedai ( 1969 ) by Hamburg City Opera, and its première in 1971 paved the way for his ensuing prolific operatic output, mostly in collaboration with poet Israel Eliraz ( b 1936 ). Tal’s operas were produced mostly in Germany, as well as in Israel and in New York. Tal was awarded the Israel Prize ( 1971

Article

Ketevan Bolashvili

individualized form (mainly in the wordless voice part), later to dissolve into polylinear, aleatory and sonoristic structures. Depth of thought, vivid emotional response, a fine sense of timbre and clear constructional thinking are all displayed in this work. Attracted to rock music, Bardanashvili composed one of the first Georgian rock operas in collaboration with R. Sturua and the band ‘75’; during the 1980s and 90s he has shown an interest in theatrical genres. Works ( selective list ) Stage Balada kalze [Ballad about a Woman] (ballet, 1, Bardanashvili, after Ye.

Article

Fritz Hennenberg

Lena ( 1976–8 ), based on Büchner, reflects unease with the realities of society, and thus implicitly criticizes accruals of the socialist ideal. The lyrical sections of the score create a glassy, fragile effect, slanting the comedy towards cynicism. Works Operas and incidental music all Berlin premières at Deutsche Staatsoper Giuditta (op, M. May), 1910–12, inc. Die Reisen des Glücksgotts (op, B. Brecht), 1945, inc. Die Verurteilung des Lukullus (Das Verhör des Lukullus) (op, Brecht), 1949–51, Berlin, 1951 Puntila (op, P. Palitzsch, M. Wekwerth, after

Article

Christopher Smith

for reflecting it all too accurately. Carmen , written for Bizet, who was married to Geneviève Halévy (the daughter of Fromental and the cousin of Ludovic), is perhaps the most famous product of the Halévy-Meilhac collaboration, but not a very typical one, even though it was cast in the form of an opéra comique . There is some justice in the complaint that the remarkable style of Mérimée’s original narrative is lost. Halévy also wrote novels ( La famille Cardinal of 1883 was the source for A. Willemetz and P. Brach’s libretto of the opera Les petites Cardinal

Article

John Beckwith

letters, legal proceedings, shipping lists, and other documents. Central to both works (Anhalt calls them operas, though their performances have not included staging) is the episode of the voyage itself. In both, moreover, religious themes – French Catholic or Church of England – intrude significantly. In the late 1970s and early 80s Anhalt’s work took two new directions. Firstly, his interest in extended vocal techniques (exhibited in Cento , Foci and the two operas) led to a period of research in the works of other composers (especially Berio, Ligeti, Lutosławski

Article

J. Bradford Robinson and David Drew

their authorship unmistakable. Similarly, an examination of the sketches for his Broadway musicals reveals that Weill basically used the same working methods at all stages of his career. Nor did he feel that his music required any special pleading: reviewing his career in retrospect in 1950 , he rightly pointed out that all his stage works consistently probe a middle ground between musical comedy and opera – between the play with interpolated music and the through-composed operatic score in the European tradition. Moreover, following the decline of Berlin as a theatrical

Article

Bruce Saylor

epigrammatic musical ideas to punctuate events or sections. Perhaps Weisgall’s most theatrically successful full-length opera, The Stronger , only 25 minutes long, is his best-known work. An orchestra of eight players sets the scene, a bar, with pseudo-cocktail music, then fades in and out of focus following the singer’s deepening psychological crisis; all stage directions are inherent in the coloratura vocal line. The pitch materials of these three operas range from rich polychords to dissonant atonal structures, the application of each depending on dramatic exigencies

Article

Michal Ben-Zur

Exiles’, 1952 ). His most performed work, Symphonic Suite on Greek Themes ( 1943 ), received the 1951 Engel prize. Works ( selective list ) Operas Nedarim [Vows] (Salomon), 1954–5 David and Goliath (A. Bär), solo vv, chorus, ob, str qt, 1965 Four Times Methuselah: Methuselah Laughs Last (ob, Salomon), 1965–6 Vocal The Tone (cant., A. Nedel), 1933 Adon olam [Lord of All], T, chorus, org, 1949 Kibbutz ha’galuyot [Gathering of Exiles] (cant., Bible), 1952 Le’ma’an Yerushalayim [For the Sake of Jerusalem] (cant., Bible), 1958 Halo

Article

William Y. Elias

Festival. The following year he conducted the première of Tal’s opera Die Versuchung at the Munich Festival and became musical director of the Jerusalem SO, a post he held until 1986 . During this time he created the annual Liturgica Festival, which features sacred music from all periods. In 1981–3 he served as music adviser to the Detroit SO, and from 1983 to 1991 he was chief conductor of the Cologne RSO. From 1987 until his resignation in 1990 he was music director and Intendant of the Frankfurt Opera. At Frankfurt he conducted the première of Cage’s Europeras

Article

Edward Greenfield

well as of Barber’s Knoxville: Summer of 1915 , but generally Previn’s unashamedly eclectic idiom owes more to Walton and Britten than to American models. September 1998 brought a landmark in his composing career, with the première in San Francisco of his biggest work to date, the opera A Streetcar Named Desire , based on Tennessee Williams’s play with a libretto by Philip Littell. A recording of the work was issued the following year. Following the pattern set by Bernstein, Previn throughout his career has defied the cult of specialization predominant in the modern