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Irén Kertész Wilkinson

çingene ’, ‘ cigány ’ or ‘gypsy’. Spanish Gypsies refer to themselves as Gitan (‘Gypsy’). Others opt for a different name all together. In German speaking areas, the ‘Gypsy’ group who suffered most during the Holocaust stress this through their name, Sinti. In Finland they call themselves Kale. Within the broad categories of Roma, Sinti or Gitan, there are further subdivisions according to type and level of descent, language use and religion, all of which serve as a framework for Roma social structure. Many Roma groups are divided according to their previous or present


Gini Gorlinski

its original repertoire. The garantung was also featured in an ensemble known as uning-uningan , which accompanied opera Batak , a type of musical theatre particularly popular in the 1920s. The instrumentation of the uning-uningan resembled that of the gondang hasapi , with the addition of an odap (small double-headed drum) and a sulim (side-blown flute). During the second half of the 20th century, both the uning-uningan and the opera Batak repertoire were essentially absorbed by gondang hasapi primarily to provide entertainment at recreational events