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Article

Harold Rosenthal

, accompanied by a piano. By the 1966–7 season there were three Opera for All groups, each comprising 12 members; one was based at the London Opera Centre, one at Scottish Opera and one at the WNO. The increased touring commitments of the last two companies, and expanded touring by the English Opera Group and Phoenix Opera, resulted in the two regional groups being absorbed into the larger Scottish and Welsh companies as small touring ensembles with chamber orchestra. The London-based group retained the original name. Although works like La Cenerentola , Le comte

Article

Lionel Salter, Humphrey Burton, Jennifer Barnes and David Burnand

featured opera in its schedules. In 1936 Stephen Thomas, Dallas Bower and Desmond Davis were engaged as directors for opera on television. Together with Hyam Greenbaum, the conductor of the BBC Television Orchestra, and members of the British Music Drama Opera Company, they formed a group that presented 29 operas until broadcasting was suspended in 1939 . The relationship between music, drama and television was one planned in aspiration and conditioned by existing technology. The initial repertory was ambitious. In 1937 the BBC presented 14 operas, all in English

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

Sünden ( 1741–6 ) was based on Pergolesi's Stabat mater . The motives for these reworkings included competition for Monteverdi, studying and absorbing another composer's style for Schütz and Bach, practicality and profit for Coppini and the opera impresarios, and the challenge of composing a new work on a given model, and almost all made the existing music usable in new circumstances. The most interesting reworkings also improved on the source in some way, in accord with Mattheson's advice in Der vollkommene Capellmeister ( 1739 ): ‘Borrowing is permissible; but one

Article

Maria Anna Harley

portray the birds of France within their visual and aural landscapes. After 1950 , birdsong appears in virtually all Messiaen’s works: he used his own transcriptions and related the choice of birds to the subject matter, for example, Japanese birds in Sept haïkaï ( 1962 ) or birds of the American desert in Des canyons aux étoiles ( 1971–4 ). From Oiseaux exotiques ( 1955–6 ) onwards, he included birds from all the continents and represented all available birdsong models, from brief calls to elaborate compositions. The ornithological accuracy is less important

Article

Malcolm Boyd

music by Filippo Amadei, Giovanni Bononcini and Handel, though it seems unlikely that this opera was actually designed as a contest. The collaborative opera, like the pasticcio, fell into disfavour after about 1800 ; among the few 19th-century examples is the opera-ballet, Mlada , commissioned in 1872 from Borodin, Cui, Musorgsky and Rimsky-Korsakov. Like any other collaborative venture, a collective work depends for its completion on the goodwill and reliability of all concerned, and Mlada was not the only such work to remain unperformed. A similar fate befell

Article

John Rosselli

be played; if those works require large forces and corresponding expenditure they may not be performable at all without authority's leave. This, however, is merely to say that for much of history the arts have depended on patrons, and individual works have been specifically produced for them. An example is the insistence of Frederick the Great on having operas composed for his royal theatre exclusively by C.H. Graun: no other composer need try to write operas for Berlin. On a wider scale, church music down to the late 18th century was composed solely for liturgical

Article

Ralph P. Locke

article deals primarily with instances in Western art (and to a lesser extent popular) music. The exotic locale that is evoked may be relatively nearby (e.g. a rural French village, in an opera composed for Paris) or quite distant. It is usually suggested by a descriptive title (e.g. in an instrumental work), a sung text (e.g. in a song) or sets and costumes (e.g. in an opera). These extra-musical features are often reinforced by musical features typical of, or considered appropriate to, the people or group in question. In Western music of the past few centuries

Article

Daniel Heartz

revised by Bruce Alan Brown

typically Austrian mixture of comic and serious traits (pilloried by north German critics, who held firm against any alloying of the opera seria style by that of opera buffa ). During the 1780s Haydn’s instrumental works were very widely printed and diffused. His language had become understood (as he told Mozart when he set out for England) by all the world. This universality, which Mozart also achieved, especially with his concertos and operas, deserves to be called ‘classical’ even under the most precise definition (ii above). A strong case may also be made for both

Article

Ralph P. Locke

Scott-Maxwell, 1997 ). Poster by Manuel Orazi for Massenet’s ‘Thaïs’, Paris Opéra, 1894 The frequent decision to place ‘oriental’ opera and (in the Baroque era) dramatic oratorios in an ancient time-frame, or else in a quasi-timeless, ‘legendary’ one, heightened the sense of escapism and also avoided the risk of having an opera comment in too parochial or potentially uncomfortable a manner on current-day political or imperial realities. Social ideology was nonetheless strongly conveyed. Operas and dramatic oratorios of Handel, for example, often featured Byzantine, Persian

Article

Peter Kleiner, E.P. Skone James, Gavin McFarlane and Melville B. Nimmer

would also have to pay the individual right-owners in respect of each use. Societies have therefore been set up all over the world to collect royalties for the use of copyright music and to distribute the revenue among the persons entitled to it. The earliest true society, the Société des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques, set up in France in 1829 , collected on behalf of all dramatic writers, both literary authors and composers of music for operas and ballets. These rights in dramatic performance became known as the grands droits in music, as distinct from the

Article

Robynn J. Stilwell

different in each department. On the other hand, Virgin Records has its own radio station, transmitted to all the stores in its chain. The idea of the medicine show – an entertainment designed to attract an audience in order to pitch them a product – carried over into broadcasting. In the USA companies would purchase time on radio stations, and later television, and fill it with programming which would bring in an appropriate audience. A new dramatic genre, the soap opera, got its name from this practice, as cleaning-product companies favoured melodramatic romantic serials

Article

Melody  

Alexander L. Ringer

elaborate melodic fillers bridging the outer limits of large intervals. With the development of ‘florid song’ in Italian opera, improvised figuration became the special province of the virtuoso singers who thus adorned the da capo portions of late 17th- and early 18th-century solo arias. The essentially decorative function of so much vocal music inspired by the Italian Baroque inevitably required outright logogenic complementation, at least in opera, if any plot continuity was to be maintained. Bel canto melody, therefore, had its logogenic counterpart in the form of

Article

Blake Wilson, George J. Buelow and Peter A. Hoyt

only two students and in 1902 Benedetto Croce noted that ‘rhetoric in the modern sense is above all a theory of elocution’. In such an environment the early 20th-century investigations of the musico-rhetorical tradition by Kretzschmar, Hugo Goldschmidt and Schering were important rediscoveries. The immediate cultural background supported the tendency (seen particularly in Schering) to regard the musical surface as saturated with rhetorical symbols, much as Wagner's operas were permeated with leitmotifs. In the mid-20th century H.-H. Unger compiled an extensive catalogue

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

Quartet in A minor op.132. Stylistic allusions are often used in operas and programme music to invoke a type of music and the people or activities associated with it; examples include the evocations of shepherds’ dances and hunting-calls in Vivaldi's ‘Four Seasons’ and the march, lullaby and tavern piano in Berg's Wozzeck . Allusion can also suggest a place or time through musical style, as in the Spanish rhythms and melodic turns in Bizet's Carmen or the Mozartian music of John Corigliano's opera The Ghosts of Versailles . Allusion is not always melodic or rhythmic;

Article

Eugene K. Wolf

the Mannheim symphony, he again erred in assigning priority to Mannheim: all can be found earlier in Italy, not only in vocal but in instrumental music, especially opera overtures. It is true that many symphonies from Stamitz's late period, and particularly those of Anton Fils and the later Mannheim symphonists, make more extensive and more stylized use of these melodic conventions than do contemporaneous Italian opera overtures; but their origin was Italy, and by mid-century they were in use all over Europe. The same may be said of various other characteristics often

Article

Nils Grosch

Weill ( Royal Palace , 1927 ) took as their subjects modern social and cultural issues and used a wide variety of styles from both opera and light music, as well as music reproduced by radio or gramophone on stage, thus making it clear that this music was available to all. Other composers of such works in the late 1920s include Hindemith, Schoenberg, Ernst Toch, Max Brand and George Antheil. This new aesthetic approach also attracted opera composers to commercial music theatre, notably Weill ( Dreigroschenoper , 1928 ; Happy End , 1929 ), while technical development

Article

Daniel Heartz

been approached since the 16th century, a resurgence paralleled in the history of music printing. The immense output of songs with simple accompaniments or no accompaniment at all (the sentimental romance and ballade were typical) was destined for amateur circles; so were the unending volumes of keyboard arrangements devoted to operas, oratorios and other concerted music. Self-tutors in all aspects of music did not originate in the 18th century, but there was a new quantity and diversity of publications available. The historiography of music begun by Burney and others

Article

J. Peter Burkholder

in order to evoke similar associations; for example, in his music for the Star Wars films, John Williams used as models Holst's The Planets (the most prominent orchestral depiction of space) and Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen , whose system of leitmotifs linking four separate operas Williams imitated to suggest an epic on a similar scale spread over a series of films. Bibliography H. Bloom : The Anxiety of Influence: a Theory of Poetry (Oxford, 1973) C. Abbate : ‘ Tristan in the Composition of Pelléas ’, 19CM , 5 (1981–2),

Article

Dave Headlam, Robert Hasegawa, Paul Lansky and George Perle

basic cell of Berg’s 12-note opera Lulu and generates the set – a tetrachordal trope – with which that work begins ( ex.23 ). The role assigned to this trope in the opera is explained by its special character: it may be inverted at any odd T-no. or transposed by any even T-no. without change to its tetrachordal pitch-class content. The intervallic properties (deriving from the presence of the tritone) that explain the function of this tetrachord in Bartók’s Fourth String Quartet are also those that explain its function in Berg’s opera. Ex.22  Ex.23  Wherever there

Article

Philip Brett and Elizabeth Wood

November 1996 , pp.108–14), Peter Rauhofer said: ‘It's all about the diva effect, an attitude that gay people immediately identify with’. This statement has a certain appeal as a generalization across 20th-century homosexual cultures in the West, including both gay males and lesbians. Among affluent males the diva effect tends to produce a devotion to sopranos (Joan Sutherland or Maria Callas, most notably, the latter being central to Terrence McNally's play The Lisbon Traviata ) and a subject position known as the Opera Queen, widely discussed and theorized (Bronski,