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John William Johnson

and I.M. Lewis : Somali Poetry: an Introduction (Oxford, 1964) P. Battista : Somalia: storia, folklore, tradizioni, poemi, poesie, canti (Naples, 1969) A. Artan : Somali Folklore, Music, Dance, Song (Mogadishu, ?1970) J.W. Johnson : ‘The Family of Miniature Genres in Somali Oral Poetry’, Folklore Forum , 5/3 (1972), 79–99 O.A. Nuh : ‘Songs that Derive from Folk Dance’, New Era , 7 (1972), 19–21 J.W. Johnson : Heellooy Heelleellooy: the Development of the Genre Heello in Modern Somali Poetry (Bloomington, IN, 1974) H.S. Mumin : Leopard among the Women:


John Baily

used to accompany singing and to play rhythms for dancing. Other drums are the domain of men. A large double-headed frame drum called dohol is played with sticks and used to accompany the sornā. Both instruments are played exclusively by barber-musicians. The goblet-shaped single-headed zirbaghali (‘under the arm’) is usually made of pottery, though wooden specimens can also be found. This drum is of Middle Eastern provenance. The two-headed barrel drum, dohol or doholak , is closely related to the Indian drum of the same name, and is used mainly for Pashtun


Alan P. Merriam, Kishilo W’itunga, and Kazadi Wa Mukuna

maringa is a children's song. In Katanga, the maringa was a mixed dance performed in a circle without partners, whereas in Kinshasa it was a couple dance. Its characteristic feature – hip movements shifting the body weight from one leg to another – is similar to that of the rumba. The maringa rhythmic pattern is illustrated in ex.1 . Ex.1 Maringa rhythmic pattern By the late 1940s, the brass band tradition had reached its peak and began to be overshadowed by Latin American sounds introduced to the populace through travelling musical groups, imported


Richard Henninger

revised by Elaine Keillor

Interlude in an Artist’s Life, 1943 Our Canada (Music for Radio no.1), 1943 Divertimento no.1, fl, str, 1946 Edge of the World (Music for Radio no.2), 1946 Divertimento no.2, ob, str, 1948 Red Ear of Corn (ballet), 1949 Round Dance, band, 1950 Vn Conc., 1951–4 Sym. Ode, 1958 Divertimento no.3, bn, str, 1960 Divertimento no.5, tpt, trbn, wind, 1961 Pf Conc., 1966 Harp Conc., 1967 Divertimento no.4, cl, str, 1968 Dummiyah (Silence),


Stephen Banfield and Ian Russell

by the American Square Dance craze. This flourished after World War II through the 1950s to the early 60s, when it was the enthusiasm of folksong revival that created conditions for the rapid expansion of the movement. The new groups of musicians who played English traditional dance music distinguished themselves from the more formal folkdance bands, who were EFDSS-influenced, by calling themselves ‘barn dance’ or ‘ceilidh’ bands and by operating as semi-professionals. Their music had a great deal more lift and accentuation. The aim was to make such dancing more



Ali Jihad Racy

Moiseyev to Lebanon at the invitation of the wife of Lebanese President Sham‘ūn; Moiseyev prescribed specific ways of developing the new dance form. In terms of their thematic and stylistic content, many of the Raḥbānīs' works were not strictly ‘folkloristic’. Some of their songs addressed non-‘folkloric’, including pan-Arab, topics, and many of Fayrūz's songs featured popular Western dance rhythms, including those of Latin America, as well as Western instruments. Several late Raḥbānī plays had urban themes, albeit with folk allusions and subplots. Other artists who


Matt Glaser, Alyn Shipton, and Anthony Barnett

materially altered some aspects of playing, and, just as with the guitar, modern amplification has made different stopping and plucking techniques both audible and useable. Among African-American musicians the violin was a significant component of music on plantations, both in accompanying dance and as part of string bands which played for white slave-owners and African-American communities alike. A high level of virtuosity was achieved by such concert artists as John Thomas Douglass ( 1847–1886 ) and Walter Craig ( 1854–192 ?), and it is reasonable to assume that


Klaus Döge

the eighth Slavonic Dance from the orchestral set op.46 ( b 172) and the piano piece Klid (‘Silent Woods’, b 173). At Mrs Thurber’s request he wrote the Te Deum ( b 176) for the celebration of the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of America. On 15 September 1892 Dvořák left Prague with his wife, his daughter Otilie and his son Antonín; they arrived in New York on 26 September after an Atlantic crossing of nine days on the SS Saale. Dvořák was officially welcomed to the National Conservatory on 1 October and made his first American appearance as a conductor


experience of soldiers. By the 1960s, a wealth of musical styles had developed, especially in the south-west, where the Yoruba had been very active in creating hybrid forms. Music from the former Zaïre had been very influential, along with West Indian calypso, Latin American styles such as samba and some types of African American music such as jazz. Ensembles tend to mix traditional drums and iron clapperless bells with guitars, keyboards and, increasingly, electronics. Recordings created as exports have songs chopped into three-minute cuts, but in performance individual


Peter Holman and Robert Thompson

King Arthur ’, MQ , vol.74 (1990), 83–97 J. Muller : Words and Music in Henry Purcell's First Semi-Opera, ‘Dioclesian’ (Lewiston, NY, 1990) A. Pinnock : ‘Play into Opera: Purcell's The Indian Queen ’, EMc , vol.18 (1990), 3–21 S.E. Plank : ‘“And now about the Cauldron Sing”: Music and the Supernatural on the Restoration Stage’, EMc , vol.18 (1990), 392–407 M.A. Radice : ‘Theater Architecture at the Time of Purcell and its Influence on his “Dramatick Operas”’, MQ , vol.74 (1990), 98–130 M. Goldie : ‘The Earliest Notice of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas ’, EMc , vol



Geoffrey Chew, Thomas J. Mathiesen, Thomas B. Payne, and David Fallows

MO, 1959) A.J. Sabol , ed.: Songs and Dances for the Stuart Masque (Providence, RI, 1959) W. Salmen : ‘European Song (1300–1530)’, NOHM , 3 (1960), 349–80 Chanson & Madrigal 1480–1530: Cambridge , MA , 1961 J. Stevens : Music & Poetry in the Early Tudor Court (London, 1961, repr. with corrections 1979) A. Verchaly , ed.: Airs de court pour voix et luth (1603–1643) (Paris, 1961) P. Brett : ‘The English Consort Song, 1570–1625’, PRMA , 88 (1961–2), 73–88 H.M. Brown : Music in the French Secular Theater, 1400–1550 (Cambridge, MA, 1963) F.W. Sternfeld


Alan R. Thrasher, Joseph S.C. Lam, Jonathan P.J. Stock, Colin Mackerras, Francesca Rebollo-Sborgi, Frank Kouwenhoven, A. Schimmelpenninck, Stephen Jones, Han Mei, Wu Ben, Helen Rees, Sabine Trebinjac, and Joanna C. Lee

as the nuo theatre of southern China (see §1(i) above), all have their own dance traditions. In nuo performances the dancers wear masks. Lion dances ( shiwu ) and dragon dances ( longwu ) are known all over China and, like many other types of dances with masks, are believed to originate in exorcist practices and old totemistic beliefs. In contemporary contexts, lion and dragon dances are often danced primarily for amusement. ‘Flower drum’ ( huagu ) and ‘tea-picking’ ( caicha ) dances have evolved in similar fashion in central and southern China. The steps and


Richard Taruskin

shown to be the remains of an unrealized project to compose an opera or oratorio on the subject of Longfellow’s Hiawatha , was intended as a Herderian object lesson to the Americans on how they might achieve a distinctive ‘school’ of composition. As quoted by the critic Henry Krehbiel, Dvořák urged that they submit the indigenous musics of their country, namely native-American (‘American Indian’) melodies and ‘plantation songs’ (alias ‘Negro spirituals’), ‘to beautiful treatment in the higher forms of art’. But of course higher forms that would justify and canonize


Edwin Seroussi, Joachim Braun, Eliyahu Schleifer, Uri Sharvit, Sara Manasseh, Theodore Levin, Tang Yating, Kay Kaufman Shelemay, Jehoash Hirshberg, Philip V. Bohlman, Israel J. Katz, Bret Werb, Walter Zev Feldman, Don Harrán, Alexander Knapp, David Bloch, and Emily Thwaite

klezmer violinist Wolf Kostakowsky published a major commercial collection of dance repertory in 1916. Between roughly 1912 and 1929 American record companies issued a large number of klezmer recordings featuring large ensembles, clarinetists or violinists. A more purely American klezmer repertory was issued in the 1940s and 1950s. Previously unknown repertory is emerging from older Jewish musicians from the former Soviet Union. Certain ḥasidic groups in Israel and America still preserve some of their instrumental traditions; several ḥasidic vocal repertories


Judith Tick, Margaret Ericson, and Ellen Koskoff

and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective , ed. E. Koskoff (Westport, CT, 1987), 203–12 J. Vander : Songprints: the Musical Experience of Five Shoshone Women (Urbana, IL, 1988) R. Keeling , ed.: Women in North American Indian Music (Bloomington, IN, 1989) [incl. B.D. Cavanagh: ‘Music and Gender in the Sub-Arctic Algonkian Area’, American Indian Music , 55–66; C. Frisbie: ‘Gender and Navajo Music: Unanswered Questions’, 22–38; O.T. Hatton: ‘Gender and Musical Style in Gros Ventre War Expedition songs’, 39–54; R. Keeling: ‘Musical Evidence of Female Spiritual



Gerhard Kubik

hand-claps. The unitary reference beat in African music is often a regular hand-clap, as in ex.3. In some other African traditions, such as in the kponingbo dance of the Azande (Zande), dancers ‘lift’ their legs, giving emphasis to beat units two and four. Influenced by American jitterbug, a similar phenomenon was observed in South African urban music. In other music and dance styles, such as the oucina dance by Herero women in Namibia ( see Namibia ) beat units one and three are objectified with gentle movement, while two and four are clapped. In some musical



Bruno Nettl

times encompassed music and dance (somewhat like the Chinese terminology) but which later came to mean something like ‘music’. In modern usage, it is the Indian vernacular word closest to ‘music’ but (being closer perhaps to Tonkunst ) refers, most specifically, to classical or art music. The word gita or git in combination with other words designates different genres of music, but particularly of song, such as filmi git (film music or film songs) and lok git (folk or people’s songs). Complex taxonomies are characteristic of Indian philosophy and cosmology.


Nicole Labelle

characteristically Rousselian rhythmic motives. Padmâvatî represents the culmination of Roussel's fascination with India, in its subject matter – the legend of the Queen of Chitor – and in its masterful integration of an Indian modal language into the composer's harmonic style. Dark, brooding orchestral colours, emotionally effective choruses and danced numbers, and poignant solo writing all evoke the majesty of Hindu temples and the tragic destiny of the characters. Roussel reached a turning-point as the 1920s dawned. He looked for a style and new techniques that would


J. Peter Burkholder, James B. Sinclair, and Gayle Sherwood Magee

Pan Alley ragtime songs, and he was one of the first composers to integrate its gestures into classical genres. In such works, Ives was writing music about music, evoking the sounds and spirit of American music-making, placing both himself and his listeners in the role of spectators. The many guises the Ragtime Dances would eventually assume—from a set of dances for theater orchestra to movements in his Piano Sonata no.1, Set for Theatre Orchestra , and Orchestral Set no.2 , and passages in his second Quarter-Tone Piece for two pianos—illustrate again his penchant


Gerard Béhague

carnival celebration in Rio de Janeiro, by means of highly infectious rhythmic and timbral play and a large number of thematic ideas drawn from choro , children's songs and other popular types. The work also contains aspects of Villa-Lobos's earlier interest in evoking the dances of South American Indians. It was well-received at its Paris première and performed frequently subsequently. Of all the pieces in the series, Chôros no.10 (‘Rasga o coração’) is generally considered his masterpiece. The subtitle comes from a modinha by the poet Catulo da Paixão Cearense, which