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Article

Arthur Hutchings, Michael Talbot, Cliff Eisen, Leon Botstein and Paul Griffiths

mentioned above and also to Ives’s Second Quartet, has been Carter in his Double Concerto for harpsichord and piano with two chamber orchestras ( 1961 ), Piano Concerto ( 1964–5 ), Concerto for Orchestra ( 1969 ), Oboe Concerto ( 1986–7 ), Violin Concerto ( 1990 ), Clarinet Concerto ( 1996 ), Cello Concerto ( 2001 ), Horn Concerto ( 2007 ) and Flute Concerto ( 2008 ). In the Piano Concerto, for example, the soloist is seen as a capricious individual whom the orchestra and a concertino group attempt to influence. Such characterization of material (a technique that includes

Article

Concerto grosso Generally, a type of concerto in which a large group (known as the ‘ripieno’ or the ‘concerto grosso’) alternates with a smaller group (the ‘concertino’). The most common solo group, used in the archetypal concerti grossi of Corelli’s op.6, is two violins and cello, a combination also used by Handel; Bach preferred a more varied selection of instruments in his Brandenburg Concertos, only some of which are strictly concerti grossi. The term ‘concerto grosso’ is often loosely applied to any concertos of the Baroque period except solo ones; the

Article

Robert L. Marshall

Chorale concerto [ chorale concertato] (Ger. Choralkonzert ) A sacred vocal composition, developed during the first half of the 17th century, based on a German chorale and scored for one or more voices and basso continuo and occasionally including obbligato instrumental parts. Like the ‘sacred concerto’ or geistliches Konzert , of which it is a sub-category, the chorale concerto adopted the techniques and aesthetic principles of the concertato style of the early Italian Baroque period. There were two main types, distinguished by the size of the ensembles

Article

Nicholas Anderson

Concerto Köln Period instrument ensemble . Based in Cologne, it was founded in 1985 by a group of young graduates from various European music conservatories. It has toured extensively and appeared at many international festivals. It has performed Baroque and Classical operas under different directors. In 1992 it joined with DeutschlandRadio to found the Cologne Festival of Early Music, which has subsequently concentrated on a particular composer each year; these have included J.M. Kraus, Boccherini, Locatelli, Rosetti and Vanhal. Concerto Köln’s

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Geistliches Konzert (Ger.: ‘sacred concerto’ ) A term used principally in 17th-century Germany for a sacred vocal work, usually in several sections, setting a biblical text. See Motet §III ; Cantata, §II ; Concerto .

Article

Arthur Hutchings

Brandenburg Concertos. Without archaic effect concertinos have been used in post-Baroque works, for example the string quartet in Elgar’s Introduction and Allegro for strings. Stravinsky detached the quartet from the main string group and called it ‘concertino’ in his Concerto in D ( 1946 ). For an appraisal of the contribution of Geminiani to the development of the concertino group, see P. Walls: ‘Geminiani and the Role of the Viola in the concerto grosso’, Liber amicorum John Steel , ed. W. Drake (Stuyvesant, NY, 1997 ), 379–413. See also Concerto .

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Concert performance (It. opera di concerto ) The performance of an opera without costume or, normally, any dramatic action. While the giving of concert performances has normally been regarded as a 20th-century procedure, designed to give a little-known opera a hearing without incurring the heavy expense involved in staging it, there are earlier precedents. Handel performed his opera Imeneo in a concert-room in Dublin during his 1741–2 visit, in concert form. Mozart’s revival of Idomeneo in Vienna in 1786 , at the Auersperg Palace, is generally

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Point d'orgue (iii) ( Fr. ) A cadenza such as is commonly implied by a fermata in appropriate situations, for example in concertos.

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Perdendosi (It.: ‘losing itself’, ‘dying away’; reflexive gerund of perdere , ‘to lose’ ) A term equivalent to diminuendo and descrescendo but implying the ultimate arrival at complete silence. A famous example appears just before the end of Beethoven's Violin Concerto.

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Ripieno (It.: ‘filled’ ) (i) A term used to denote the tutti (or ‘concerto grosso’) in an orchestra performing music of the Baroque period, particularly the concerto repertory, in distinction to the solo group (the ‘concertino’); it is more rarely applied to vocal music (as to the boys’ choir in the first chorus of Bach’s St Matthew Passion ). The direction ‘senza ripieni’ requires all players except those at the leading desks to be silent; it is commonly found in Handel’s extended vocal works. The term ‘ripienista’ designates an orchestral player

Article

David Fallows

Aperto (iii) (It.: ‘open’, ‘clear’, ‘frank’, ‘bold’, ‘plain’ ) A word used several times by Mozart in the tempo designation allegro aperto . Examples are the first movements of the Violin Concerto in A k 219 and the Piano Concerto in B♭ k 238, as well as two strikingly similar early arias: ‘Per la gloria in questo seno’ from Ascanio in Alba and ‘D’ogni colpa la colpa maggiore’ from Betulia liberata . Rudolf Steglich (‘Mozarts Mailied: Allegro Aperto?’, MJb 1962–3 , 96–107) attempted to draw general conclusions about the meaning of aperto . The

Article

Arthur Hutchings

Concertino (ii) A work with solo instrument, or instruments, less ambitious in scale than a concerto, often with few movements, or cast in one movement with changes of speed and character. This meaning corresponds with sinfonietta . German practice, however, is to use the term Konzertstück to designate such a work as Weber’s Clarinet Concertino. Among works of the miniature concerto type are Hindemith’s Concertino for trautonium and strings, and Milhaud’s Concertino de printemps for violin and orchestra. The title seems to have come into new vogue

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Al segno (It.: ‘to the sign’ ). An instruction to proceed, on repetition, only to the point at which a sign is placed. It is also used to indicate the duration of some other instruction, for example sul tasto al segno (Stravinsky, Dumbarton Oaks concerto, second movement). See also Dal segno .

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Leggero  

David Fallows

in Beethoven's E♭ Quartet op.74 is marked leggieramente ; and Mendelssohn has leggero simultaneously with forte and legato in the finale of his G minor Piano Concerto. Verdi used the superlative form leggerissimo , e.g. for Alfredo in the ‘Brindisi’ from La traviata and for Preziosilla in Act 2 of La forza del destino ; Elgar used the form leggierissimo in the second movement of his Cello Concerto. See also Tempo and expression marks .

Article

Robert L. Marshall

Chorale monody A sacred composition based on the text of a German chorale and written in the expressive declamatory style of the early 17th-century Italian concertato madrigal and monody. The chorale monody differs from the contemporaneous chorale concerto in that it makes no obvious use, if any at all, of the traditional chorale melody. Schein and Schütz included chorale monodies in their collections of geistliche Konzerte . See Chorale settings .

Article

Eingang  

April Nash Greenan

Baptist Vanhal’s Piano Concerto in D op.14, bars 153–9. Eingänge that the composer has left to the invention of the performer are usually signalled in the score by a fermata. They are found in the rondo movements of most Classical concertos in which, following a contrasting episode, the performer is cued to add an improvisatory passage that leads into and highlights the returning rondo theme. Examples are found in bar 124 of the third movement of Haydn's Trumpet Concerto in E♭ h VIIe:l; at bar 164 of the finale of Mozart’s Flute Concerto in G; and at bar 32 of the

Article

George Pratt

orchestra. It was founded by Trevor Pinnock in 1973 and has gained an international reputation, touring widely in Europe, Japan and South America. Many of its early recordings achieved critical acclaim (among them Vivaldi's Four Seasons and Bach's Orchestral Suites and Brandenburg Concertos), while a number of subsequent recordings, including Messiah (with the English Concert Choir, 1988 ) and two of Telemann's Orchestral Suites ( 1995 ), have won major awards.

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Konzertstück [ Concertstück] (Ger.: ‘concert piece’ ) A work for solo instrument or instruments with orchestra, shorter than a Concerto and frequently in one movement (e.g. Weber's Konzertstück for piano and orchestra in F minor j 282). The term was used by many French composers for one-movement solo works with orchestra. In Germany the term is sometimes applied to works that would elsewhere be called ‘concertino’.

Article

David Fallows

scherzoso (adjective from scherzo : ‘joke’). The second movement of Beethoven’s Eighth Symphony marked allegretto scherzando is perhaps the most famous use of the word and is fully characteristic, as is the same marking on the second movement (‘Giuoco delle coppie’) of Bartók’s Concerto for Orchestra. See also Scherzo §4 ; for bibliography see Tempo and expression marks .

Article

Nicholas Shackleton

Stadler in collaboration with the Viennese instrument maker T. Lotz. Several of Mozart’s compositions were intended for a basset clarinet rather than for an instrument of conventional range: the Concerto k 622 and the Quintet k 581 required a basset clarinet in A, while the clarinet obbligato in La clemenza di Tito required a basset clarinet in B♭. Manuscript cadenzas to a concerto by Leopold Kozeluch [ A-Wn 5853) are written for a basset clarinet, but little is known of the history of the instrument other than in Stadler’s hands. A basset clarinet dating from