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Article

Howard E. Smither

better classed as a motet than an oratorio), Marazzoli (five oratorios in I-Rvat Chigi Q.VIII.188), Foggia (two oratorios in I-Bc Q43) and Bonifatio Gratiani (two oratorios in I-Bc Q43). Gratiani's are the only known Latin oratorios in two sections by a composer active in the mid-17th century. 5. Italy and Spain, c 1650– c 1720. By the 1660s the oratorio was a firmly established genre not only in Rome but also in other Italian cities, and its cultivation beyond the Alps had begun. Oratorios continued to function in a more or

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22. Oratorio forms. See Handel [Händel, Hendel], George Frideric

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11. The later oratorios. See Handel [Händel, Hendel], George Frideric

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22. Oratorios: ‘St Elisabeth’ and ‘Christus’. See Liszt, Franz

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11. Oratorios and sacred works. See Mendelssohn(-Bartholdy), (Jacob Ludwig) Felix

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10. Oratorios and musical dramas. See Handel [Händel, Hendel], George Frideric

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Klavierauszug ( Ger. ) A piano arrangement of ensemble music for voices, or for voices and instruments; particularly an arrangement of an opera or oratorio with the vocal parts left intact and the orchestral accompaniment reduced for piano; see also Score .

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Howard E. Smither

Vienna, but representations of the Holy Sepulchre provided scenic backgrounds for oratorios by Fux, Caldara and others. These works, which were not acted as the earlier sepolcri had been, were identified on the title-pages of their librettos as oratorios ‘at the Most Holy Sepulchre’ ( al santissimo sepolcro ). See also Oratorio §6 . Bibliography R. Schnitzler : The Sacred Dramatic Music of Antonio Draghi (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1971) H.E. Smither : A History of the Oratorio , 1 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1977) S. Wiesmann : ‘Das Wiener Sepolcro’, Oper als Text:

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Howard E. Smither

of many used for the Italian Oratorio of the 18th century. Both Zeno and Metastasio called their oratorio librettos azioni sacre . A ‘staged oratorio’, or opera sacra , of the late 18th and early 19th centuries was also typically called an azione sacra . Although oratorio was essentially an unstaged genre, the sepolcro was presented with a minimum of staging and action and the opera sacra was fully staged and acted in the manner of an opera. From the 1780s to about 1820 , the theatres of Naples often presented staged oratorios during Lent and usually designated

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Testo  

Testo (It.: ‘text’ ) A term commonly used in 17th-century Italian oratorio volgare and Passion settings for the narrative portions of the text and, by extension, the role of the narrator; it corresponds to the ‘historicus’ in the Latin oratorio and to the Evangelist in German Passion settings. In the 18th century, when narrative was almost entirely dropped from oratorio in favour of continuous dramatic dialogue, the term fell into disuse. The testo part was normally set as recitative with continuo accompaniment and sung either by one or more soloists or (less

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George Pratt

Gardiner and, in conjunction with the Monteverdi Choir, initially focussed on Monteverdi and Bach, and on Handel’s oratorios. The orchestra took part in the first period-instrument recording, with Malcolm Bilson, of all Mozart’s piano concertos, and subsequently in a series of live recordings of his seven mature operas. The orchestra’s sensitivity in accompanying is evident on numerous other recordings, including fine performances of Haydn’s late oratorios.

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William Drabkin

Part (iii) (Fr. partie ; Ger. Teil ; It. parte ; Lat. pars ) The primary division of certain large-scale works (especially oratorios), equivalent to the act in theatrical works; in smaller forms, one of the sections of a work by which its form is defined, e.g. three-part song form; prima pars , secunda pars of a motet.

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Rita H. Mead

Worcester. Musical conventions were held there from 1858 : several hundred teachers and singers gathered to study, practise and perform selections from Handel and Haydn oratorios (following the example of the Boston Handel and Haydn Society). During the 1860s the number of concerts increased in imitation of English festivals, and Carl Zerrahn (conductor 1866–97 ) instigated performances of complete oratorios with orchestra. Under the direction of George W. Chadwick ( 1898–1901 ) the festivals performed works by contemporary composers – Horatio Parker, Converse, Chadwick

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William C. Smith

revised by Peter Ward Jones

1803 the firm was known by the name of H. Wright, standing for Hermond or Harman Wright. It is chiefly notable for the reissue of many of Handel's works from the Walsh plates, and for the first publication in full score of a number of his oratorios, including Belshazzar ( c 1784 ), Joseph ( c 1785 ), The Occasional Oratorio ( 1784 ) and Solomon ( c 1788 ). After Wright ceased business his entire stock of plates was purchased by Preston & Son . ( Humphries-SmithMP )

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Jonathan Freeman-Attwood

Orchestra American period-instrument orchestra. Based in Berkeley, it was founded by Nicholas McGegan in 1985 and is now acknowledged to be one of the leading Baroque ensembles in the USA. Its lively, well-turned playing can be heard in many recordings, including several Handel oratorios. Performances and recordings by its smaller offshoot ensemble, the Arcadian Academy, directed by McGegan at the keyboard, have attracted consistent critical approbation, especially in little-known Italian music of the 17th century.

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Barbara Owen

Theatre organ (i) The organ used in theatrical entertainments, operas, oratorios and concerts, chiefly in Italy and England, during the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries. Such organs were located in theatres, concert rooms and pleasure gardens rather than in churches, although their makeup differed little from that of small church organs during this period. ( See Organ, §V ; see also Continuo, §4 .) See also Crawford, Jesse Dixon, Reginald

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Howard E. Smither

The actus musicus differs from the historia in its greater use of non-biblical interpolations and its greater emphasis on the dramatic element. While both genres are important as antecedents of the oratorio of Protestant Germany, the actus musicus is related more closely to the oratorio and less closely to the liturgy than is the historia . See Oratorio §7 . Bibliography MGG1 ( B. Baselt ) MGG2 (‘Historia’; G. Konradt ) B. Baselt : ‘Actus musicus und Historie um 1700 in Mitteldeutschland’, Wissenschaftliche Beiträge der Marti

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Nicholas Anderson

Les Musiciens du Louvre French period instrument orchestra based in Paris, founded in 1984 by Marc Minkowski to perform Baroque and Classical repertory. The orchestra’s main sphere of activity lies in opera and oratorio, and it performed Lully’s Phaëton for the official opening of the Lyons Opéra in 1993 . Among its recordings are Lully’s Phaëton and Acis et Galatée , Charpentier’s Le malade imaginaire , Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie and Dardanus , Handel’s Teseo , Amadigi and Ariodante and Stradella’s S Giovanni Battista , which won

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Jonathan Freeman-Attwood

Marino Grimani's coronation in 1595 . Similar programmes include Vespers at S Marco, Palestrina in the Cappella Sistina and a Mass for Christmas Day at Wolfenbüttel (Praetorius). More recently, the group's thrilling, incisive tutti textures have been admired in performances of Handel oratorios.

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Kerala J. Snyder

that was maintained throughout the 18th century. Although as late as 1700 Buxtehude presented programmes of assorted choral and solo vocal music, he had much earlier introduced oratorios at these concerts. A libretto for his 1678 oratorio Die Hochzeit des Lamms survives (published in Pirro); it is in two parts, presumably performed on two successive Sundays. Two Buxtehude oratorios advertised for publication in 1684 , Himmlische Seelenlust auf Erden and Das Allerschröcklichste und Allererfreulichste were each in five parts. Under Buxtehude’s successors,