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Article

William Gradante

habanera rhythm that evolved as a substitute for the Spanish tonadilla escénica in 19th-century urban popular theatre. Its often picturesque and satiric coplas are delivered by a solo voice with a chorus repeating a single estribillo text and melody. Instrumental accompaniment shows the strong rhythmic influence of the habanera and features the guitar, tres (small three-string guitar) and güiro (gourd scraper).

Article

Estilo  

William Gradante

related to the triste and the tonada and characterized by emotionally charged sentimental song texts set either in quatrains or in Décima form. Texts are sung by a solo voice or in duet, in parallel 3rds. Its two distinct sections, the tema (textual message) and the alegre (a faster and more exuberant section), are separated by improvised guitar solos. Both sections have hemiola between the guitar and voice and rhythmic alternation between 3/4 and 6/8, although the tema often has a binary metre.

Article

Tony Bacon

be the pedal steel guitar’s most characteristic sound, is featured in a solo played by Bud Isaacs on Webb Pierce’s 1954 song Slowly . From about that time the pedal steel guitar almost completely replaced the lap steel guitar, especially in country music where the pedal steel guitar became a virtually compulsory component of the genre. The standard number of pedals for a twin-necked instrument is eight. Pitch-changing knee-levers (usually four in number) were added later, giving the instrument even greater versatility. Most pedal steel guitars are fitted with ten

Article

Timothy D. Miller

United States, the steel guitar has been used in African pop music as well as classical music of North India. See also Hawaii ; Hawaiian music . Bibliography H. Roberts : Ancient Hawaiian Music (Honolulu, 1926) G. Kanahele , ed.: Hawaiian Music and Musician: an Illustrated History (Honolulu, 1979) M. Hood : “Musical Ornamentation as History: the Hawaiian Steel Guitar,” Yearbook for Traditional Music , 15 (1983), 141–48 S. Phillips : Mel Bay Presents the Art of the Hawaiian Steel Guitar: Over 50 Great Solos with Detailed Analyses

Article

J. Richard Haefer

than a standard guitar: a–d′–g′–c″–e″–a″ . The soundhole has decorative circular inlay but usually there is no purfling, though more expensive models might use nácar (mother-of-pearl) inlay. The requinto is the solo instrument in the trio romantico and also fills in harmonies played by the classical guitar and guitarrón . Inexpensive models are generally made of cedar with an ebony fingerboard while deluxe models use spruce and rosewood and have purfling. In Andean Ecuador the requinto likewise plays the main melody in ensembles with one other guitar and sometimes

Article

James Tyler

it, the idiom itself is found in many of the best tablatures of the 17th and 18th centuries, and, clearly, was a constituent part of solo technique. The theorbo, with its special tuning arrangement, and the Baroque lute tuned in D minor, also used this effect, but not nearly as extensively as the guitar. Bibliography J. Tyler : The Early Guitar (London, 1980) J. Tyler : A Brief Tutor for the Baroque Guitar (Helsinki, 1984) M. Esses : Dance and Instrumental ‘Diferencias’ in Spain during the 17th and Early 18th Centuries (Stuyvesant

Article

Gerhard Kubik

Modern Music: a Socio-Economic Aspect’, African Urban Studies , 4 (1979–80), 31–9 J. Low : Shaba Diary: a Trip to Rediscover the ‘Katanga’ Guitar Styles and Songs of the 1950s and '60s , Acta Ethnologica et Linguistica, 54 (Vienna, 1982) African Guitar: Solo Fingerstyle Guitar Music, Composers and Performers of Congo/Zaire, Uganda, Central African Republic, Malawi, Namibia and Zambia , videotape, Stefan Grossman's Guitar Workshop (New Jersey, 1995) [incl. notes by G. Kubik ]

Article

Plena  

William Gradante

Plena A song genre of Puerto Rico. It is believed to have originated in the early 20th century, with a binary form consisting of solo or duet melodies followed by choral refrains. Narrative texts, often humorous, contain social commentary. The plena is characterized by extensive syncopation, while the use of triplet figures in vocal lines creates rhythmic contrast with the duple metre accompaniment of guitars, panderetas (tambourines) and conga drums and, more recently, orchestras with extended percussion sections.

Article

Break  

Barry Kernfeld

Break In jazz, a brief solo passage occurring during an interruption in the accompaniment, usually lasting one or two bars and maintaining the underlying rhythm and harmony of the piece. Breaks appear most frequently at the ends of phrases, particularly the last phrase in a structural unit (e.g. a 12-bar blues or a 32-bar song), or at the end of a 16-bar unit of a multi-thematic piece (e.g. a march or rag). In rock vernacular any solo instrumental passage can be termed a break, such as a guitar break.

Article

Fender  

Richard R. Smith

produced bell-chiming clarity, which can be heard, for example, in the immaculate guitar solo in the Beatles’ “Nowhere Man.” The Stratocaster’s contours and cutaways made holding the instrument easier and more comfortable, yet just as important was the visual impact it created. Leo Fender was not an artist, but the Stratocaster was a masterpiece. Following the tenets of modern industrial design, with its asymmetry and lack of ornamentation, it became the most popular and copied electric guitar ever created. Fender continued to design and manufacture new products, each

Article

Susan Fast

document of this style. Happenings Ten Years Time Ago , with its heavy use of echo, indecipherable talking and laughing during the wailing guitar solo and lyrics in which the protagonist is ‘sinking deep into the world of time’, is the most fully developed example of their psychedelic style, and was made after Jimmy Page ( b 1946 ) had joined the group in 1966 , first on bass guitar, then briefly joining Beck on lead guitar before eventually replacing him the following year. Page continued the experimental direction in pieces such as ‘White Summer’ ( Little Games

Article

Dave Laing

Mark Knopfler ( b Glasgow, 12 Aug 1949 ; vocals and guitar) his brother David ( b Glasgow, 27 Dec 1951 ; guitar), John Illsley ( b Leicester, 24 June 1949 ; bass guitar) and Pick Withers (drums), but after various personnel changes in the early 1980s the nucleus became Mark Knopfler and Illsley. Their first hit song, Sultans of Swing ( 1977 ), introduced Mark Knopfler's relaxed, drawling vocal style (influenced by Bob Dylan and the American singer-songwriter John Cale) and clipped, melodic guitar solos. The song affectionately described a pub-rock band and

Article

Ken Tucker

Sutra, 1967 ). The Lovin’ Spoonful’s style blended the noisy passion of rock with the affable sincerity of urban folk music, a contrast exemplified by Sebastian’s soft voice and the raucous guitar playing of Yanovsky. Most of their work is gentle and good-humoured, at times evoking the sound of a jug band. After the group disbanded in 1968 , Sebastian pursued a successful solo career.

Article

Robert Walser

band. Formed in 1983 , its line-up stabilized in 1985 as Vernon Reid ( b London, 22 Aug 1958 ; guitar), Corey Glover ( b Brooklyn, NY, 6 Nov 1964 ; vocals), Muzz [Manuel] Skillings ( b Queens, NY, 6 Jan 1960 ; bass) and William Calhoun ( b Brooklyn, NY, 22 July 1964 ; drums). Skillings was replaced by Doug Wimbish in 1992 , and the group disbanded in 1995 . They created an innovative and compelling fusion of hard rock and funk, with Reid's guitar solos also displaying the influence of free jazz. Reid was a founding member of the Black Rock Coalition, which

Article

Robert Spencer and Ian Harwood

cheap guitars to milliner girls and street ballad singers, thereby shaming the richer ladies into returning to the harpsichord. The repertory of the English guitar consists principally of solo arrangements of theatre songs and dance-tunes. The best music is found in a few trios with violin and cello by Felice Giardini, duos with cello by Francesco Geminiani (both published in 1760 ), a sonata with violin ( c 1770 ), possibly by J.C. Bach, and sonatas and duos, by Rudolf Straube. The principal tutor was by Robert Bremner (Edinburgh, 1758 ); it says the guitar should

Article

Jeffrey J. Noonan

Banjo, Mandolin, Guitar movement A loose association of instrument manufacturers, music publishers, professional performers, teachers, and amateur players dedicated to promoting the banjo, mandolin, and guitar (BMG) as solo and ensemble instruments for the concert hall. The movement coincided with the spread of mass production and mail order magazines in the music industry and remained closely tied to music publishers and instrument manufacturers. Rooted in the activities of Samuel Swaim Stewart, a banjo manufacturer, music publisher, and creator of Stewart’s

Article

Guitar  

Thomas F. Heck, Harvey Turnbull, Paul Sparks, James Tyler, Tony Bacon, Oleg V. Timofeyev and Gerhard Kubik

possible for the solo instrument ( ex.4 ). The duo genre was firmly established in the 20th century by Ida Presti and Alexandre Lagoya, and further consolidated by the Brazilian brothers Sergio and Eduardo Abreu, the Athenian Guitar Duo (Liza Zoi and Evangelos Assimakopoulos), and the French-Japanese combination of Henri Dorigny and Ako Ito. At the end of the century guitar duos and trios were commonly encountered forms of music-making, as were guitar quartets (composed either for four standard guitars, or for requinto , two guitars and bass guitar), a form pioneered

Article

Tonada  

frequently used to refer to a variety of short secular or sacred songs for solo voice, as distinct from the Villancico , although tonos and tonadas for two or even more voices became fashionable during the 17th and 18th centuries. In Chile and Argentina the tonada is a love song, which may be sung either as a solo or as a duet in parallel 3rds; tonadas are usually in the major mode, often modulating to the dominant or to a key a minor 3rd away. Stanzas are usually set off from each other by guitar interludes.

Article

Dave Laing

broad punk rock pattern with gruff, unadorned singing by Weller, fast tempos and abrasive guitar accompaniments. Onto this, however, the group grafted simple vocal harmonies and more sophisticated song structures. Their final hit, Town Called Malice (Pol., 1982 ), incorporated a soul music bass line and presaged Weller's next musical move. In 1982 he formed the Style Council to perform more pointed lyrics in a jazz and soul style. His outstanding work of the 1990s was the solo album Wildwood (Go-Disc, 1993 ) which was nominated for the Mercury Music Prize in

Article

Commander Cody and his Lost Planet Airmen Country-rock group. It was formed in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in 1968 and its principal members were Commander Cody (George Frayne; piano and vocals), John Tichy (guitar and vocals), Andy (Andrew) Stein (fiddle and saxophone), Billy (William) C. Farlow (guitar and vocals), and Bill (William) Kirchen (guitar and vocals). Several other musicians belonged to the group at various times. It first came to prominence after moving to San Francisco in 1969 and was among the first rock bands to explore the country-music style