- Gerhard Brunner
- , revised by José A. Bowen
(b Graz, Aug 28, 1894; d Salzburg, Aug 14, 1981). Austrian conductor. He studied law, taking the doctorate at Graz University in 1919, and also music, first with private teachers in his native town and then from 1913 to 1914 with Eusebius Mandyczewski and Guido Adler in Vienna. Returning home, he coached singers at the Graz Opera, making his début as conductor in Nessler's Der Trompeter von Säckingen in 1917. He subsequently studied and conducted the major works of the repertory. He was strongly influenced by Carl Muck, who invited him to study the Wagner scores with him at Bayreuth, and Bruno Walter, who invited him to the Staatsoper in Munich in 1921. He left Munich after six years and in 1927 became Generalmusikdirektor at Darmstadt, where he frequently performed modern operas, including Wozzeck in 1931, a work he introduced to several musical centres. Böhm moved to Hamburg in ...