Romania [Roumania, Rumania] (Rom. România)
- Speranta Rădulescu,
- Valentina -Sandu-Dediu,
- Adriana Şirli
- and Costin Moisil
Country in South-East Europe. Modern Romania is roughly situated in the ex-Roman province of Dacia (106–271 CE), and its people are of Latin heritage. After the withdrawal of the Romans the area was successively overrun by Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, and, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Turks. Romania was formed as a state in 1859 through the unification of Wallachia and Moldavia, to which Transylvania, formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was added in 1918. It became a people’s republic in 1947 and a socialist republic in 1965. An uprising in 1989 led to the establishment of a non-communist administration.
Until the 19th century, musical culture in Wallachia and Moldavia was primarily constituted of folkloric and Byzantine layers. The beginning of lay composition, in the form of ‘worldly’ and court songs written by some boyars [aristocrats] at the end of the 18th century, showed oriental and Turkish influences. In Transylvania, contacts with Western European musical styles were strengthened through the presence of German and Austrian court musicians (for example, Michael Haydn and Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf). About ...