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Two-string zithers from the 1st millennium bce

Two-string zithers from the 1st millennium bce

Reconstruction of wagon found at Tsujibatake, Fukuoka Prefecture, ? 1st–2nd century CE; only the soundboard survives

Reconstruction of wagon found at Tsujibatake, Fukuoka Prefecture, ? 1st–2nd century CE; only the soundboard survives

Shakuhachi (notched flute) made of stone, 8th century (Shōsōin repository, Nara)

Shakuhachi (notched flute) made of stone, 8th century (Shōsōin repository, Nara)

Mr D P Berger

Shakuhachi (notched flute): (a) played by the Japanese virtuoso Yamaguchi Gorō; (b) view showing the front four finger-holes (private collection)

Shakuhachi (notched flute): (a) played by the Japanese virtuoso Yamaguchi Gorō; (b) view showing the front four finger-holes (private collection)

Mr D P Berger

Priests of emptiness and nothingness: a train of komusō‘beggar priests’

Priests of emptiness and nothingness: a train of komusō‘beggar priests’

The International Shakuhachi Society

Shamisen player; coloured woodcut by Hokuei, early 19th century

Shamisen player; coloured woodcut by Hokuei, early 19th century

Japan Information Centre

Japan III. Notation systems 3. Instrumental music: Ex.9 Rhythm of opening mnemonic of fig.20, kotsuzumi part; the drum call ‘iya’ falls between the first two notes

Ex.9 Rhythm of opening mnemonic of fig.20, kotsuzumi part; the drum call ‘iya’ falls between the first two notes

Hayashi (drums and flute) notation from the nō dance ‘Jo no mai’; column 1 contains the kotsuzumi pattern names, column 2 the kotsuzumi and drum call notation, column 3 the ōtsuzumi pattern names and notation with drum call notation (with the taiko patter

Hayashi (drums and flute) notation from the nō dance ‘Jo no mai’; column 1 contains the kotsuzumi pattern names, column 2 the kotsuzumi and drum call notation, column 3 the ōtsuzumi pattern names and notation with drum call notation (with the taiko patterns on the left), column 4 the taiko notation and flute mnemonics; the numbers down the left-hand side indicate the beats

From "Yokyoku Maibyoshi Taisei" (Osaka, 1914)

Japan III. Notation systems 4. Oral mnemonics: Ex.12Ryūteki and hichiriki passages from tōgakupiece ‘Etenraku’ in hyōjō mode, with shōgabelow

Ex.12Ryūteki and hichiriki passages from tōgakupiece ‘Etenraku’ in hyōjō mode, with shōgabelow

Japan V. Court music 4. Performing practice and historical change: Ex.13 The tōgaku item Seigaiha as it occurs in historical sources and modern performance (a) Hakuga no fue-fu(966), bars 1–2 (b) Sango yōroku (late 12th century), bars 1–2 (c) modern biwa, bars 1–16 (d) Shinsen shōteki-fu(early 14th century), bars 1–2 (e) modern shō, bars 1–16

Ex.13 The tōgaku item Seigaiha as it occurs in historical sources and modern performance (a) Hakuga no fue-fu(966), bars 1–2 (b) Sango yōroku (late 12th century), bars 1–2 (c) modern biwa, bars 1–16 (d) Shinsen shōteki-fu(early 14th century), bars 1–2 (e) modern shō, bars 1–16

Nō performance with shite (principal actor) and waki (second principal actor) in the foreground, and instrumental ensemble behind, including (left to right) taiko (barrel drum), ōtsuzumi and kotsuzumi (hourglass drums), and nōkan (flute), with the jiutai

Nō performance with shite (principal actor) and waki (second principal actor) in the foreground, and instrumental ensemble behind, including (left to right) taiko (barrel drum), ōtsuzumi and kotsuzumi (hourglass drums), and nōkan (flute), with the jiutai (chorus) to the right

Japan Information Centre

Stage plan of a nō theatre

Stage plan of a nō theatre

After S. Kishibe

Taiko (barrel drum)

Taiko (barrel drum)

Japan Information Centre

Japan VII. Folk music 3. ‘Min’yō’.: Ex.17 One verse of ‘Yagi bushi’ (accompaniment not shown) as sung by Horigome Genta II, 1930; original a minor 3rd lower; transcr. David Hughes

Ex.17 One verse of ‘Yagi bushi’ (accompaniment not shown) as sung by Horigome Genta II, 1930; original a minor 3rd lower; transcr. David Hughes

Examples of bridges: (a) lute or early guitar, (b) violin, (c) viola d’amore, (d) trumpet marine, (e) koto, (f) Polish mazanki

Examples of bridges: (a) lute or early guitar, (b) violin, (c) viola d’amore, (d) trumpet marine, (e) koto, (f) Polish mazanki

Chinese and Western pitch names and notation systems

Chinese and Western pitch names and notation systems

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Yearbook for Traditional Music
Acta musicologica
The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Ethnomusicology
Perspectives of New Music
Yearbook of the International Folk Music Council
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
[flourished]
Antiphonale monasticum pro diurnis horis (Tournai, 1934)
Asian Music
Contemporary Music Review
Galpin Society Journal
Studia musicologica norvegica
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft