Show Summary Details

Page of

Printed from Grove Music Online. Grove is a registered trademark. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a single article for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy).

date: 16 October 2019

Organum (Lat., from Gk. organon: ‘instrument’, ‘implement’, ‘tool’)locked

  • Norman E. Smith,
  • Fritz Reckow
  •  and Edward H. Roesner
  • , revised by Rudolf Flotzinger

Extract

(Lat., from Gk. organon: ‘instrument’, ‘implement’, ‘tool’)

A type of medieval polyphony. Early meanings are connected with the organ, but later only with ‘consonant music’. While retaining the collective meaning of ‘polyphony’ in general, from the 12th century it was used specifically to refer to music with a sustained-note tenor (usually a pre-existing part) and more mobile upper part or parts.

Fritz Reckow and Edward H. Roesner

The Greek word ‘organon’ (‘tool’, ‘means’, ‘organ of the body’) was also used for musical instruments, and for the various organs of speech of the human voice. Its first known usage specifically as ‘organ’ in the musical sense occurred in the first half of the 5th century ce in a commentary on the psalms by Hesychios of Jerusalem (PG, xxvii, 1341C). The Latin word ‘organum’ on the other hand was current in the restricted sense of ‘organ’ as early as c400 according to St Augustine, and this was its ‘true’ Latin meaning (Psalm commentary: ...

You do not currently have access to this article

Login

Please login to access the full content.

Subscribe

Please subscribe to access the full content.

Rivista italiana di musicologia
Die Musikforschung
Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale
Kirchenmusikalisches Jahrbuch
Musica disciplina
Kwartalnik muzyczny
Revue de musicologie
Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning
Schweizerische Musikzeitung/Revue musicale suisse
Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur (1876-)
Bulletin of the American Musicological Society
Venice, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana
O. Strunk: Source Readings in Music History (New York, 1950/R)
International Musical Society: Congress Report [II-IV, 1906-11]
M. Gerbert: Scriptores ecclesiastici de musica sacra potissimum (St Blasien, 1784/R, 3/1931)
Studia musicologica Academiae scientiarum hungaricae
Musical Quarterly
Corpus scriptorum de musica (Rome, later Stuttgart, 1950-)
F.Ll. Harrison: Music in Medieval Britain (London, 1958, 4/1980)
Muzikološki zbornik
Revue belge de musicologie
Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France
Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
Early Music History
The New Oxford History of Music (Oxford, 1954-90)
Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart
Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters
Paris, Bibliothèque Ste-Geneviève
Monatshefte für Musikgeschichte
Rivista musicale italiana
Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Universitätsbibliothek, Abteilung Handschriften, Nachlässe, Alte Drucke
Patrologiae cursus completus, i: Series latina, ed.
Studies in Music [Australia]
Acta musicologica
Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft
Anuario musical
Music Review
Annales musicologiques
Journal of Musicology
Journal of the American Musicological Society
Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association
Archiv für Musikwissenschaft
Erfurt, Statd- und Regionalbibliothek, Abteilung Wissenschaftliche Sondersammlungen
Journal of Music Theory
Plainsong and Medieval Music
Papers of the American Musicological Society
Early Music
Miscellanea musicologica [Australia]
Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft
Handwörterbuch der musikalischen Terminologie
Gesellschaft für Musikforschung: Kongress-Bericht [1950-]
Miscellanea musicologica [Czechoslovakia]
Current Musicology
Journal of the Royal Musical Association
G. Adler, ed.: Handbuch der Musikgeschichte (Frankfurt, 1924, 2/1930/R)
R.M.A. [Royal Musical Association] Research Chronicle
Musical Times
Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III
Monumenta lyrica medii aevi italica
Collectanea historiae musicae (1953-66)
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Handschriftensammlung
Plauen, Stadtkirche St Johannis, Pfarrarchiv
Music & Letters
G. Reese: Music in the Middle Ages (New York, 1940)
Archiv für Musikforschung
London, British Library
Seville, Institución Colombina
St Dié, Bibliothèque Municipale
C.-E.-H. de Coussemaker: Scriptorum de musica medii aevi nova series (Paris, 1864-76/R, 2/1908, ed. U. Moser)
Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft
International Musicological Society: Congress Report [1930-]
Barcelona, Biblioteca de Catalunya, Seccíon de Música
Oxford, Bodleian Library
H. Riemann: Geschichte der Musiktheorie im IX.-XIX. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 2/1921/R; Eng. trans. of pts i-ii, 1962/R, and pt iii, 1977)