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Sources, MSlocked

  • Stanley Boorman,
  • John A. Emerson,
  • David Hiley,
  • David Fallows,
  • Thomas B. Payne,
  • Elizabeth Aubrey,
  • Lorenz Welker,
  • Manuel Pedro Ferreira,
  • Ernest H. Sanders,
  • Peter M. Lefferts,
  • Ursula Günther,
  • Gilbert Reaney,
  • Kurt von Fischer,
  • Gianluca D’Agostino,
  • Charles Hamm,
  • Jerry Call
  •  and Herbert Kellman

A manuscript source is one that is written by hand. Before the invention of printing, music was preserved either by oral transmission or by MS copies. There is no reason to believe that oral transmission preserves the same music for more than a few centuries, at least in the West, so that all our knowledge of medieval and early Renaissance music depends on MSS. From the start of printing until the work of Petrucci in 1501, almost all printed music was monophonic, mostly chant: even thereafter, however, there has remained a living tradition of the MS copying of certain repertories where printing would not have been economically feasible.

The present article comprises a preliminary discussion of the nature of MS sources and their significance for present-day musical research, followed by a series of sections that review the character and repertory of the main classes of MS in use before 1600. These are arranged by subject matter and also chronologically. Three further categories are discussed in adjacent articles: Sources of instrumental ensemble music to 1630, Sources of keyboard music to 1660and Sources of lute music; see also Printing and publishing of music.

I. Introduction

  • Stanley Boorman

1. The nature of manuscripts.

The most obvious distinction between a manuscript and a printed source is, of course, that one is prepared by a writer, using pen and ink or similar tools, while the other involves the use of a printing press. Indeed, this is the only distinction that seems to have any absolute validity. It is not, however, one that is of much value to the student of either type of source.

A more useful distinction, which can stand as a generalization, is that the MS is a unique object, while printed sources exist in many copies; that a manuscript represents the requirements of a single purchaser or owner, while printed sources must cater to many purchasers with diverse interests; as a corollary, that a manuscript contains a distinctive set of versions of the music it contains, while each copy of a printed edition purports to contain exactly the same material; and that a manuscript is normally produced to order, and passed to its owner by some personal contact, while printed sources require almost industrial connections between printer, publisher and subsequent owners. In practice, however, each of these distinctions is no more than a generalization and is subject to so many exceptions that it cannot be used as a general yardstick.

A discussion of these distinctions, and of their value for musical manuscripts, provides the central argument of much that follows in this introduction. But the more central distinction that they imply needs to be addressed: that the manuscript lays claim to being unique (not the same as any other manuscript, in form or content), while the printed copy sets out to be the same as other copies of the same edition. This distinction, while the most generally received one, is fatally flawed on both sides, and particularly so for musical documents. With MSS, the pattern of mass-production of standard works, common when dealing with commentaries to the scriptures or with newsletters during the 17th and 18th centuries, can also be found in the preparation of chant books and (much later) copies of operas. Even more significantly, during the early 19th century, scribes made multiple copies of Italian opera arias, which were placed on sale exactly in the manner of printed copies. (Aspects of this issue are covered in Love, 1993, dealing with musical and other MSS prepared in England in the 17th century.) On the other hand, many printed editions conform in intention and style to the pattern presented by manuscripts, as gifts for individuals, at weddings or funerals, even on the occasion of election to a mayoralty or receiving a degree. More generally, while multiple copies of a printed edition will have the contents arranged in the same order and with an attempt at internal consistency, very rarely before the mid 18th century can they be assumed to be identical. (For some discussion of these points as they affect printed books,see Bibliography of music and Printing and publishing of music, §1.)

In practice, however, the distinction works in most cases: only rarely are two MSS identical, even in intention. One chant MS might well be intended to cover the same material as an earlier one, being written for the same institution and containing essentially the same music. In the same manner, the central copies of Machaut's music, or replacement copies of polyphony (such as survive for the Vatican Chapels), might contain the same repertory arranged in the same order. But the nature of the manual copying process ensures that there was rarely any attempt to match the precise arrangement on the page or the placing of notational details of the earlier source. This was an essential result of the process: the scribe's hand was unlikely to match that of his predecessor, in size or writing, in his practice, or in his arrangement of details; as a result, in most cases the layout on the page would be different, and so would the number of pages. Further, no scribe could hope or expect to copy any MS without variation or the addition of errors. Finally, in many kinds of music (among which chant seems to have been the most important exception), the scribe was apparently accorded a more important role than that of a mere copyist: the freedom with which he was expected to make substantive changes in the musical text being copied was a reflection of the extent to which that text was not seen as being sacrosanct in all its aspects.

This apparent uniqueness of MSS and their content is made more evident by the almost random pattern of their survival. Very few polyphonic sources dating from before 1600 can be shown to contain holograph copies of music (though see Owens, 1997), or even to lie close to the composers whose works they contain (see Machaut [Machau, Machault], Guillaume de): similarly, relatively few can be shown to have been copied from other surviving MSS. (One instance concerns the MSS D-Rp A.R.62 and 65, apparently copied from the same library's A.R.886.) As a result, each manuscript comes to be seen as representing something itself unique – a moment in the history of music, in the history of performing practice, and in the history of the composer of the music, or of the institution or patron who owned the manuscript. The study of manuscripts, therefore, has had to face the problem of relating them to other sources – as perhaps copied by the same scribe, and therefore connected even when they contain different music. Other manuscripts have the same works in very similar readings, and so presumably represent similar moments in the history of the music. Yet others show signs of having been prepared for the same institutions, or for specific performances. Such manuscripts tell us something about their function, the reason why they were copied in the first place. And it is this aspect – the function of the MS – that most clearly distinguishes it from a printed source and from other MSS.

2. The functions of manuscripts.

A printed source, almost by definition, cannot fulfil a specific, different function for each of its readers. It is mass-produced, and arranged according to a scheme that the publisher believes will appeal to the greatest number of purchasers.

In the period of copying by hand, each book was more laborious to produce. There were scriptoria, from as early as the Carolingian renaissance, both in monasteries and university towns, which produced multiple copies of the standard legal, classical and theological texts, and also scribes employed as specialists at court. This idea of mass-production undoubtedly had an effect on styles of script, an effect that is not found in music, for music scribes were seldom concerned with making more than one copy of a text at a time. Even in other fields, while MSS were bought or ordered for many of the reasons that still prevail, fewer people bought them other than for study. Rich patrons could afford to commission lavishly copied volumes, illuminated with miniatures and floriation, which were then handsomely bound, either as additions to their collection, or as a valuable gift for a neighbouring prince; probably a disproportionate number of these have survived. Such volumes apart, however, books were meant for hard use. Scholars and priests, students and the devout, all owned a few books that they needed (the average private library was much smaller than today), often copied in a routine script with a regular and mechanical though no less well-balanced layout to the page, and with no use of colour beyond the occasional necessary rubrication.

The same range of situations appears to apply to musical MSS. Some were apparently presentation copies: there are such sources from the hand of Pierre Alamire and others, which survive in most of the erstwhile court libraries of Europe (D-Ju 4, for example, was probably intended as a gift to the English ruler; for illustration see Alamire, Pierre). There is usually no way of telling whether such gifts were intended for use unless clues are provided by occasional marks in them. Similar to these are MSS prepared for a specific institution, written by someone employed there. The Vatican has many MSS written by the scribes attached to the Sistine Chapel, and later the Cappella Giulia also employed a full-time scribe. The Old Hall MS (GB-Lbl Add.57950; for illustration see Old Hall Manuscript) appears to have been copied for a rich English institution, although which is not known. There are similar MSS copied for the Duke of Berry in the 14th century or the Holy Roman Emperor in the 16th. Lavish polyphonic MSS seem to be a new phenomenon, emerging, generally speaking, in the 15th century; decorated chant MSS survive from earlier. So, too, do other basically monophonic and secular MSS. Chansonniers of the 15th century are often finely prepared, perhaps for presentation or for the collection of the purchaser; Machaut's works are preserved in several finely worked copies, comparable to the beauty of the one musical source of the Roman de Fauvel (F-Pn fr.146; for illustration see Fauvel, Roman de).

Later, many of the richer cathedrals and monastic foundations had MSS of the Office with as much decoration as those owned by the chapels of contemporary princes. It is reasonable to suppose that these must have been prepared for some range of use, for they cannot have been designed solely for display: but it is impossible to know whether they were ever used in the choir stalls before the 16th century, whether they were used merely for learning the music and as a guide to the memory of the chapelmaster, or indeed whether they were used at all except when a new singer had to learn the chant. During the 14th century and later, there are many more illustrations of church musicians standing at a lectern, apparently reading from the music. While earlier illustrations often show the performing of chant by one man or by a very few, these later, particularly after 1500, begin to suggest that polyphony was being read (see also Page, 1997). They probably represent a trend in the use of MSS, itself almost certainly the result of two related phenomena, a growth in musical literacy and the rapid and sudden increase in the use of a choir for polyphony, instead of the soloists whose prerogative it had been earlier.

There were, of course, other levels of MS production. Many MSS survive, often in a fragmentary state, that confirm the existence of a continuing market for the ‘functional’ MS, one that was not heavily decorated but would serve the purpose of transmitting or preserving a repertory. Some were apparently copied for performance use, and often they are composite, copied over a period of time, perhaps by several scribes, and bound when the collection was large enough. This is true of the cathedral MSS still at Bergamo and Casale Monferrato, copied in the early 16th century, and, among earlier MSS, perhaps the Ivrea Codex (I-IV s.s.) or the Cambrai fragments. (Such sources are equivalents of the 19th-century album.) Others were copied more or less at one session, either because the total repertory was known and available (this is true of most chant sources) or because the MS became large enough and perhaps included all the future owner wanted – such may include the Chantilly MS (F-CH 564) and the early 15th-century source at Bologna University (I-Bu 2216), as well as some of those 15th-century chansonniers that were not made as presentation copies.

There are also MSS that appear to have been compiled for reference or study. This is certainly true of the anthologies made by Tschudi and Glarean when young, and perhaps also of some of the German keyboard collections of the early 16th century. For many others, the true function cannot be determined: they may have been compiled quickly or over a lengthy period, may be lavish or cheap, may be aimed at the scholar or patron, and indeed may look like any other sort of MS. The three early Notre Dame sources now at Wolfenbüttel (D-W 628 and 1099: W 1 andW 2) and Florence (I-Fl Plut.29.1: F) carry a repertory that was in part old and only in part up to date, and that cannot have been planned for performance directly from the source. There are many places in all three where that would have been impossible, and the music contained could not all have been intended for use, even from memory. The MSS also are composite, copied from several earlier ones (which do not survive), and it may be that they were designed as repositories collecting and preserving a corpus of music. This is perhaps also true of the Squarcialupi Codex (I-Fl Med.Pal.87), where the music, in a style that, it seems, was already largely superseded when the source was copied, is arranged by composer, as if presenting an early attempt at an opera omnia. Alongside these may be placed those copies of a composer's works that seem to have been planned by the composer (although they are not autograph): examples are Jehannot de L'Escurel, Thibaut of Navarre, Adam de la Halle, perhaps Machaut, Festa and Isaac. Also belonging here are the MSS written for those lesser churches where the maestro was also the principal or only composer; Bergamo is a case in point with Gasparo Alberti.

Once music printing became cheaper, during the 16th century, the range of MSS produced began to decline. There are significant changes in what has survived from after the beginning of printing. Presentation and chant MSS continued to be written well into the 19th century, and many were copies of earlier MSS written for the same institution. The present-day market in single leaves from such MSS, especially of Spanish provenance, is fuelled by the vast number of them that were copied, and that often can hardly be dated, so consistent and long-lasting were the detailed techniques of production. But with the expansion of the use of printing for standard repertories and for music that would have a market, MSS came to be used more as working documents. Among those that survive are an increasing number of private anthologies, copied over long periods, sometimes by professionals for their own use (as had been some of the lute and keyboard MSS of earlier times) but more often by amateurs with a repertory that either pleased them or seemed to be within their capabilities (Wendel, 1993). Such MSS continue long into the 19th century, and present the music in often idiosyncratic form, and with attributions and other identifications that sometimes tell more about the owner's taste than about the music's origins. These MSS eventually died out as the cheap songsheet and piano folio saturated the market. It is unlikely that such MSS will ever again become the norm, with the advent of photo-reproduction. Similarly, occasional MSS copied for didactic purposes have virtually ceased to exist. While modern examples are again unlikely to appear in any number, earlier MSS of this sort were more often used and then thrown away. Some have survived because they were the work of distinguished composers (such as Bach, with his Anna Magdalena Book), or because they were then retained in the Amerbach collection in Basle: see Kmetz, 1994.

Working MSS continued to be produced well into the 20th century and seem to have survived. During the Baroque period they include study of other composers' works and also performing scores and parts. Bach's autographs of Italian music are well known and several copyists' scores survive, for example, of Handel's Messiah, with markings from different performances. A number of operas from the period survive in printed form only as vocal scores with MS full scores and parts. During the 19th century, manuscript parts and conducting scores of operas, especially in Italy, provide the most reliable evidence of an opera's performing history: at the same time, MS vocal scores of popular numbers were prepared in bulk and published for sale.

A final group of working MSS, that of composers' drafts and sketches, has survived in increasing numbers for recent centuries. To some extent this is a result of the new view of the composer's supreme authority and the desirability of any later version to be as close an approximation as possible to his own; but it is also a result of the views of history and scholarly antiquarianism that developed during the 18th century, to be bolstered by Romantic concepts of genius during the 19th.

It is almost impossible to generalize about the style and appearance of a composer's sketches and drafts. Much will depend on the place of any individual MS in the line of progression from the initial idea (usually in a sketch), through expansion, development, the linking together of ideas (often in a draft), to orchestration and fair copy. Many such MSS undergo changes in function, as certain ideas fall into place in the composer's mind during the process of copying, or as sections seem to need further revision. Individual composers respond to these needs in different ways, so that, while it is possible to create a typology of compositional MSS (Bailey, 1979), we can not generalize about the detailed form and appearance of any one type. Comparison of the sketches, drafts and fair copies written by Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, Brahms, Mahler, Berg and Webern will reveal a complete range of possibilities. On one hand, the first sketches may appear as no more than a few notes, or a serial row, both of which then undergo major transformations. On the other, complete melodies with partial orchestration may appear to have been perceived very quickly. In the same way, potential fair copies can be subjected to changes in scoring, occasional changes of octave transposition or of individual pitches, and every possible level of change up to major rewriting or changing the order of sections of a work.

Each function, as outlined in the preceding paragraphs, leads to specific physical characteristics in the sources: while we may know nothing about the detailed patterns of MS use, the evidence of the MSS themselves shows that they were prepared in different ways for different presumed uses. Some MSS also indicate changes in function during their history: some are now merely composite MSS, layers with different dates (and even purposes) that happen to have become bound together; one example is the famous ‘keyboard’ MS at Faenza (I-FZc 117); another is perhaps the set of Vier ernste Gesänge of Brahms (A-Wgm ), where the last song was written on a different paper. In others, the original plan is to some extent obscured by additions of different types of music: such is the case with the early 15th-century MS at the university library in Bologna, where secular songs were fitted into empty spaces in an otherwise sacred MS. Yet others (such asI-Bc Q15; fig.1) show changes in plan during their making: this MS apparently arose from a commission for an attractive, carefully written MS, but it was not completed in that form, deteriorating into a working MS, roughly copied by the same man, on poorer paper and without the use of the coloured initials that grace the earlier layers. The various layers of work were carefully intertwined, so that they now present a fairly coherent sequence of repertories. In this case, as in others, the changes of plan left their mark on the physical appearance of the MS, showing the tight connection that exists (for all MSS) between the intended use and the processes of preparation and copying.

3. Preparation and copying.

The manual copying of music was a highly regarded skill, and was until the 19th century almost always the province of professionals, copyists or musicians. During the Middle Ages scribes were often members of guilds, or else composers and musicians employed by noble or monastic establishments. They were therefore working in a milieu which encouraged standardization, and they developed different patterns according to the character of the music to be copied and the needs of the destination of the MS.

The nature of the copying process governs many of the detailed aspects of the finished MS; but the reverse is equally true. The more formal a MS is to be, the more carefully will its layout be planned, and the less will it show of the nature of its own origin, or of the exemplars from which it is copied. A MS for presentation to a ruler will require a higher standard of visual quality, while one for the church lectern will be concerned with legibility. Both may be intended to be lavish in production, worthy tributes to the destination, and both therefore will require a high level of non-musical organization. A similar process of planning, though dealing with very different factors, governs MSS prepared for performance or for study. At the same time, the copyist is always (at least potentially) in the position of an editor: consciously or not, he is always changing the material being copied, either by providing different emphases with the different arrangements he adopts (the placing of an accidental in a Renaissance source), or by error (the omission of a bar in the only MS copy of Schubert's Sonata d505/625, second movement, which can be supplied only from the otherwise defective Diabelli first edition), or by deliberate editorial decisions (there exist three different endings to ?Compère's O bone Jesu in three Spanish sources, none of them found elsewhere). In many cases, such decisions are taken by someone other than the scribe, though they are still important for tracing the function and date of the specific copy, as in study of the scores of Donizetti and Bellini (where the decisions were presumably dictated by the singers employed for the performance concerned).

In many cases, the copyist planned the arrangement of his MS in advance. When the cost of materials was relatively high (generally before 1800), the detailed layout of the MS was critical to the cost of the work, and sometimes can be shown to have been adopted to save space. Layout is also important for performing materials: the sequential arrangement of voices in some of the motets in the Florence and Wolfenbüttel MSS (F,W2), involving page turns, precludes performance from the source alone. Similar problems can still arise, for example for performers of string quartets.

In an anthology, the arrangement of pieces or of groups will usually be finalized at this stage, with decisions as to how many pages each is to take and whether spaces are to be left for later additions. Interesting exceptions to this include the copying of some Renaissance masses and some 19th-century opera scores; in each case, every movement was copied on to a separate group of leaves (or fascicle) and these were later arranged in order. The modern student has to distinguish these from the MS made up from separate and distinct small MSS (GB-Bu 5001 is an excellent 17th-century example).

The copyist is then able to collect together his paper or parchment. Although some 18th-century professionals, like Smith, and perhaps the larger Renaissance and medieval scriptoria, would have had a large and continuous supply of paper to hand, most scribes collected a uniform batch of paper or parchment which would be sufficient for the MS on order (this applies to at least one of the larger Renaissance musical scriptoria, the Cappella Giulia). Much evidence for this exists in the correspondence of professional (non-musical) scribes. Early printers followed the same pattern. The paper or parchment would then be subjected to two processes, one before the other, the order apparently depending on the relative sizes of paper and MS and on the scribe's habits. The material would be gathered into groups of sheets and folded into gatherings (often of four or six sheets, although frequently of five in Florence), which would provide the spine for later binding; guide-lines would be ruled upon it for the writing. This latter was a complicated process, involving fine judgment on the scribe's part. Complex patterns for the relations between height of music and text and size of page seem to have been established as early as the 14th century, if the surviving advertisement page of an Oxford scribe is any guide. The relationships were of course governed by the function of the MS – solo or ensemble performance, private reading, or gift. The proportions have remained important and still govern what we accept as attractive relationships between the height of the staves, their distance apart and the length of note tails.

The scribe would normally rule first the vertical lines that define the margins to the page, often with dry-point but sometimes in ink (as in D-Mbs, the Buxheimer Orgelbuch). Within these, he would also draw the horizontal lines that marked the placing of the text, and sometimes the staves. In the Oxford advertisement (GB-Ob e Mus.198*) a slightly more sophisticated pattern prevails. This MS is a display of the various scripts, both text and music, that the scribe had on offer. After ruling the vertical guides, he seems to have ruled a series of regularly spaced lines across the page. He could then arrange for each size of script to take up a different number of lines. This technique is designed for liturgical MSS, in which more than one size of script would often be used on a single page, and where the amount of music on the page varied considerably. It appears to be the normal procedure in all MSS where music did not appear consistently throughout the gathering, even down to secular ones of the 14th century. The only refinement regularly adopted was the ruling off of a small area at the top left to take an ornate capital letter, often a calligraphic initial drawn by the scribe.

However, it seems to have been the practice to rule the staves after all the guidelines had been ruled, and to align them by eye. The ruling normally involved the use of a rastrum, a multi-nibbed pen drawing one or more staves at a time (see Rastrology). Four-, five- and six-nibbed pens were common, to cater for the normal range of lines to a staff; there is also evidence of rastra for drawing several staves at once. Once bar-lines became common, in the 16th century for scores and later for parts, scribes sometimes ruled them at this stage, as in the two scores copied by Tregian (GB-Lbl Eg.3665:fig.1 ; US-NYp Drexel 4302), with occasional consequent problems of spacing and crowding. There are detailed ways in which the procedure was slightly different for tablatures. The average lute tablature could be prepared in exactly the same way, but new German tablature for the organ, for example, required a different approach. So too did some choirbooks, where the arrangement of the parts on the page affected the spacing of the staves. In some cases, most probably, the staves could not be ruled up for more than one opening at a time, so that the layout of the parts could balance according to how active each part was musically.

Once the scribe began to copy, his skill and personal preferences had more scope. An experienced copyist contrived to space the material so that the minimum of paper was wasted: bars reached the ends of lines, and movements the ends of pages, without significant squeezing or spreading of the music to confuse the reader, rather than spreading on to a virgin page for just a few notes or bars. (J.S. Bach was both very economical and surprisingly inaccurate at this: many of his copies have a few extra bars squeezed on to an additional line at the foot of a page family, fig.8.) Whether text or music was to be copied first was a decision made on the basis of the nature of the piece. A syllabically set text, where the words would take more space than the music, would prompt the scribe to write the text first and space the music accordingly (as scribes seem to have been aware from the earliest extant MSS); although there are many cases where a copyist had to cramp one to accommodate the other, there are more where he seems to have been able to copy one or the other first in different places according to the musical style. In most 18th- and 19th-century MSS the music appears to have been written first.

In many MSS of the 14th and 15th centuries there are red and, rarely, blue sections in the musical notation. The use of rubrication (a term derived from the Latin rubeus, ‘red’) for texts is older and more widespread. In such situations the scribe often seems to have left space for the later addition of the red sections, rather than keep two colours of ink available all the time.

While working through the MS the scribe made a number of additional marks on the page, usually as reminders for a later stage. These may include small guide initial letters, to tell the illuminator where to place his decorative work and which letter was required (normally covered by the decoration); indications, in the margin, of errors to be corrected later; a catchword, the initial word of the next sheet or gathering, to ensure that they were arranged in the right order, at the foot of a verso; small numbers at the foot of the last verso of a gathering to ensure that the binder collected the gatherings in the correct order (in some MSS these also appear at the starts of gatherings, as for example in the Fayrfax MS, GB-Lbl Add.5465). He might also add folio numbers, although that was usually done at a later stage, after the leaves had been gathered together. The manner in which a copyist did these things is as crucial for identifying him as is his manner of drawing clefs and directs or his text and music hands.

In most cases, the scribe's work was finished at that point, although some scribes apparently went through the folios to correct errors. An economical or domestic MS might now be ready for binding; in some intermediate kinds, the scribe would draw in any additional calligraphic initials; and in other types the work was ready for the illuminator. The only exception, common to all classes, was where the scribe prepared an index of contents. This, of course, could be done only after the MS was completed (or after a composite one had been compiled) and sometimes even after binding. Often individual gatherings would be sent to the illuminator when completed, rather than held until the whole was completed.

As regards illumination, the tradition of music MSS joins with the main line of MS preparation. The illuminator does not generally seem to have been the same person as the scribe, although evidence in the Vatican Archives suggests that he sometimes was (Sherr, 1975). Many scribes, of course, used colour and occasionally the more complicated gold leaf to draw filigree and simple decoration on their work, but that was a different class of work from illumination or even floriation, both of which demanded skill with a brush as well as a pen.

Because illuminators also worked on non-musical MSS, it is possible to assign many MSS to schools on the basis of their style. While some scribes have been identified, and the work of others, still anonymous, have been found in several MSS (Rifkin, 1973) and assigned to specific towns, it is through the detailed study of illumination style that many MSS have been placed geographically and even sometimes chronologically. Two early sources, the Montpellier and Florence MSS (F-MOf H196:Mo; F), have now both been assigned to schools of painting in Paris and other later MSS associated with known illuminators (Slim, 1972; Avril, 1978). It is of course possible for MSS to travel from the scribe to a different centre for illumination, although the principal case recently advanced for a musical one (the Medici Codex, I-Fl Acq. e doni 666) has been fairly convincingly refuted (Rifkin, 1973).

With binding the position is similar: no binder made a living binding merely music. There is however much less evidence here, for many MSS have survived fragmentarily, sometimes even having been used as padding, wrappers or end-papers for later bindings. Further, there was no reason for MSS to be bound when copied and kept at the same place (particularly as many were kept as separate fascicles, unbound until enough had been collected). A similar situation prevails over later collections of salon music or chamber music parts that were not bound until a convenient number had been collected. Other collections seem only to have been bound once the music had ceased to be used. Some bindings, however, were clearly made at the time of copying, and these can yield as much information about the source and its origins as can the illuminations. The most unfortunate (from the scholar's point of view) part of the binding process is that in which the leaves were gathered together and trimmed to provide a series of pages of uniform size and placing. Even in MSS surviving in their original bindings, this has often resulted in the cutting away of writing. Actual music is comparatively seldom lost, but the names of composers regularly disappear, as do marginal annotations. With the repeated bindings (and hence trimmings) that some MSS have undergone, the page can have shrunk so much that even music may be lost.

4. Historical survey: up to 1600.

In all periods and locations, there have been roughly standardized sizes and formats for music MSS of the same type. The early Notre Dame sources are surprisingly small; many Renaissance choirbooks are very large. Early polyphony tends to follow certain arrangements on the page, whereas the very use of the term ‘choirbook’ and ‘partbook’ for later sources implies different, specific arrangements. The oblong (landscape) format that emerged around 1500 became almost standard for opera scores, persisting well into the 19th century for both editions and MSS in Italy, while a different, upright (portrait) format prevailed in France and England. Collections of dance tunes and American hymn books had similar shapes, designed for long coat-pockets, while hymn-books from elsewhere followed traditions with quite different proportions.

Early chant books, like the chant repertory itself, have many consistent patterns of design. The arrangement of the books, like the liturgy they carried, shows changes that are relatively minor compared with the more noticeable changes in notation. The earliest surviving sources, described below (in §II), still show signs, in their appearance, of the motivations that led to adding pitch indications for texted music, as well as of the limited needs which that notation was expected to fill. In many, the source was clearly planned and laid out as a textual manuscript, and the musical symbols were added (perhaps later), fitted between the lines of text. It is only as the musical requirements grew more detailed, and the notation equally more complex and subtle, that MSS had to be planned with the notation in mind. This was not achieved by creating special layouts and formats or by providing different rulings for the text and the music: rather the page was ruled up as before, and the music took up a predetermined number of ruled lines. Early chant MSS of this type assign the equivalent of one textual line to the music: with the development of stave lines and precisely pitched notation, music took up proportionately more space, and more text-line equivalents were allocated to it. In addition, space had to be allocated for the rubrics, sometimes written below the staves, but often in short gaps between two sections of staff. In such situations, the precise location of music and staves on the page could not be known in advance. The staves could only be ruled as and when needed. These MSS, then, tend to have a uniform appearance, although over the centuries there were marked differences in music notation and in size. The early MSS are small in size, and French ones seem to be larger than German. That pattern does not continue; later there is a wide range of sizes. These were presumably related to the needs of the foundation that was to use the MS.

An interesting exception to the normal patterns is provided by a small group of Exultet rolls (for illustration see Exultet) written in southern Italy during the 11th century. Here the chant, to be sung by a soloist, is interspersed through the roll with miniatures, which are upside down. As can be seen from a miniature in the roll at the Biblioteca Capitolare in Bari, the roll dropped over the front of the lectern, unrolling so that the paintings, scarcely miniature in size, would be the correct way up for the onlookers.

The emergence of polyphony imposed changes on the general pattern, although the separate voice parts were not always copied together if the evidence of the Winchester Troper (GB-Ccc 473) is any guide. Here the parts to be sung with the chant are copied in separate sections of the MS. Most MSS, however, keep the parts at least adjacent, and often in score. The scribe then found, of course, that the music took up much more space than the chant had on its own. The music tends to become cramped (as in W 1 andW 2), staff lines are close together (sometimes they are almost continuous in score pieces) and less space is left between works for ornamental calligraphic initials. Indeed, in these, and in the Florence MS (F), the music is often fitted around the capital letters, which suggests that the letter may have been written by the scribe. The Florence MS is of considerable interest in a study of scribal attitudes and work: while the organa are copied in score, other works are laid out with consecutive parts, with page turns intervening; the MS also shows evidence of having been copied in sections, with spaces left, presumably for later additions. The layout and notation also suggest that it was copied from several other sources, but that the scribe attempted to make the arrangement of his new MS as systematic as possible. He also took great care over the details, for there are many erasures and corrections.

The changing nature of polyphony led to changes in the way in which it was arranged on the page. While some pieces continued to be written in score (and indeed score notation survived in England until the 15th century), works in which the tenor moved markedly more slowly than the upper parts began to be copied with the voices separated. The two upper voices of a three-part piece, often roughly equal in length, would be copied in two columns, on one page or on facing pages, while the tenor was written beneath the other two, in lines across the foot of the page. (This highlights the manner in which changes in sources are as likely to reflect changes in the musical style as changes in performing practice.) This pattern seems to have been adopted at the very end of the 13th century (it is found in some layers of the Montpellier Codex: Mo) and to have been preceded by an intermediate stage in which all the voices were written in adjacent columns, regardless of the number of notes involved. In this situation (also to be found in the Montpellier Codex) the columns with the tenor would often have few notes, consequently saving very little space over the older score arrangement; that is presumably why the new pattern was adopted.

Such layouts seem to have remained customary only briefly. The Machaut sources of the late 14th century show both of them still in use, alongside the two more orthodox patterns that were being adopted and that form the basis of the compromise arrangement of the next century or so. In the Machaut sources the scribes faced several particular problems, and, because they appear to have written several of the MSS in separate layers or fascicles, they could use different solutions. The bulk of a copy consisted not of music but of the long poems for which Machaut was most highly regarded in his day; these were often written in two, and once in three, columns to the page. When a section was set to music, it was not convenient to have such short lines; so the music staves were regularly ruled across the page. In this situation, a polyphonic piece had the parts arranged consecutively, one beneath another. In monophonic pieces, the distance of the staves from each other had to vary, depending on whether there were one or two lines of text to each musical line. Some of the purely musical sections follow the same pattern, so that the consecutive arrangement of parts becomes one of the accepted layouts. However, the Mass, in four voices, was treated differently: here the scribe used the practice of having one column for each voice, or, in one case, the then new choirbook pattern, in which two voices appear on each face of an opening of the MS, one written beneath the other. It can be seen that this is a compromise between older patterns and the sequential arrangement, and it appears to have been adopted partly because of the length of some movements: all four voices could not be fitted on to a single page, as could the great majority of motet parts.

In the 15th century this choirbook pattern gradually became the norm. For the three-part pieces that form the bulk of the secular repertory, patterns of arranging the voices developed that can almost be described as national in origin; and naturally they were related to musical style. While the English, with a style using at an early date two equal upper voices, tended to write these parts at the tops of the two pages of an opening with the tenor beneath the right-hand, shorter part, the French frequently placed the tenor at the head of the right-hand page; the contra would then appear beneath the tenor. The Germans seem to have retained an early layout even with four-part writing during the early 16th century with the bassus under the superius and the tenor beneath the altus on the facing page. In all styles the superius seems to have been kept at the top left. There are a few cases where the music is written across both faces of an opening, from top left to the right, particularly in German keyboard tablatures.

There are also a few MSS of this period that appear to have been parts of rolls (F-Pn Coll. de Picardie 67; GB-Ctc 0.3.58;GB-Ob Bodley 652, if the evidence of the stitch-holes can be taken). Each of these contains a different repertory, suggesting that rolls may have been more common than has been thought. There is some iconographical evidence for the use of rolls in polyphony (Page, 1997), although they are more often shown used by angels or in other situations that are clearly not realistic (perhaps reflecting a traditional view of the transmission of the scriptures).

The internal organization of the MS also came to concern scribes as they developed ways of handling polyphony. Monophonic sequence collections sometimes show evidence of having been arranged alphabetically, but that is less common in polyphonic MSS, no doubt because few concentrate so intensively on one form or genre. Some later English sources of motets may have been arranged approximately alphabetically (that is, within the pattern of alphabetical arrangement that the medieval scribe also used for indexes). From the 13th century onwards, however, many MSS show signs of some sort of arrangement of the material. The Notre Dame sources gather together organa, conductus, clausulas and motets into different sections, planned as such; all but one of the central Machaut sources arrange his music by genre, and within that in an order that is consistent, and claimed to be chronological (Keitel, 1976); in MSS of the late 14th and the 15th centuries the material is arranged by form, mass movements being followed (for example) by other sacred texts, with the secular items in another fascicle. This obviously helped the scribe, for he would be able to work on more than one section at once, or to leave a section until the next batch of music became available. Many later MSS show space left at the end of a section for the addition of music. This is particularly true of those arranged according to the number of voices; in both the Medici Codex (I-Fl Acq. e doni 666) and a set of partbooks in Munich (D-Mu 4o Art.401) there are blank pages at the ends of the sections with staves ruled ready for copying. In such a situation the scribe could retain control of the plan of his MS only if he worked in sections, regarding each as self-contained, and ready to receive new music until such time as the MS was deemed to be complete.

The existence of such gaps may sometimes relate rather to the well-attested medieval practice of universities and stationers, whereby they held sources of the more popular texts in separate unbound gatherings (orpecie) which were then rented out one at a time for copying; this enabled more than one person to work on the MS concurrently. Some music sources show clear evidence of this in the way the text is spaced and in the placing of blank or partly filled leaves. This practice is not to be confused with that involved in the theory advanced by Hamm (1962), according to which small fascicles of music were mobile, carried about Europe by itinerant scribes or musicians, providing the copy from which resident scribes worked. There is evidence of such small fragments from later periods. Some MSS of the 16th century in Basle, Wolfenbüttel and other libraries, as well as the 17th-century source GB-Lbl Add.30931, confirm that such small MSS were sent or carried around.

Other factors of arrangement gradually became more important. Some of these are the result of music taking its place alongside many other fields, as a suitable subject for MSS of the highest quality, in both materials and presentation. While early chant MSS already show the ostentatious display bestowed on Books of Hours, for example, one of the first polyphonic sources to display rich illuminations on high-quality parchment is the only musical source for the Roman de Fauvel (F-Pn fr.146: for illustration, see Fauvel, Roman de). Similar elegant MSS preserve the works of Machaut, of English composers (the Old Hall MS), or (in the Squarcialupi Codex) those of Italian Trecento composers. Few similar MSS survive from the middle of the 15th century (although they include some for the music of Wolkenstein), but soon afterwards they began to be produced in relatively great numbers. The new affluence of both princely and religious establishments encouraged their production as a manifestation of their owners' importance. Thus such MSS survive from chapels of the Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick the Wise of Saxony, the court of the Medici in Florence and the Vatican in Rome, as well as from a number of cathedrals. Similar MSS were also deemed to be suitable as lavish gifts. The Cordiforme Chansonnier (F-Pn Rothschild 2973) or the Lucca MS (I-La 238) are early examples, and Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, seems to have made a particular habit of using a musical scriptorium to prepare rich MSS for distribution all over Europe (see Alamire, Pierre; see also §IX, 16 below).

This certainly affected details of the arrangement of material in the MS. An important anthology designed for presentation to a potentate would, if possible, open with something appropriate. This procedure, related to the practice of dedicatory odes in collections of poetry, had become customary by the late 15th century; the choice of text or composer was apparently made with care, having a function analogous to the choice of saint to be honoured in motets in other collections. In the same way, a secular chanson source often began with a piece to a religious (if not liturgical) text. The pattern is so pronounced that Slim (1972) could argue, on the basis of the pieces placed first and last in the motet sections of the so-called Newberry partbooks (US-Cn Case VM 1578.M31), that their destination may have changed during the time of their preparation; much the same could be argued for GB-Lbl Roy.8 G.vii, where the first two motets relate to the French and the English courts, but the second has had the names in it changed, after copying, from those of the French circle to those of Henry VIII and his then wife.

In some cases the process of choice was carried further, even to the selection of the whole. In the Old Hall MS, blank pages were left for specific pieces, apparently predetermined, for the ornamental initial letter was provided. A chansonnier for Margaret of Austria (B-Br 228) contains music principally by composers associated with her court, in particular La Rue. The index page of the Medici Codex shows that certain pieces were included so that their initial letters could form part of an acrostic; ones that did not belong in the sequence were relegated to the next page of the index. Such a plan was often distorted, and might thus be concealed from the modern reader, by changes of plan, by lack of time for completion, or by the subsequent loss of a part of the MS.

By this time the status of the copyist had to some extent changed. With the emergence from the shadows of composers of polyphony, and the establishment of more and more institutions that could perform the music, composers and chapel members began to be named in the archives as copyists. Du Fay apparently copied music, as did many later composers. Spataro at Bologna, and other maestri di cappella, had MSS copied for their cathedral and sometimes took part in the work themselves. Senfl was employed at the imperial court for a while as an assistant to Isaac in the copying of his music. While professional text scribes (such as Coluccio Salutati) had achieved considerable status even late in the 14th century, few music scribes reached a similar standing. Alamire, working in Burgundy, was one of the exceptions; other known scribes, such as those employed at Trent, the papal chapel or similar institutions, appear to have been rated lower than the singers whom they supplied.

It is from the 15th century, too, that the first evidence appears of what may be autograph copies by known composers. It has been argued that certain layers of the Old Hall MS may be holograph, or at least have autograph corrections (Bent, 1966), while the inscription ‘Ysaac de manu sua’ has been noted in one MS (D-B; see Just, 1962; Owens, 1994). A single page probably in the hand of Pietrequin has been identified (Rifkin, 1973), as have been corrections in the hand of Carpentras (I-Rvat C.S.42; see Sherr, 1975; Dean, 1984). There is an increasing number of holographs from the following decades (Owens, 1997); by the end of the 16th century, the changing balance between MS and print means that more MSS that might be assigned to composers begin to appear; but the limited evidence of composers' writing other than in musical MSS means that their authenticity is often hard to confirm.

Also during the 15th and 16th centuries there begin to appear MSS made, it seems, for the copyist's private study. Glarean was clearly not the first theorist to base his work on music he himself had collected, although his is one of the earliest collections to survive (in Munich). Baldwin and Tregian were both later copyists of large anthologies that were apparently not designed for performance or presentation (GB-Lbl R.M.24.d.2; Lbl Eg. 3665, US-NYp Drexel 4302); another example in score is the so-called Bourdeney MS (F-Pn Rés.Vm 851; see Bridgman and Lesure, 1958–61). The nearest to this in earlier periods may have been the conscious preservation of specific repertories such as survive in the Squarcialupi Codex.

The earliest copies that can firmly be said to have been prepared for the use of performers also date from the late 15th and early 16th centuries (if such collections as the Robertsbridge fragment, GB-Lbl Add.28550, are left aside, together with the few 15th-century German keyboard sources). Among the earliest are some written in German keyboard tablature (e.g. the Amerbach tablatures) or anthologies made by lutenists (of which Capirola’s, US-Cn Case VM C.25, is a particularly attractive example). Their arrangement and choice of repertory makes clear that they were not prepared for public show. However, even in larger sources (such as Jan z Lublina's organ tablature, PL-Kp 1716), some method is normally apparent in the process of copying and the arrangement of the repertory. There is, of course, no parallel to most of these categories in early printed sources.

Coupled with the emergence of copies that may have been prepared for performance is the appearance of the partbook. This is usually one of a series of books, each of which carries only one voice of a set of compositions. By definition, such sets of books are likely to be intended for performers, for they are of little use to scholars or students and are seldom lavish enough to be seen as presentation MSS. (An early exception is the set of partbooks now divided between Cortona and Paris – I-CT 95–6 and F-Pn – which were probably prepared as a gift to Giuliano de’ Medici.) The earliest partbooks date from the end of the 15th century, characterized by an oblong format, which was quickly adopted by both printers and scribes. By the middle of the 16th century most music was prepared in this form, so that the printing of Gesualdo's music in score was an unusual phenomenon at the end of the century.

5. Historical survey: from 1600.

During the later 16th century, as music printing spread throughout Europe, it was accompanied by a change in the range of MSS. Music printing seems to have become relatively cheap, first in Italy, then in Germany and the Low Countries and, in the next century, in England. More collectors of music were thus able to afford their own printed copies: MSS therefore came to be associated more with the process of composition, with performance, or with repertories of limited market, rather than with study or presentation or with those few repertories (such as church music) that were relatively small but had a wide dissemination. There are many significant pointers in this direction. While the papal chapels continued to have MS collections, because the repertory did not go beyond the Vatican, other cathedrals and churches in Italy increasingly replaced their MSS with printed partbooks. The new sonata textures were suitable for printing, too, although the consort repertory in England, with its limited market, stayed in MS. Until the widespread adoption of engraving, little keyboard music was printed, although that was more a matter of the technical problems involved.

However, throughout the Baroque era there were still many scriptoria and establishments employing professional scribes. The collection of MSS made under the aegis of Philidor (now dispersed to Paris, Versailles and Oxford) comprises a wealth of music, both operatic and sacred, from the period of Lully, Campra and Lalande. These MSS were copied in a uniform format and bound in sets, each with a different-coloured cover. A leading English scribe of the later 17th century was Gostling, whose partbooks survive (GB-Y M1/1–8). There appears to have been a prolific circle of copyists in England throughout the century, particularly of church music, which seems – with a few notable exceptions, such as Barnard's anthology – not to have ventured into print (see Morehen, 1969; Love, 1993).

In the field of opera much of the music remained in MS, principally because performances with different singers and in different towns would normally have contained different items and recurring ones would have been sung at different pitches. The copying of opera presented particular problems for the scribe during the next three centuries. As long as operas were composed of separate numbers, sometimes with distinct recitatives, the composer or director was always able to change either whole numbers or parts of them. The scribe attempted to arrange his copying so that substitution was as easy and economical as possible. Numbers were often copied on to separate gatherings; the paper for each was chosen to accommodate the scoring. Consecutive numbers may therefore be preserved, in the same source, on paper of different types, with different numbers of staves, in different-sized gatherings, and often copied in different hands. The scribes who did this work had a new status, often being on the staff of an opera house or retained by a composer or group of composers. The most famous of them was perhaps J.C. Smith, who copied (or organized the copying of) many of Handel's works. Others were employed by publishers; others, themselves members of the opera house staff with access to the music, ‘published’ their MS copies of opera arias. Perhaps the most important publishing house dealing with MS copies of operas was the Naples firm of Marescalchi, in the late 18th century. Title-pages were printed for their works by a separate firm, Alessandri & Scattaglia, but the contents were mass-produced by local scribes. The repertory comprised mainly popular arias from operas in the Naples repertory. A much earlier example, apparently unique, of an engraved title-page for a MS is that to Myriell’s Tristitiae remedium of 1616 (GB-Lbl Add.29372–7).

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the format and layout of the average MS had again become somewhat standardized, although on different lines in the different parts of Europe. The French tended to retain an upright format for all their music, including opera and keyboard music. In Italy, parts for church music and sonatas were printed and copied in the normal upright format, but opera, keyboard music and later 18th-century orchestral music was copied in oblong. For the last the parts retained upright format, but vocal scores of single arias preserved the oblong shape, allowing more bars to be presented on a single line. This applies as much to printed as to MS sources. The English appear to have been less consistent, although oblong format is rare before the advent of Handel in the 18th century. In Germany, too, the change in format accompanied a general change in style. While Bach wrote most of his autographs in the vertical format (but the Brandenburg Concertos and much of the keyboard music are oblong, as indeed printed editions of the organ music still are), Mozart consistently used the other shape for his orchestral music. It is significant that, while he normally used oblong paper for his piano music, two of the sonatas he composed in Paris are in upright format.

The arrangement on the page of the parts for instruments and singers was also largely formalized during the 18th century, although not according to the pattern now prevailing (see Score). In a full score, the violins headed the page, with the obbligato instruments set out within the basic plan, followed by the lower strings. Solo singers and the keyboard in concertos were, quite logically, written immediately above the bass line. This was clearly standard enough to allow the copyists to plan their work easily and rapidly. However, as a study of the Mannheim sources has shown (Wolf and Wolf, 1974), many other elements of the work followed absolutely traditional patterns: the supply of paper, the purely mechanical preparation of the page for the music, and the way of making up gatherings and fascicles are all consistent enough for the identification of the members of a scriptorium, and all show evidence of a long tradition linking them with earlier practices.

In the 19th century, the professional copyist was a full-time member of a musical establishment and the provider of performing copies of operas, orchestral parts or anthems for church use. Other MSS, increasingly, were amateur productions, and they show this both in the undisciplined character of the hand and in the apparent lack of experience in arrangement. Some publishing houses retained copyists on their staff who would also copy music for house composers; most still keep in stock much MS music, particularly parts for modern or less popular works, which it will never be economical to print. To some extent the printing of parts was facilitated once engraving became the cheapest method of preparing copy: engraved plates could be kept on hand ready for reprinting as needed, as type could not. This made the process much more economical for a publisher and expanded the range of repertories that were economically viable. In many ways, the engraver was the logical successor of the copyist; he had the same problems of layout and the same flexibility in adjusting the spacing of the work to produce a pleasing result.

The emergence of photo-copying techniques saw a revival in the role of the copyist in the wider dissemination of music, an effect that photo-lithography did not have. Universal Edition was an important publishing house to begin producing editions of music by modern composers that consist of reproductions of the composers' autograph, and the use of copyists' work for photo-reproduction has grown increasingly prevalent, particularly in fields (like early music editions) where sales are relatively small. As a result there was a slight revival of freelance copying, although most professional music scribes remained attached to large institutions, opera houses, professional orchestras or broadcasting companies.

New approaches to notation have raised a number of new problems for the 20th-century copyist. This, of course, has happened in all periods, although since the time of Monteverdi there have been few changes in the basic pattern of music on the page. Even with the vastly more complex scores of the late 19th century, or the considerably more detailed notation of the early 20th, the copyist did not change the initial premises on which he based his work. The difficulties of reading many such scores are all a consequence of this traditional approach as, indeed, is some of the complexity of the notation itself, for composers strove to overcome, with their notation, the limitations of the score: many more accidentals, indications such as Schoenberg's ‘Hauptstimme’ sign, and the complexity of Boulez's rhythmic notations are symptoms of this. It is only with the emergence of truly new ways of treating notation that the scribe was compelled to break from tradition. Aleatory scores with special notations for random or improvised passages (Lutosławski), scores where staves appear and disappear or are arranged in a visually pleasing design (Bussotti), scores that no longer use the standard symbols for pitch or duration (Cardew's Treatise is a particularly attractive example), those that include new information, perhaps for movements or actions (Cage, Ligeti) or require use of colour (Peter Maxwell Davies, String Quartet) all imposed on the scribe the need to look for new approaches to format and layout, in the way that those elements of modern notation that concern only the theorist (ways of writing accidentals, etc.) did not and could not. Among products of this new thinking were scores that modified the traditional pattern in minor though vital ways (Stockhausen'sMomente and Mixtur, for example, where the use of staves is reconsidered) as well as those where the whole arrangement of the music on the page needed to be tackled in a new way to assist legibility.

Some of these new approaches have gradually become conventions: an increasing number of scores drop staff-lines for silent bars, and the notations of aleatory and improvised sections have tended to become more consistent. This is partly a result of composers discovering which of the musical innovations of the middle third of the century seem to have a continuing musical validity. But it is also a function of the experience that they (and performers) have gained through looking at each other's notations. In this respect, copyists and their manuscript sources have had a significant impact on the contemporary development of music notation. Whether this will continue to happen seems questionable: indeed, the position of the copyist as a profession is less secure. As composers have increasingly used computers while composing, and as music software continues to become more sophisticated (producing excellent parts directly from the score), the need for the traditional copyist decreases. For the immediate future, some types of manuscript will continue to be produced: foremost among them will be the sketches and some other working documents of composers. Some other types of notation layout are still stretching the abilities of computer software, and making excessive demands on the time involved in input and layout. But, with the development of real-time input from keyboards, as well as the increasing pattern of storing all computer data as graphic files, it is probable that true handwritten sources will become rare, perhaps restricted to composers' sketchbooks. Presumably, within years, music-notation software will be sophisticated enough that it will allow each user to develop an individual style and visual appearance: then some of the characteristics of manuscripts that have been mentioned above will again be found in the latest sources. Until that time, the traditional MS source would seem to be entering a twilight existence.

6. The study of manuscripts.

The study of the copying process, of the structure of MSS and of the habits of their copyists are prerequisites to the study of the actual music in the sources. Many of the comments above have been possible only because people have studied MSS in this way. The MSS are, after all, the only evidence that we have for the existence of a large part of our musical heritage, and many elements of the music are preserved only by virtue of the scribe's decisions. If the source is unique, the significance of annotations is obvious; however, even if there are concordant sources, containing the same music, the significance of structural detail of each is scarcely less. Any one may carry a number of musical variants that can hardly be classed as errors, but must be assessed (see ex.1 ). It may have indications for performance (written-out ornaments, accidentals, more text); it may have additional parts (Mozart's clarinets, or a si placet part to an otherwise three-voice chanson); it may have a different selection of music (in an opera, for example). In each of these cases, the circumstances under which it was copied are of musical importance. Each MS represents a unique combination of time and place of compilation; if this combination can be determined, the readings assume greater significance. Further, a study of the copyist's habits as seen in the MS may establish much about his reliability, his musical literacy, his taste and the type of thing he tended to change, and even the points in the source (such as immediately after changing line or page) where he was most prone to make mistakes. All these things will play their part in assessing the significance of the musical versions preserved in the sources – and this is no less true of a composer's autograph, for the composer was no less prone to error and accident than was his professional but probably disinterested colleague.

A MS has also to be considered in relation to any printed source of the same music. It may well be an autograph and yet carry less weight than a first edition that the composer supervised. That applies to certain Handel texts, and to several Mozart and Brahms works where changes (ornamentation, dynamic indications) were introduced with evident authority. Beethoven certainly saw proofs of some of his editions, and Tyson (1963) has argued that the London editions that he did not see still have some variant readings which should be given high authority. An analogous case in which the degree of authority of early MSS has been hotly disputed is that of Verdi's and Puccini's operas (see Vaughan, 1961). Few MSS that were demonstrably used as printer's copy survive from before the middle of the 19th century. When such exist (and the majority are now preserved in the archives of publishing houses; Ricordi has a large collection of opera scores, apparently with proof copies as well), they are instructive about the relationship between MS and print.

One of the most significant and perhaps most rewarding aspects of MS study concerns study of the copyist as an individual. Sometimes a copyist can be attached to a name, with a career and other MSS; more often he remains a cipher, an anonymous writer who can nevertheless be placed in an institution or a decade, or who has other MSS to his credit. In these cases, the significance of everything that can be learnt about the structure of the source is multiplied, for it can be placed alongside the work of his contemporaries or his own practice elsewhere. Recent and important work has been done in this direction in a number of periods. For the Renaissance a complex of MSS copied at the court of Margaret of Austria has been isolated, as well as a clutch of relationships among Neapolitan and Florentine MSS, that lead to detailed studies of repertory and scribal habits (Rifkin, 1973; Atlas, 1975–6). The study of the Mannheim sources has given an added authority to many MSS that preserve the music of composers active at that court. The identification of the scribes of many English 17th-century sources has, in a similar manner, thrown considerable light on the spread of new styles from the court to other circles around the country as well as on the influx of Italian influence (Willetts, 1961; Morehen, 1969). In the case of Gaffurius at Milan and Spataro at Bologna, the identification of the MSS that they arranged to be copied has provided valuable information about the music likely to have been performed at their churches while they were in charge. Identification of scribes can go further: for the Washington and London frottola source (US-Wc M2.1 M6 Case, GB-Lbl Eg.3051), the Cortona and Paris partbooks (I-CT 95-6, F-Pn fr.1817) and the Oxford and Cambridge fragments, for example, the identification of an anonymous scribe, as much as the arrangement of the MSS, has enabled modern scholars to link fragments together as parts of single MSS that had become separated.

This identification is specially exciting when it concerns a known composer. The study of composers' autographs is in some ways a little different from that of other MSS. It is more often concerned with the ways in which the autographs reflect the compositional process (Marshall, 1972; Bailey, 1979; Owens, 1997) or show the development of a composer's style. It may also throw important light on the order in which different works were composed; such techniques have caused radical changes in, for example, the accepted chronology of Bach's works and of details in Mozart's (Dürr, 1957; Tyson, 1987).

It is often not possible to identify a scribe or to relate him to that of another source. However, he can always be placed, both in a historical period and (more tentatively) in a geographical area, from a study of his style as much as from a study of the papers he used. The manner of laying out a page has changed over the centuries, as have such details as the normal manner of writing clefs, accidentals and directs or the patterns of text spelling and orthography: these can be used alongside an analysis of the handwriting and of the bibliographical format to give a close indication of when and where the copyist was working.

A change of scribe within a MS will more often mean a different layer of work than two scribes working together at the same time. There are times when the change coincides with changes in paper and repertory, and it is evident that two completely different MSS (with different origins and intentions) have been subsequently bound together. Especially in the case of late collections of songs and short piano pieces, some present-day bindings contain numbers of separate short MSS (and often also printed editions), each containing only one item, and all of various origins. But in other cases, where the change of scribe coincides with a change in paper or layout, we are dealing with no more than a break in the process of copying. Anthology MSS, often copied over a relatively lengthy period of time, regularly show changes in handwriting, while many 19th-century anthologies contain individual pieces entered by different scribes. However, analysis of handwriting has its own pitfalls, and changes in hand not supported by other evidence have to be handled carefully. Many scribes working before the mid-19th century (and later in German lands) regularly maintained more than one hand, and some (particularly obviously in non-musical sources) kept the two distinct, using them for different purposes or repertories.

Alongside the handwriting, other codicological evidence will often provide a clear demonstration of the number of layers into which a MS falls, that is the number of separate sequences of copying (regardless of whether or not they represent a continuation of the same original plan). One critical piece of evidence here is the paper. For many years, watermarks have provided an important element in the study of all paper MSS, although the limitations in their interpretation are becoming increasingly clear (see Watermarks). While the presence of a mark in a dated source says a little about the possible date of other sources with the same or ‘very similar’ marks, it seldom says with any certainty much more than can be deduced from a study of other elements of the source. However, the pattern of papers within a MS (or edition) may often be revealing. The marks in the last two gatherings of the Codex Reina (F-Pn are distinct from those in the rest of the MS. It is no surprise to learn that these gatherings were an independent fascicle, copied by a different hand; however, the earlier fascicles use four papers, one of which seems to be a later insertion, possibly to replace errors on the original pages. Similarly instructive is the fact that one paper in the Tregian MS (GB-Lbl Eg.3665) has a date in the watermark, but that it is one of the papers that was pasted over the original, to correct an error. The different marks in some Mozart scores (Tyson, 1987) have thrown interesting light on the order of composition, and the presence of certain marks has proved as useful as the identification of scribes in the Mannheim complex of MSS.

There are other strands of evidence that can help as guides to the chronology of a MS. Some are written on printed MS paper: changes in the rulings on the paper can be used to distinguish layers of a MS. This is particularly valuable for MSS of works which comprise distinct movements – for example, 18th-century opera, song-cycles, sets of piano pieces. If the copyist used a rastrum, it would sometimes need to be replaced. In the published facsimile of Stravinsky's sketches for the Rite of Spring rastra of different sizes can be seen, although it is by no means certain that they represent different stages of work. But a large MS will often show changes of rastrum and of other pens and inks. This sort of analysis has been used on Bach MSS and in the classic study (Köhler, 1967) of the stages of composition of Acts 1 and 2 of Le nozze di Figaro.

Once conclusions on the order of work have been reached, the plan of a MS often becomes clearer. Then the scholar turns to the contents to determine how far the accuracy, the musical literacy and the independence of the scribe can be trusted. Few scribes sink to the level of an early 19th-century Englishman, an amateur who wrote a complete piece in 6/8 as if large sections of it were in 5/8; professional copyists preserve at least the appearance of accuracy. Even they, however, are prone to error: often there are sections in MSS that seem to make little sense or where the scribe appears to have attempted to cover up an error. Some scribes appear to have been sufficiently literate musically to realize when a source was defective and to abandon copying (as in the case of Hugo de Lantins' Tra quante regione, GB-Ob Canon.misc.213).

But errors are by no means the only ways in which MSS of the same piece can differ from each other, or raise problems for the modern editor. In all periods, there have been notational conventions, well understood in their time, that have not survived to the present day. Among well-known examples are the omission of dots of addition in some mensurations (a practice even found as late as the early 19th century), the simplified notation of double-dotted rhythms, or that of notes inégales. More obscure, and therefore sometimes less well understood today, are the apparently casual approach to accidentals in the 17th century and the handling of key and time signatures during both the 17th and 18th centuries. Alongside these are some pairs of notational devices which seem to have the same meanings for performers – the presence and absence of ligature patterns are an obvious example, as are some sequences of mensuration signs (a similar problem can be encountered with beaming patterns in 18th- and 19th-century music). For any given composition, these can vary from source to source. It must be assumed (unless the results are musically impossible) that the copyist, or an editor who guided him, was musically literate enough to make competent decisions, and to take into account the reactions of his readers. The modern scholar is thus faced with the dilemma of trying to discern a possibly different meaning for the performer in each of the versions. These variations correspond to those in literary texts, where such ‘spellings’ can similarly represent now obsolete patterns, or sets of contemporaneous variations, which may or may not have had significance for the reader.

Until such time as the composer's word was considered definitive (as late as the 19th century for some repertories), the scribe felt free to make adjustments, to add ornamentation, to alter anything that displeased him and generally to ‘improve’ on the copy from which he was working. The range of changes made by the scribe reveal much about his musical acuity or incompetence. But, in addition, they also reveal a great deal about his musical background. While some changes – adjustments to a melodic line to limit the range, for example, or the deliberate simplification of complex rhythms or notations – apparently reflect special circumstances, others are more probably to be seen as unconscious reflections of the scribe's own normal preferences. One scribe will tend, in a majority of cases, to add ornamentation while another will remove it; one will give extra guidance onmusica ficta while another will indicate a different tradition, or will think such aids to performance unnecessary. In some cases these differences and patterns of change can be associated only with the scribe: in many others, however, they can be found in several sources, related by geographical area or by being associated with a single performing institution.

This sort of analysis goes hand-in-hand with traditional approaches to textual criticism, with filiation or stemmatics (see Musicology, §II, 3), used to group sources. The grouping will reflect the readings found in the sources, making allowance for the editorial habits discernible for each scribe, as well as any limiting paleographical or codicological evidence. This grouping then tends to produce sets of versions of compositions which plausibly lie close to a composer's (possibly lost) version, as well as other sets that are further removed, perhaps because they reflect the regional or institutional performing tradition. Such work has been done for 15th-century chansons (Atlas, 1975–6) and for 19th-century opera (Gossett, 1970): similar studies have begun to reveal some otherwise unretrievable information about performance practice in various institutions during the 16th and 18th centuries.

Many MSS, now anthologies, were compiled from more than one earlier source, with the scribe selecting from each such pieces as he required. In these cases, the sorts of analyses outlined above have to be carried out separately for each composition, since each may have come from a different exemplar. In many MSS, now arranged sytematically by genre, number of voices, or approximate alphabetical order, adjacent compositions can have had very different provenances; similarly, any group of works that lay together in the exemplar could be far apart in the MS to hand. In others, the arrangement still shows some traces of the earlier sources: Hamm (1962 and elsewhere) has pointed to groups of pieces with consistent origins, which apparently travelled together and have survived together in extant MSS.

Coupled with the codicological evidence, this type of study can sometimes indicate that certain pieces were later additions to the MS: particular arias can be assigned to later performances, or short works inserted into spaces in a MS can be shown to be later in composition or in the versions as copied. In other cases, smaller changes are obviously made later: this is particularly true when corrections or additions are made by a different scribe in a later handwriting, or when a piece of paper has been inserted or pasted over the earlier text. A famous case concerns the revisions made to Don Carlos, in Verdi's hand but clearly later than the original (see Günther, 1972; Porter, 1971–2). There are instances, however, where the decision is much harder. Erasures or corrections of individual notes or words may appear to be in a different ink, but often there is not enough to determine whether they were written by a different scribe. In the case of theSumer canon, the notation seems to have been radically altered, and it has been suggested that the notation of a piece in the Roman de Fauvel was altered by the addition of tails to some notes. Sometimes it is possible to point to deletions from a MS even where erasure has not left evidence on the page. This can be done by bibliographical analysis, detecting pages taken from the source, as in the Fayrfax MS (GB-Lbl Add.5465); by detailed analysis of the contents of the source; or by comparison with a concordant source (especially in the case of partbooks). It is always important to assess whether such changes were made during the process of copying (perhaps as a result of checking for accuracy), or whether they represent a later decision, for example as a result of performing experience.

There is clearly a symbiotic relationship between codicological and paleographical study of a MS, on the one hand, and study of the textual contents, with all their unique or generic features, on the other. The former will almost certainly place the MS more accurately, geographically and historically; it will always provide details relevant to the merits and failings of both the MS and its contents. Study of the contents yields information about the music, about whether this version is acceptable or the directions in which it is biassed, and about its relationship to the versions in other sources. The two, taken together, may well raise a particular MS to the status of an authoritative source, sometimes a unique representation of a performing tradition, sometimes even a holograph; they may equally well relegate it (autograph or not) to an almost irrelevant position in the history of the music it preserves.

7. The content of musical manuscripts.

Because of the unique, ‘one-off’ nature of almost all music MSS, we have to examine and evaluate their contents in ways that differ from our view of printed sources. We can normally assume that any MS had a particular function, and that it was created in response to a specific need. Especially once printed editions became the principal medium for dissemination and use (sometime during the mid-16th century), any MS represents a particular unusual circumstance. Obvious examples include a composer's sketches and drafts, arrangements for special performing ensembles, or repertories which (like that at the Cappella Sistina) were not to be disseminated: but these are only special instances of a more general case. As a result, the details of the music in such MSS will also carry an additional significance. In other words, the MS is a document of unusual historical importance.

With composers' holographs this importance is self-evident, and even extends to the physical appearance of the MS. We feel that we can detect something of Beethoven's personality in the barely legible scrawl with which he covered the pages of his drafts, even coming to see the power of the inspirational force that drove him. In the same vein, we want to read something into the various handwritings and levels of organization and tidiness in other composers' holographs. However, this is far from being the real value of these documents: instead of inspiration, they show us the hard work of composition. A sketchbook by Beethoven or Berlioz, Webern or Stravinsky, shows thematic ideas being noted down, altered and tinkered with, or kept in reserve until a suitable context emerges. The context is itself often the focus of much hard work (visible on the page), as chordal progressions, instrumentation or details of the extensions to melodies undergo a series of changes. For many composers, the following stages of work, often scattered across a number of sources (containing longer sketches and drafts, experimental series of juxtapositions and developments of material), provide the best evidence we have for their musical priorities (Anderson, 1990). Other, complete copies, written when the music was apparently regarded as in an acceptably performable state, still often show changes of detail (and sometimes more). The piano part in the holograph score of Mozart's Piano Concerto k491 famously includes a number of variant versions for passage-work. Significant musical changes can also be found in what are otherwise fair copies of music by Bach, Handel, Schubert, Chopin and virtually every other major composer.

The details on these sources, and (equally importantly) the manner of their presentation, provide musical evidence on two levels: at the more obvious, each gives an insight into a composer's preferences – the merely acceptable giving way to a series of trial improvements, themselves sometimes later rejected. At the same time, the sources tell us a great deal about general compositional procedures and stylistic features of the time. Compositional sketches from the 16th century, while confirming that composers worked phrase by phrase and were concerned with imitation and text-setting, often show little evidence of large-scale thinking (Owens, 1997). The autographs of Mozart or Liszt, however, show in different ways how important formal structures had become for composers. Sketches and drafts by Webern stress the manipulation of the basic material, so that a satisfactory blend of form and content will be achieved, and also indicate the extent to which he was interested in creating a lyrical style: in the same way, his revisions to his fair copies show that musical concerns were always paramount (Meyer and Shreffler, 1996). The preparatory MSS for John Cage's works, though they often contain no musical notation, clearly reveal exactly how he went about creating/preparing a new piece (Pritchett, 1988).

The structure and format of these working holographs are necessarily a product of the special needs of the moment: a composer's first sketches are both more amorphous and more variable than orchestration drafts, and this shows in the layout on the page, and even in the pattern of staves and white space. MSS copied at a later stage in the compositional process will often be more systematic in organization and layout – at least initially: rulings will be more consistent, for example. This organization is still revealing, for it indicates the composer's expectations at the time, perhaps allowing (in the spacing on the page) for further revision, perhaps having to be modified as work progresses. Here, again, detailed study of the document shows that the content of the manuscript carries more information than a single straightforward version of a composition.

Indeed, almost all musical MSS do this. They give us information on several levels: first is the identification, or at least the characterization of the intended recipient or user; second is an indication of the type of use to which the MS will be put, perhaps a liturgical occasion, a Victorian drawing-room soirée, or a professional choral concert; third is some guide to the competence or specific technical weaknesses of the planned users; and finally there is some indication of the level of prestige accorded by the recipient to music in general and to this repertory in particular.

Most MSS will tell a scholar a certain amount about each of these elements of musical culture. MSS that contain anthologies of music will often tell a great deal more. The process of selection usually produces a collection that is homogeneous in one respect or another – music for Vespers, Renaissance love songs, Baroque duets that are suitable for two sopranos, virtuosic (rather than simpler) violin sonatas, or simple folksongs and semi-opera songs from around 1800 and within the range of an amateur singer. These define the function of the music, or the skills and abilities of the performer. The selection will also reveal something of the musical milieu in which the anthologist moved: the motets may be all by Flemings, or musicians working in northern Italy; the violin sonatas may be collected principally from the Netherlands or the Austro-Bohemian orbit; the popular song collection may draw exclusively on material that had been published in London or Dublin just before its compilation.

These are simple, clear-cut cases: for many anthologies the situation is more complex, for the music and its sources or style are more varied: at the same time, analysis of the selection can lead to interesting historical conclusions: a manuscript copied in Rome in the 1510s and containing music by composers working at the French court (I-Fl Acq. e doni 666) is a testament to the popularity of things French in the circles of the then Pope, the Medicean Leo X; the presence of works by Dunstaple and many other Englishmen in the Trent Codices (and other contemporary sources) documents the enthusiasm with which many continental musicians and patrons responded to their music; copies of London stage-songs in a MS copied in Baltimore soon after 1800, or in American Moravian MSS of the same epoch, reflect the continuing enjoyment of English culture in the newly independent American states.

A MS of a single work – one opera, a symphony, a mass – would seem to offer less scope for this sort of historical enquiry, It is true that we can learn less about the milieu in which the MS was prepared, or about local tastes in music. However, such a MS can reveal as much as the anthology can about the affluence of the owner, about his or her musical competence, about the scribe's abilities and accuracy, or about the MS's destination, in performance or archive. Partly this is a result of the level of elegance of the MS, and of any evidence it shows of being intended for (or having been used in) performance.

But even more it is a result of a study of the contents of the MS, which may reflect a particular performing situation. For example, it has been argued that the absence of multiple vocal parts for Bach's Mass in B minor indicates that it was sung by solo voices; and that the lack of cello parts for Mozart's Haffner Serenade result from it having been composed for outdoor performance. An individual MS, after comparison with other sources of the same work, may reveal a different version, or a new set of ornamentation: this can sometimes be assigned to a performer, a city or a local performing tradition. Finally, especially in early music, the ways in which the contents differ from those found in other MSS or editions are a direct reflection of the transmission history of a composition, aiding us in understanding a possible original form and its evolution as tastes changed (see Musicology, §III, 2).

It might seem that the content of some MSS is not significant to the same extent: such sources would be manuscript parts prepared from a score, or the MSS prepared in bulk (especially in 19th-century Italy) for sale in the manner of printed copies. Yet, in their own way, each is strongly indicative of its destination. The parts will carry many details not found in the score, and often will contain significant changes – deletions of sections or the addition of arias to meet local requirements. Recent study of Mahler's performing material for Beethoven's symphonies has provided a detailed picture of the taste of Vienna of the time. Similarly, MSS written in bulk will necessarily contain a very carefully judged assessment of the musical taste and abilities of potential purchasers, usually cultured amateurs.

For all MSS, therefore, study of the content, its arrangement, its defects and derivations from other versions, will present a picture of the user, the intended use, and the place of the music in local society. Coupled with a similar study of the paleography and codicology of the source, this will help to accord a MS its rightful place in the history of taste and style, and in the society which produced it.

8. Manuscripts in musical society.

By virtue of its character, a manuscript presents very precisely the effects of social forces on music and its preservation. By its structure, the quality and level of its presentation, its repertory, its notational complexities or simplifications, its subsequent history, and most importantly its very existence, each manuscript carries evidence of many musical and social issues of its time. The copyist, as much as the originating force (patron, composer or performing institution), is responding to those issues and creating traces that we have recently begun to explore with increasing interest.

An important aspect of the existence of musical MSS, both of their creation and of their survival in collections, involves the interests and concerns of their original (and later) owners. Certainly, for much of the period before 1700, the ownership and use of books (of any sort) conveyed a clear message: at the least, with the possession of a Bible or psalter (in Reformed countries) or a Book of Hours, the implication was that the owner could, and did, read. In many households, there were few other books, although recent research (in, for example, collections of inventories at death) has shown that a surprisingly large proportion of the population did own a few books. At the other end of the spectrum were those who collected, and perhaps needed to use, a library of books. These owners largely fall into three groups – affluent collectors (royalty, nobility and the like) for whom beautiful books were another manifestation of their status; institutions (merchant companies and guilds, legal organizations, cathedrals) which needed manuals, textbooks on accounting, service books, or records of past deliberations, and who regularly produced manuscript accounts of their own decisions and doings; and scholars and professionals (lawyers, theologians, doctors and also members of monastic houses) who needed to have reference collections of scholarship as well as the basic texts and documents.

Most surviving musical manuscripts come from one of these three classes of owners: while this is evidently true for sources from before 1600, it remains so for later sources, if we include composers' manuscripts and professional performers' sets of parts. By contrast, there are few traces of notated music in the possession of the semi-literate or the average working household, at least before the 17th century, when psalters began to be notated and broadsheets with music circulated more widely. But the single major exception to the three categories listed above is that of the performer. While, by the 15th century, professional performers must regularly have owned music (or at least have had access to it, through an institutional collection), amateurs only gradually showed an interest in copying and owning specific compositions. The rapid growth of amateur music-making was primarily supported by the similar expansion in music publishing, and has left only sporadic evidence of manuscripts in amateur possession. A number survive from German-speaking countries, and are a reflection of the different place that music held there after the Reformation, as a necessary and influential part of a general education. Another interesting example involves the presence of a collection of pieces in a 16th-century mariner's anthology (Leech-Wilkinson, 1981), but some other rough-looking books that include music among other items (such as GB-Cu Add.5943) can be shown to have belonged to institutions that would habitually own libraries. This pattern changes with time, of course, so that there are relatively many more MSS from amateur ownership dating from later periods: perhaps lute music is the repertory where this happens first.

For many owners, including institutions, the musical manuscript seems to have carried some special cachet: the idea appears early that the contents are important in some special way. Machaut, writing to Peronne, promises to send her a manuscript of his songs, to be sung exactly as they are copied: the early autograph of Henricus Isaac, with an owner's inscription, must be one of the earliest examples of a musical autograph being valued for itself, as much as for its contents.

But there are other signs that musical manuscripts were highly esteemed, and used for preserving special contents. A number of institutions chose to keep their music in manuscript: the most famous example is that of the Vatican Chapels, made notorious by the story of Mozart copying Allegri'sMiserere after hearing it once. Since the music had not been published (and was in any case by then being sung in a different version), he could not otherwise have studied it. This attitude on the part of the Vatican authorities seems, in fact, to have developed relatively late: the musical repertory was certainly being printed during the 16th and early 17th centuries, although the Cappella Giulia and Cappella Sistina themselves sang from manuscript copies. Indeed, a number of institutions seem to have preferred to keep their music in manuscript, without feeling exclusive about the contents: manuscript copies survive, for the 16th century, from many of the major cathedral sites of northern Italy (Casale Monferrato, Milan, Modena, Padua, Ravenna and Verona), from a number in Germany and further east (Augsburg, Bártfa, Grimma, Jena, Munich, Wittenberg), and from a few in other parts of Europe (Cambrai, 's-Hertogenbosch and Montserrat are representative examples), and in a number of cases it can be demonstrated that these MSS were copied directly from printed editions of the music. In some cases, this may be because the printed sources were only available in a small format (and therefore not convenient for a larger choral body), but this is far from true in every case. The singers, or the institutions themselves, apparently preferred to have MSS copies, even when the printed books were easily available. While there are some cases of major collections of printed editions – for example, the one used by members of the Accademia Filarmonica in Verona – these seem to be in the minority, and to be tied to specific types of function, for analytical study, or more often for amateur music-making. Thus the personal collections amassed by Georg Knoff in Gdańsk or Paston in England were apparently made available to local musicians.

This apparent interest in collecting music in manuscript persists through the 17th and 18th centuries. It has to be distinguished from the very different situation in which whole repertories were deemed not economically viable for printing: Italian cantatas in the 17th century (as opposed to sacred motets and mass settings), solo instrumental music throughout the period (as opposed to ensemble canzonas and ricercars), and parts for orchestral music (as opposed to chamber music). To some extent, there probably was a smaller market for all these repertories: but the pattern sometimes also reflects the phenomenon mentioned above, that the owners of these compositions did not want them to circulate widely. In the case of solo virtuosos, for example, everything was to be gained by keeping show pieces from too wide a dissemination.

Indeed, the act of keeping a composition in manuscript made the music more personal, less ‘public’. The music, or at least the version preserved in the MS, could not circulate among friends and rivals without permission, at least in theory, ignoring the possibility of unscrupulous copyists. Mozart was aware of this last problem, more than once sending MSS to his father with strict injunctions to control the making of other copies. In other cases, the version itself was the important factor, containing personal embellishments and ornaments, providing a different accompaniment, allowing one band or group to develop a distinctive sound. Something of this prestigious nature of the owned MS comes across with the occasional appearance of the name of a purchaser inscribed on the title-page of individual copies of published MSS of Italian arias, with the apparent implication that the MS was individually prepared for the purchaser.

If the possession of musical manuscripts tells something about the status of music, musicians and owners, so do many aspects of the way in which those manuscripts describe and present the music they contain. The pattern of making attributions to composers has changed over the centuries. Several significant instances of change all attest directly to the manner in which the MSS reflect music's status, and are themselves important bearers of social messages. For example, early MSS of polyphonic music rarely cite a composer's name, and many attributions come from elsewhere, from treatises (which do name the authorities they are citing, even when these are composers) or other writings. The first significant exception concerns those collections of songs which are found juxtaposed with poetry, in MSS that are planned primarily as poetic collections. Since poets were named much earlier, and since these sources seem to have served as repositories of the works of major poets, we find names also attached to the musical settings. In most cases, in the trouvère and similar repertories, it is not always clear that the composer was the same person as the poet, and some poems survive with different musical settings in different MSS. Evidently, the poet and his or her poetry still had a status that was not being accorded to the composer and the musical setting, and this holds throughout the greater part of the 14th century. Those works for which we assume the poet was also composer, by Jehannot de L'Escurel or Machaut for example, are regularly collected in, and presented as part of, a poetic anthology. The change to citing composers' names, found towards the end of the 14th century, implies a change in the status of the composer, and of the music vis-à-vis the text. The change can be found in Italian sources, after the mid-century Rossi Codex, and then with increasing frequency. Since these sources supply attributions to earlier composers, it appears that the transition in a composer's status had occurred around the middle of the century (see §viii , below). A similar change can be seen in French sources of the end of the century, with the interesting additional point that many polyphonic settings of liturgical texts also carry composers' names (see §vii ). The change may have occurred even later in central Europe, to judge by the evidence of attributions to Wolkenstein's contrafacta of other composers' chansons. Some of the MSS for all these repertories may be archival copies, preserving the record of compositions of major artists, and others (such as the Squarcialupi Codex) are still arranged as were early poetical sources – with the collected works of each individual gathered together – but the presence of names must be indicative of a new status for music and musicians. No longer, apparently, was music an ancillary feature, a support for the liturgy or the necessary vehicle for poetry: it now had a status of its own, and (as a result) so did the composer.

As the composer acquired status, the habit of assigning composers' names to compositions itself gained in importance, and the message that the given name carries is increasingly significant. One of the ways we know that English composers and styles had gained enormous prestige on the Continent by the middle of the 15th century is that anonymous compositions are freely ascribed ‘de Anglia’, and even added to the catalogue of known composers (not always consistently: the same work can be ascribed to Benet, Dunstaple or Power in different sources). This habit of assigning works to well-known or popular composers continues for at least another century, adding considerably to the bibliographical problems facing scholars of the music of Josquin, for example. In these cases, the MS is telling us more about the status of the composer named, and about the desires of the owners of the source, than it is about the music itself. (There are still echoes of this view in the tendency of modern scholars to want to attribute anonymous works to the most famous of possible composers, and to link significant MSS to their milieux.)

Composers have also, at various times, been given their professional qualification: ‘Dr Bull’ in the early 17th century can be compared with ‘Dr John Stevenson’ in the 19th, or with the addition of phrases such as ‘Master of music at’ in the 18th. Each of these is asserting a certain kind of professional standing for the composer, of competence or brilliance for the composition, and a corresponding authority for the manuscript bearing the annotation.

Similar sorts of changes appear in other periods: one concerns the ways in which dance tunes are titled, the titles changed, and the names of patrons, dancers or composers attached. In the decades around 1600, a composition headed as Almande d'amours in several sources appears asDie schöne Sommerzeit in another; the French Almande Nonette is transferred to England as The Queen's Almaine; the tune Hunt's up also surfaces on the Continent as Anglicum or Ein Anglicum: Kom mein Liebchen. Other works acquire this specific regional association, indicating something about the provenance and fame of the original. For example, Fortune my foe is not the only one of Dowland's works to survive in continental MSS with the epithet ‘Angloise’ or ‘Englesa’. Once again, the adjective implies a criterion of quality, or at least that English dances were admired and collected simply because they were English.

These sorts of changes are not primarily significant, in most cases, for the history of musical style: the compositions are paralleled by others that are similar, and with these others make up a stylistic picture. Rather, the changes and attributions are reflections of the social status of music and musicians, and sometimes of the relative status of music or composers from specific regions.

This evidence can be contrasted with a later phenomenon, found in MSS and printed editions alike, in which the composer's name becomes less important. MSS of the decades around 1800 and later, especially those for amateur use, frequently replace the composer's name with that of the opera or performance from which the music was taken, or of a well-known performer. Certainly, in some cases this practice reflects the printed editions from which the copyist was working, in which the composer's name may be given in smaller letters than the title, the singer's name or the dedicatee's, but this in fact enhances the significance of the pattern. While we could argue that the composer's name was too well-known to need copying, the evidence actually suggests that the performance, and the style of the performer, were more significant to users of the MSS, as indicators of the quality or style of the music.

Conventionally, MSS – and especially composers' autographs – have been studied for what they contain, for the music, for the versions presented, and for any evidence of performance practice. Many details of MSS, however, tell us more about the status of music and musicians, about taste in book-making and collecting, and about types and levels of culture in different strata of society. The appearance of the MS, the ways in which it was constructed and copied, and the ancillary information it carries (rather than the actual notes) are thus central to the history of music within society. MS study, having developed ways of examining musical sources, as outlined above, is increasingly concerned with what a MS represents, as well as what its musical contents represent.


  • O.E.Albrecht: A Census of Autograph Music Manuscripts of European Composers in American Libraries (Philadelphia,1953)
  • S. van Dijk: ‘An Advertisement Sheet of an Early Fourteenth-Century Writing Master at Oxford’, Scriptorium, 10 (1956), 17
  • A.Dürr: ‘Zur Chronologie der Leipziger Vokalwerke J.S. Bachs’, BJb 1957, 5–162; enlarged and pubd separately 2/1976
  • J.P. Larsen: Handel's Messiah: Origins, Composition, Sources(London, 1957, 2/1972/R)
  • H.Kellman: ‘The Origins of the Chigi Codex: the Date, Provenance, and Original Ownership of Rome, Biblioteca Vaticana, Chigiana, C.VIII.234’,JAMS, 11 (1958), 6–19
  • N. Bridgman and F. Lesure: ‘Une anthologie “historique” de la fin du XVIe siècle: le manuscrit Bourdeney’, Miscelánea en homenaje a Monseñor Higinio Anglés (Barcelona,1958–61), 1, 151–72
  • W.Plath: ‘Beiträge zur Mozart-Autographie’, MJb1960–61, 82–117; MJb1976–7, 131–73
  • D.Vaughan: ‘Tradition in Verdi and Puccini’, Opera, 12 (1961), 301–04
  • P.J.Willetts: ‘Music from the Circle of Anthony Wood at Oxford’, British Museum Quarterly, 24 (1961), 71–5
  • C.Hamm: ‘Manuscript Structure in the Dufay Era’,AcM, 34 (1962), 166–84
  • M.Just: ‘Ysaac de manu sua’, GfMKB: Kassel 1962, 112–14
  • A.Ducrot: ‘Histoire de la Cappella Giulia au XVIe siècle depuis sa fondation par Jules II (1513) jusqu’à sa restauration par Grégoire XIII (1578)’,Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire, 75 (1963), 179–240, 467–559
  • A. Tyson: The Authentic English Editions of Beethoven (London,1963)
  • P.Badura-Skoda: ‘Fehlende Takte und korrumpierte Stellen in klassischen Meisterwerke’, NZM, Jg.125 (1964), 635–42
  • W.Shaw: A Textual and Historical Companion to Handel's ‘Messiah’ (London,1965)
  • M.Bent: ‘Initial Letters in the Old Hall Manuscript’,ML, 47 (1966), 225–38
  • M.Huglo: ‘Règlement du XIIIe siècle pour la transcription des livres notés’, Festschrift Bruno Stäblein, ed. M. Ruhnke (Kassel,1967), 121–33
  • K.-H.Köhler: ‘Mozarts Kompositionsweise: Beobachtungen am Figaro-Autograph’, MJb1967, 31–45
  • M.Bente: Neue Wege der Quellenkritik und die Biographie Ludwig Senfls (Wiesbaden, 1968)
  • J.Morehen: The Sources of English Cathedral Music, c. 1617–1644 (diss., U. of Cambridge,1969)
  • P.Gossett: The Operas of Rossini: Problems of Textual Criticism in Nineteenth-Century Opera (diss., Princeton U., 1970)
  • A.Porter: ‘The Making of Don Carlos’,PRMA, 98 (1971–2), 73–88
  • M.Bent: ‘A Lost English Choirbook of the Fifteenth Century’, IMSCRXI: Copenhagen 1972, 257–62
  • U.Günther: ‘La genèse de Don Carlos, opéra en cinq actes de Giuseppe Verdi’,RdM, 58 (1972), 16–64; lx (1974), 87–158
  • R.L.Marshall: The Compositional Process of J.S. Bach: a Study of the Autograph Scores of the Vocal Works(Princeton, NJ, 1972)
  • H.C.Slim: A Gift of Madrigals and Motets (Chicago,1972)
  • M.Staehelin: ‘Eine Florentiner Musik-Handschrift aus der Zeit um 1500: quellenkundliche Bemerkungen zur Frottola-Sammlung Ms. Egerton 3051 des British Museum und zum “Wolffheim-Manuscript” der Library of Congress’, Schweizer Beiträge zur Musikwissenschaft, 1 (1972), 55–81
  • H. Besseler and P. Gülke: Schriftbild der mehrstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, 3/5 (Leipzig,1973)
  • J.Rifkin: ‘Scribal Concordances for some Renaissance Manuscripts in Florentine Libraries’, JAMS, 26 (1973), 305–26
  • E.K. and J.K. Wolf: ‘A Newly Identified Complex of Manuscripts from Mannheim’, JAMS, 27 (1974), 379–437
  • D.Crawford: Sixteenth-Century Choirbooks in the Archivio Capitolare at Casale Monferrato, RMS, 2 (1975)
  • R.Sherr: The Papal Chapel ca. 1492–1513 and its Polyphonic Sources (diss., Princeton U.,1975)
  • B. Stäblein: Schriftbild der einstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, 3/4 (Leipzig,1975)
  • A.Atlas: The Cappella Giulia Chansonnier (Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, C.G.XIII.27) (New York,1975–6)
  • E.A.Keitel: A Chronology of the Compositions of Guillaume de Machaut(diss., Cornell U.,1976)
  • J.Deathridge: Wagner's Rienzi (Oxford, 1977)
  • F.Avril: ‘Les manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut: essai de chronologie’, Guillaume de Machaut: Reims 1978, 117–33
  • The String Quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: Cambridge, MA, 1979
  • R.Bailey: ‘The Method of Composition’, The Wagner Companion, ed. P. Burbidge and R. Sutton (London, 1979), 269–338
  • D.K.Holoman: The Creative Process in the Autograph Musical Documents of Hector Berlioz, c.1818–1840 (Ann Arbor,1980)
  • D.Leech-Wilkinson: ‘Il libro di appunti di un suonatore di tromba del quindecesimo secolo’, RIM, 16 (1981), 16–39
  • C.Reynolds: ‘The Origins of San Pietro B 80 and the Development of a Roman Sacred Repertory’, EMH, 1 (1981), 257–304
  • M.P.Brauner: The Parvus Manuscripts: a Study of Vatican Polyphony, ca.1535 to 1580 (diss., Brandeis U.,1982)
  • I.Rumbold: ‘The Compilation and Ownership of the “St Emmeram” Codex (Munich, Bayersiche Staatsbibliothek, Clm 14274)’,EMH, 2 (1982), 161–235
  • M.Hyde: ‘The Format and Function of Schoenberg's Twelve-Tone Sketches’, JAMS, 36 (1983), 453–80
  • J.J.Dean: The Scribes of the Sistine Chapel, 1501–1527 (diss., U. of Chicago, 1984)
  • M.Gutiérrez-Denhoff: ‘Untersuchungen zu Gestalt, Entstehung und Repertoire des Chansonniers Laborde’, AMw, 41 (1984), 113–46
  • R.Winter: ‘Reconstructing Riddles: the Sources for Beethoven's Missa Solemnis’, Beethoven Essays: Studies in Honor of Elliot Forbes, ed. L. Lockwood and P. Benjamin (Cambridge, MA,1984), 217–50
  • R. Elversand H.-G.Klein: Die Handschrift Johann Sebastian Bachs (Wiesbaden,1985) [exhibition catalogue]
  • D.Johnson,A. Tyler andR.Winter: The Beethoven Sketchbooks: History, Reconstruction, Inventory (Berkeley, 1985)
  • B.J.Blackburn: Music for Treviso Cathedral in the Late Sixteenth Century: a Reconstruction of the Lost Manuscripts 29 and 30 (London, 1987)
  • J.Nádas: ‘The Reina Codex Revisited’, Essays in Paper Analysis, ed. S. Spector (Washington DC and London, 1987), 69–114
  • A.Tyson: Mozart: Studies of the Autograph Scores (Cambridge, MA,1987)
  • J.Kmetz: Katalog der Musikhandschriften des 16. Jahrhunderts: quellenkritische und historische Untersuchung, Die Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek Basel, 4 (Basle,1988)
  • J.W.Pritchett: The Development of Chance Techniques in the Music of John Cage, 1950–1956 (diss., New York U., 1988)
  • R.C.Mueller: ‘Reevaluating the Liszt Chronology: the Case of Anfangs wollt ich fast verzagen’, 19CM, 12 (1988–9), 132–47
  • A.Curtis: ‘La Poppea Impasticciata or, Who wrote the music to L'incoronazione(1643)?’, JAMS, 42 (1989), 23–54
  • S.E.Saunders: The Dating of the Trent Codices from their Watermarks, with a Study of the Local Liturgy of Trent in the Fifteenth Century (New York,1989)
  • R.Anderson: Elgar in Manuscript (London and Portland, OR,1990)
  • M.Everist: ‘From Paris to St Andrews: the Origins of W1’, JAMS, 43 (1990), 1–42
  • C.Eisen: ‘The Mozarts' Salzburg Copyists: Aspects of Attribution, Chronology, Text, Style, and Performance Practice’, Mozart Studies, ed. C. Eisen (Oxford, 1991), 253–307
  • H.-G.Klein: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Componiern – mein einzige Freude und Passion (Wiesbaden, 1991) [exhibition catalogue]
  • H. Oesch, ed.: Quellenstudien I: Gustav Mahler, Igor Strawinsky, Anton Webern, Frank Martin(Winterthur, 1991)
  • A.Roth: Studien zum frühen Repertoire der päpstlichen Kapelle unter dem Pontifikat Sixtus' IV (1471–1484): die Chorbücher 14 und 51 des Fondo Cappella Sistina der Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana (Vatican City,1991)
  • J.Heidrich: Die deutschen Chorbücher aus der Hofkapelle Friedrichs der Weisen: ein Beitrag zur mitteldeutschen geistlichen Musikpraxis um 1500 (Baden-Baden,1993)
  • H.Love: Scribal Publication in Seventeenth-Century England(Oxford, 1993)
  • F. Meyer, ed.: Quellenstudien II: zwölf Komponisten des 20. Jahrhunderts (Winterthur,1993)
  • A.Wendel: Eine studentische Musiksammlung der Reformationzeit: die Handschrift Misc.236a–d der Schermar-Bibliothek in Ulm (Baden-Baden,1993)
  • R.Birkendorf: Der Codex Pernner: quellenkundliche Studien zu einer Musikhandschrift des frühen 16. Jahrhunderts (Augsburg,1994)
  • J.Kmetz: ‘The Piperinus-Amerbach Partbooks: Six Months of Music Lessons in Renaissance Basle’, Music in the German Renaissance: Sources, Styles, and Contexts (Cambridge, 1994), 215–34
  • M.Morrell: ‘Georg Knoff: Bibliophile and Devotee of Italian Music in Late Sixteenth-Century Danzig’, Music in the German Renaissance: Sources, Styles, and Contexts (Cambridge, 1994), 103–26
  • J.A.Owens: ‘An Isaac Autograph’, Music in the German Renaissance: Sources, Styles, and Contexts (Cambridge, 1994), 27–53
  • D.Fallows: Introduction toOxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Canon.Misc.213 (Chicago,1995)
  • F.Carboni and A. Ziino: ‘Un elenco di composizioni musicali della seconda metà del Quattrocento’, Musica Franca: Essays in Honor of Frank A. D'Accone, ed. I. Alm, A. McLamore and C. Reardon (Stuyvesant, NY, 1996), 425–87
  • F. MeyerandA. Shreffler: ‘Performance and Revision: the Early History of Webern's Four Pieces for Violin and Piano, Op.7’,Webern Studies, ed. K. Bailey (Cambridge, 1996), 135–69
  • R.Sherr: Papal Music Manuscripts in the Late Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Centuries, RMS, 5 (1996)
  • L.Somfai: Béla Bartók: Composition, Concepts, and Autograph Scores (Berkeley,1996)
  • J.A.Owens: Composers at Work: the Craft of Musical Composition 1450–1600 (Oxford,1997)
  • C.Page: ‘An English Motet of the 14th Century in Performance: Two Contemporary Images’, EMc, 25 (1997), 7–32
  • R.Riggs: ‘Mozart's Notation of Staccato Articulation’,JM, 15 (1997), 230–77
  • V.Hascher-Burger: ‘Neue Aspekte mehrstimmiger Lesungen des späten Mittelalters: die Lektionen der Handschrift Den Haag, Museum van het Boek/Museum Meermanno-Westreenianum, ms. 10 B 26’,TVNM, 48 (1998), 89–111
  • P.O'Hagan: ‘“Trope” by Pierre Boulez’, Mitteilungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung, 11 (1998), 29–35
  • D.B.Cannata: Rachmaninoff and the Symphony (Innsbruck and Lucca,1999)
  • G.Horlacher: ‘Sketches and Superimposition in Stravinsky'sSymphony of Psalms’,Mitteilungen der Paul Sacher Stiftung, 12 (1999), 22–6

II. Western plainchant

  • John A. Emerson and David Hiley

1. General.

The earliest plainchant sources containing a substantial number of notated melodies, such as CH-SGs 359,F-LA 239, CHRm 47 and Pn lat.1154 and 1240, are usually dated from the end of the 9th century to about 925. Beyond this, only a few scattered texts accompanied with neumes can be dated with relative certainty before the year 890. Distribution of the 10th- and 11th-century plainchant sources throughout medieval Europe follows a general pattern. These fragile books, which became obsolete so quickly, survive most abundantly from those politically stable areas of the Carolingian and Ottonian Empires where humanistic learning and well-established religious communities flourished. By the beginning of the 17th century, when copies of cheaply printed liturgical books conforming to the reforms of the Council of Trent were readily available, the scribal art of laboriously copying them by hand had nearly ceased. Since no modern census of these medieval chant books has ever been undertaken, there is no accurate information on the number of actual physical volumes that are extant. It can be estimated indirectly from the holdings of several large microfilm archives and a survey of library catalogues that probably well over 1800 can be accounted for that date from before the early 1600s.

Plainchant sources can be conveniently grouped either by the nature of their liturgical content or by the type of their musical notations. Liturgical books from western Europe, whether notated or not, belong to one of the six major liturgical rites: Ambrosian, Beneventan, Celtic, Gallican, Mozarabic and Roman. The ancient 7th- and 8th-century Celtic and Gallican liturgies have been transmitted in such non-musical sources as the Stowe Missal, the Antiphoner of Bangor, the Book of Cerne, the Missale gothicum, the ‘Mone Masses’ and several dozen lesser fragments (cited by Gamber, 1963). Except for a few antiphons and Preces occurring in 11th-century Roman books, nothing is known directly of this music. In contrast, the notated sources identified with the early Ambrosian and Mozarabic rites exist in sufficient quantity for their musical repertories to be reconstructed with reasonable accuracy. Comprehensive lists of these Milanese and Spanish sources have been compiled by Huglo and Pinell. No complete sources of Beneventan chant have survived, only fragments of lost books. Further items of Beneventan chant were copied alongside Gregorian pieces in books following the Roman rite.

The great majority of medieval chant books belong to the Roman rite – a remarkably uniform and resilient liturgy considering the diversity of religious devotions that prospered within its general framework. About 80 notated sources are available in modern photographic editions; 17 of these appear in the series Paléographie Musicale. Basic information on nearly 750 Mass chant books has been published by the monks of Solesmes in Le graduel romain, ii: Les sources (1957). In his indispensable Antiphonale missarum sextuplex and Corpus antiphonalium officii, Hesbert prepared comparative textual editions of six early graduals and 12 antiphoners. The earliest troper and proser sources are described by Husmann, and Stäblein edited selected sources of Office hymns. Inventories of important plainchant library collections have been made by Anglès and Subirá, Arnese, Bannister, Bernard, Van Dijk, Frere, Gottwald, Hesbert, Jammers, Stenzl and others. In an important new initiative, inventories of nearly 40 antiphoners have been made available in machine-readable and -sortable form in the project CANTUS directed by Ruth Steiner, and several of them have been published in print. Concise information on many hundred sources is encoded by Hughes (1994–6). As a result of the spate of recent research into tropes, much information on trope sources is to be found in the publications particularly of Planchart (1977) and the volumes of the series Corpus Troporum (see Trope). Useful but rare are lists of sources from particular churches or dioceses, such as those compiled by Hesbert (1955–6) and Villetard (1956). A catalogue of manuscript processionals by Huglo is being published.

The second method commonly used in grouping plainchant sources is their division into categories according to the type of musical notation. Depending on the criteria applied, some 12 to 15 notational families have been clearly identified, each corresponding to a local geographical zone in Europe. Certain groups, such as the Aquitanian, Beneventan and Mozarabic families, display such highly characteristic neumes that classification of these sources poses few problems. On the other hand, the wide variety of hybrid graphic forms used by notators in central and northern Italy greatly complicates their grouping. While all the MSS belonging to a given notational family can be established with relative ease, the task of dating a single MS strictly on the basis of its notation is usually very difficult. A great deal of palaeographical research remains to be done in documenting the metamorphosis from the earliest 10th-century neume forms within each notational family to the point where they evolved into the highly stylized semi-quadratic and square forms that were in wide use by the mid-13th century. Until such processes are understood much more fully, many sources will remain poorly dated. (See also Notation, §III.)

Chant books were functional compilations of religious song designed to embellish the solemnity of a recited liturgy and to meet the needs of specific local customs and observances. Most sources, therefore, faithfully preserve a central core of liturgical and musical practice common to the rite as a whole, but are notable for the variety of their internal structure – a phenomenon totally obscured in modern printed books. Based on content, there are several general categories of plainchant sources. The standard Mass books are the gradual and notated missal. The Office books include the antiphoner and its counterpart, the notated breviary with psalter and hymnal. Some important early sources consist of no more than lists of the chants to be sung. A few early books include only those portions of mass chants sung by a soloist (the verses of graduals and alleluias, tracts and sometimes also the verses of offertories), and such a book is often referred to as a cantatorium. Medieval festal liturgies were often made more solemn by the addition of supplementary chants such as sequences and tropes (including prosulas). (The older term ‘para-liturgical’ for such chants is best avoided, since they were no less liturgical than any others.) Since these were also primarily for solo performance, the term cantatorium is sometimes applied to collections of them. But the term troper is more usual. A collection of sequences is referred to as a sequentiary. (A distinction is sometimes made between the sequentiary, with sequence melodies alone, and proser, with sequence texts or proses.) From the 12th century onwards Mass Ordinary chants (some troped) were often gathered together with sequences, and these collections too are sometimes called tropers, although tropes occupy only a minor part of them. A late term for a collection of Mass Ordinary chants was the kyriale. Processional chants are often integrated into the gradual, or sometimes gathered together in their own book, the processional. To these types of chant book may be added the tonary, a reference work typically establishing the mode of antiphons and the recitation tone and cadence of the psalms they framed. (See Liturgy and liturgical books, §II; see also Hughes, 1982, Huglo, 1988, Hiley, 1993, pp.287–339.)

In practice, elements from these various classes of chant book were brought together into single volumes in nearly every combination by their scribes and notators. Examples of regular antiphoners are F-Pn lat.12044 andD-BAs Liturg.23 (both 12th century). The former adheres to the monastic cursus of 12-respond Offices and the latter displays the characteristic secular Office of nine responds. The Oxford MS GB-Ob Canon.liturg.297 (12th century) is a typical notated breviary with a Calendar and computus. In this type of book the notated chants of the antiphoner are fused with the recited texts of the Office breviary. Among the notated Mass books GB-Lbl Eg.857 (12th century) is a gradual in the conservative tradition of the sacramentary with numbered Masses. Considerably more elaborate isF-Pn lat.903 (11th century), a gradual from St Yrieix near Limoges containing a series of prosulas, processional antiphons, Proper tropes, Ordinary tropes and a substantial number ofprosae. I-Rc 1907 (11th–12th centuries) presents an interesting case where the Offices of the antiphoner and the Masses of the gradual are combined into one integrated liturgical cycle. F-Pn (12th century) is a neatly organized collection of tropes and prosae. In contrast the highly complex troper, tonary, sequentiary and proserPn lat.1084 (10th century) is further complicated by many additions in different hands.GB-Lbl Add.19768 (10th century) is representative of a certain class of plainchant source in that two entirely distinct prosers have been artificially bound together by a bookbinder.

Despite the heterogeneous nature of most plainchant books, a rather uniform bibliographical description of the individual MSS can be made once certain distinctive liturgical features are recognized. The winter and springTemporale (temp.), which is often combined with the feasts for the Sanctorale (sanc.) from December to May, usually terminates with either Whit Saturday, Trinity Sunday or the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost. Easter Sunday marks the liturgical apex of this first part of the liturgical year. It is then usual for the summer sanctoral to follow; this commences with the feast of St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June), or in the case of the Office books with the feast of St John the Baptist (24 June), and terminates with one of several feasts – St Andrew (30 November), St Lucy (13 December) or St Thomas the Apostle (21 December). The 23 to 26 Sundays after Pentecost and the summer histories in the Office books form easily identifiable sections, except in some sources, particularly from Italy, where they are positioned individually among the summer sanctoral feasts. The Masses and Offices for Trinity, Dedication of a Church, and the Dead often served as clear division points between major sections of the liturgical year and are most helpful in clarifying the overall structure of the book. Like the summer Sanctorale and the Sundays after Pentecost, the Common of the Saints was an independent and movable division. Among the German sources, the Common was frequently reduced to a series of alleluias only. Many sources often concluded with votive feasts and prayers. These liturgical formulae, which generally lack melodies, are closely related to the special services found in the bishop’s ordinal, the pontifical. There are few liturgical MSS that do not have missing or added leaves, erasures, changes of textual and notational hands, marginal additions or excisions and supplementary sections. The so-called ‘supplement’ is an unpredictable and often unusually interesting mélange of chants, prayers or rubrics, frequently added by several late hands, and it can appear almost anywhere in a book. Sometimes it is possible to detect a structured order to the ‘supplement’, but it is not uncommon to find a group of more or less optional chants, as, for example, in F-Pn lat.1240, ff.78v–90v (10th century).

In the descriptions of representative plainchant sources given below (based for the most part on data gathered from microfilms), each citation includes a general title for the MS and the basic physical information on number of folios, size, date and type of musical notation. Among the Mass books, a note is made of whether the offertories have verses or not; recognition of this fact can often serve as a useful clue for dating the MS, since during the period 1075–1150 there was a strong trend towards abandoning these verses. Finally, the general contents of each source are given and the descriptions conclude with a selective bibliography of secondary sources. (Items that appear in the main bibliography are cited in abbreviated form.)

2. 9th and 10th centuries.

Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.6 (Ed.III.7). Gradual and proser from St Emmeram, Regensburg; late 10th century. 98 ff.; 29·2 × 24·4 cm. German neumes with significative letters. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–51v: winter and spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 40v); 52–62: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 62–62v: Trinity; 62v–69: Sundays after Pentecost; 69–70v: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 70v–72: Common (alleluias only); 73–89: prosae (texts only) with sequences in the margins; 89v−98v: processional antiphons, Laudes regiae, selected Proper and Ordinary tropes, versus etc. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 30; G. Joppich, ed.: Die Handschrift Bamberg Staatsbibliothek Lit. 6 (Münsterschwarzach, 1986) [facs.]; Hoffmann (1986), 280; G.M. Paucker: Das Graduale Msc.Lit.6 der Staatsbibliothek Bamberg (Regensburg, 1986)Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale, 47. Gradual from Brittany; 9th–10th centuries. 67 ff.; 29·5 × 21·5 cm. Breton neumes with significative letters. Offertories with verses. MS destroyed 26 May 1944. Pp.3–72: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 59); 72–88: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 90–91: Requiem; 91–100: Sundays after Pentecost; 101–2: Trinity; 102–34: alleluias for the liturgical year and sequences. PalMus, xi (1912–21) [facs.]; G. Benoît-Castelli and M. Huglo: ‘L’origine brétonne du graduel no.47 de la Bibliothèque de Chartres’, EG, i (1954), 173–8;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 43; Jammers (1965), 143; D. Hiley: ‘The Sequentiary of Chartres, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms.47’, La sequenza medievale: Milan 1984, 105–17Einsiedeln, Benediktinerkloster, Musikbibliothek, 121(1151). Gradual, processional antiphons and proser, from Einsiedeln; late 10th century. 600 pp.; 15·3 × 11 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Offertories with verses. Pp.1–267: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I (inc.) to Whit Saturday (Easter, 204); 267–310: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 310–13: Trinity; 313–40: Sundays after Pentecost; 340–42: Mass De profundis; 343–54: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 354–70: alleluias for the remainder of the year and Common; 372–416: Rogation and votive processional antiphons; 417–27: communion psalm verses for the liturgical year; 429–33: Notker’sCum adhuc preface; 434–5: Mary Magdalen prosaLaus tibi Christe qui es creator; 436–599: proser (texts only) with sequences in the margins. PalMus, iv (1894) [facs. of pp.1–428]; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 59; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 51; O. Lang and others, eds.: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Graduale und Sequenzen Notkers von St. Gallen (Weinheim, 1991) [colour facs.]Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 239. Gradual from the region of Laon; early 10th century. 89 ff. (ed. in PalMus; 178 pp.). Messine neumes with significative letters. Offertories with verses. Masses are numbered. Pp.1–128: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 103); 128–46: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Simon and St Jude (28 Oct, inc.); 146–7: lacuna; 147–8: Common (inc.); 148: Requiem; 149–64: Sundays after Pentecost; 164–5: Trinity; 166–78: alleluias (MS mutilated at end). PalMus, x (1909) [facs.]; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 57; P. Arbogast: ‘The Small Punctum as Isolated Note in Codex Laon 239’, EG, iii (1958), 83–133; Jammers (1965), 134; L.F. Heiman: ‘The Rhythmic Value of the Final Descending Note after a Punctum in Neumes of Codex 239 of the Library of Laon’, EG, xiii (1972), 151–224; C. Picone: ‘Il “salicus” con lettere espressive nel codice di Laon 239’, EG, xvi (1977), 7–143; M.-C. Billecocq: ‘Lettres ajoutées à la notation neumatique du codex 239 de Laon’, EG, xvii (1978), 7–144London, British Library, Add.19768. Two German prosers bound into one volume. 81 ff.; 17·5 × 14 cm. Ff.4–58v: proser and troper from St Alban, Mainz; dated 968–72. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Ff.59–81v: proser from Tegernsee in Bavaria; early 11th century. Ff.4–23v: last portion of a proser from the summer feasts of St Lawrence (10 Aug) and the Assumption (15 Aug) to the Common and Trinity. Sequences occur in the outer margins; 24–45v: troper; 46–58v: Palm Sunday and Rogation antiphons and litanies; 59–73: partly notated proser; 73v–81: tropes,prosa, Magnificatetc. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 152; Rönnau (1967), 47; Hoffmann (1986), 242Oxford, Bodleian Library, Selden Supra 27. Proser, troper and kyriale probably from Eichstätt or Freising; 11th century. 92 ff.; 17 × 15 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Ff.3–59v: proser with sequences in outer margins, also some neumes over texts, inc. at end; 60–82: Proper tropes and prosulas; 82–90: kyriale with tropes and Greek Gloria and Credo; 90v–92: prosae and troped Ite settings (added). Frere, i (1901), 73; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 163; W. Arlt: ‘Schichten und Wege in der Überlieferung der älteren Tropen zum Introitus Nunc scio vere des Petrus-Festes’, Recherches nouvelles sur les tropes liturgiques, ed. W. Arlt and G. Björkvall (Stockholm, 1993), 13–93, esp. 17Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1084. Troper, tonary, sequentiary and proser from St Géraud, Aurillac, France; sections added at St Martial, Limoges; late 10th century. 335 ff.; 25 × 15 cm. Aquitanian notation. Many additions between the various sections of the MS. Ff.2–38v; prosulas, series I (2–4), series II (4v–38v); 38v–50v: troper, series I (partly notated); 53v–90: troper, series II; 92–124: kyriale with tropes; 124–142v: Proper tropes, series III; 149–151: Regnum tropes; 151–164v: tonary; 165–196: alleluias; 196v−220v: sequentiary; 221–281v: proser, series I; 282–330: proser, series II. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 120; Rönnau (1967), 25; Evans (1970), 50Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1085. Abridged monastic antiphoner from the church of St Salvator, monastery of St Martial, Limoges; probably last quarter of 10th century. 112 ff.; 24·4 × 12·6 cm. Aquitanian notation is largely confined to respond verses. Ff.1–2v and 111–112v: fragments of a rouleau des morts; 3v–72v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 58v); 73–98: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 98–103v: Common; 105–110v: histories (a palimpsest gathering from a processional MS). Catalogue général, i (1939), 393Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1118. Troper, tonary, sequentiary and proser from southwestern France; dated 987–96. 249 ff.; 24·5 × 15 cm. Aquitanian notation. Ff.1–103v: troper Mass chant incipits, temp. and sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 104–113v: tonary; 115–131: prosulas; 131v–143v: sequentiary; 144–247: proser. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 98; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 124; Rönnau (1967), 27; R. Steiner: ‘The Prosulae of the MS Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale’, JAMS, xxii (1969), 367–93; Evans (1970), 51Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1154. Litany, collects and psalms, St Isidore’s Libri synonymorum, and lyric poems, perhaps from Limoges; 9th–10th centuries. 145 ff.; 21 × 16 cm. Ff.99v–143 partly notated with early Aquitanian notation. Ff.1–65v: litany, collects, votive prayers, penitential psalms etc. (texts only); 66–97v: St Isidore’s Libri synonymorum (text only; ed. in PL, lxxxiii, 827–49); 98–143: according to Chailley 32 metrical pieces, some notated, variously titled ‘versus’, ‘planctus’, ‘rhythmus’ and ‘hymnum’. This series ends with the notated prosa to St Martial Concelebremus sacra(142v–143); 143–145:Confiteor, in a different hand (text only). Catalogue général, i (1939), 421; J. Chailley: L’école musicale de Saint-Martial de Limoges jusqu’à la fin du XIe siècle (Paris, 1960), 123–78; S. Barrett: ‘Music and Writing: on the Compilation of Paris Bibliothèque Nationale lat.1154’,EMH, xvi (1997), 55–96Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1240. Part I: troper, proser and hymnal; dated 923–4; part II: sermons, Passions and lives of the saints, dated 12th century, from the church of St Salvator, monastery of St Martial, Limoges. 194 ff.; 22·7 × 16·3 cm. Aquitanian notation with superscript letters and French neumes. Part I, ff.1–98v. Ff.1–10v: ordo for Extreme Unction; 11–16: Calendar; 17–18v: 4 prosae; 18v–38: troper, from Christmas to St Martin (11 Nov); 38–43v: Gloria tropes; 43v–46: 10 (11) prosulas; 46–62: 21 prosae (partly notated); 62v–64v: tonary; 65–66:Laudes regiae; 68–78v: table of Office incipits for Vespers and Matins; 78v–90v: supplement of mixed character containing prosulas, prosae, antiphons, responds, sequences etc. by several notators; 91–96: hymnal (partly notated). Part II, ff.99–194v: sermons, Passions and lives of the saints (notated Office and Mass to St Foy, 185–188v). Catalogue général, i (1939), 459; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 99; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 137; Rönnau (1967), 20; P. Evans: ‘Northern French Elements in an Early Aquitanian Troper’, Speculum musicae artis: Festgabe für Heinrich Husmann(Munich, 1970), 103–10; P. Rutter: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Fonds Latin 1240: a Transcription and Analysis of the Trope Repertory (diss., U. of London, 1993); J.A. Emerson: ‘Neglected Aspects of the Oldest Full Troper (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat.1240)’, Recherches nouvelles sur les tropes liturgiques, ed. W. Arlt and G. Björkvall (Stockholm, 1993), 193–217Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.9448. Gradual from Prüm with tropes and prosae for the principal feasts of the year; MS copied between death of abbot Hilderic (993) and his successor Stephen of Sassenburg (d 1001) (see f.48). 91 ff. Messine notation with some significative letters. A typical Mass from the temp. will have troped introits, Kyrie, Gloria, alleluia, one or more prosae, offertories with verses, a Sanctus and Agnus with tropes, and a communion. Ff.1–52: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Christmas to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 33v); 52v–81: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 81v–89: proser (texts only); 89–89v: prosulas; 89v–91v: Holy Saturday litanies. Rönnau (1967), 43Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.17436. Gradual, sequences, secular antiphoner and Life of St Remigius, from St Corneille, Compiègne; dated 860–80. 109 ff.; scattered bits of notation, ff.3, 24, 81, 109vetc. Ff.1–29: gradual (texts only; ed. Hesbert, 1935, MS C); 29–30: 5 sequences in Messine notation, 10th- or 11th-century additions; 31–107: antiphoner (texts only; ed. Hesbert, 1963–79, i, MS C); 107v–109v: Life of St Remigius, divided into 6 Office lessons. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 109; J. Froger: ‘L’édition mauriste du graduel et les lacunes du “Compendiensis”’, EG, xi (1970), 159–73; J. Froger: ‘Le lieu de destination et de provenance du “Compendiensis”, Ut mens concordet voci: Festschrift Eugène Cardine, ed. J.B. Göschl (St Ottilien, 1980), 338–53St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 359. Cantatorium from St Gallen; dated very early 10th century (before 920). 171 pp. (167–71 are paper); 28 × 12·5 cm. St Gallen neumatic notation with significative letters. Cantatorium contains only the soloist’s chants: graduals, alleluias and tracts. Pp.1–23:prosae, responds, alleluias etc. (12th–13th century); 24–162: cantatorium; 24–118: winter and spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 107); 118–38: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 138–9; Trinity; 139–45: Sundays after Pentecost; 145–52: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 152–8: Common (alleluias only); 158–62: other alleluias; 163–6: 12th–13th-century additions. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); PalMus, 2nd ser., ii (1924) [facs.]; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 132; C. Kelly: The Cursive Torculus Design in the Codex St Gall 359 and its Rhythmical Significance (St Meinrad, IN, 1964); W. Wiesli: Das Quilisma im Codex 359 der Stiftsbibliothek St Gallen (Immensee, 1966)St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 381. Versarium, introit and communion verses, computus, troper, kyriale and proser from St Gallen; second quarter of 10th century. 502 pp.; 14·4 × 11·8 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Main scribe also that of CH-SGs 484. Pp.5–6: Laudes regiae; 6–12: Notker’s letter defining significative letters; 13–22: Glorias, Credo and Pater noster in Greek and Latin; 22–50: versus (series I); 50–141: introit and communion verses; 142–66: versus (series II); 166–9: computus; 170–79: notatedprosae (series I) lacking sequences; 182–7: prosae (series II), texts only, but with sequences in margins; 195–294: troper; 295–318: kyriale with additions; 326–498: proser preceded by Notker’s Cum adhuc preface. Theprosae are partly notated with sequences in the margins. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 133; Froger (1962); RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 42; Rönnau (1967), 41; W. Arlt and S. Rankin, eds.: Stiftsbibliothek Sankt Gallen: Codices 484 & 381 (Winterthur, 1996) [colour facs.]St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 390–91 (‘Hartker Antiphoner’). Monastic antiphoner and tonary copied by Hartker, monk of St Gallen; dated 980–1011. 194 and 264 pp. (numbered 1–458 in PalMus); 22·2 × 16·7 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Pp.1–6, 196–202 and 455–8: tonary; 11–185: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Thursday; 203–16: supplement of Offices; 217–73: Good Friday to the Octave of Pentecost; 273–360: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 360–86: Common; 386–9: Office of St Afra; 389–94: Office of the Dead; 395–420: histories; 420–25: antiphons; 426–38: Sunday after Pentecost; 439–54: Venitesettings. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); Hesbert (1963–79), ii, MS H [edn of text]; PalMus, 2nd ser., i (1900) [facs.]; Huglo (1971), 234St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 484. Troper, kyriale and sequentiary from St Gallen; second quarter of 10th century. 319 pp.; 10·3 × 8·8 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Main scribe of CH-SGs -381 also copied this MS. Pp.4–201: troper; 202–56: kyriale preceded by a Greek Gloria and Credo; 258–97: sequentiary; 298–306: Greek and Latin Gloria, Greek Credo and Sanctus; 307–19: Dedication and St Andrew introit tropes, troped Glorias and fragment of a Greek Credo. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 47; Rönnau (1967), 40; W. Arlt and S. Rankin, eds.: Stiftsbibliothek Sankt Gallen: Codices 484 & 381 (Winterthur, 1996) [colour facs.] Private Collection(‘MS du Mont-Renaud’). Gradual and antiphoner from northern France. 130 ff.; 27 × 20 cm. French neumes. Antiphoner contains both secular and monastic Offices. Text probably written at Corbie, mid-10th century, used at St Eloi, Noyon; neumes added late 10th or early 11th century. Gradual, ff.1–48v. Ff.1–24v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Palm Sunday; 24v–25: extensive lacuna; 25–27v: end of temp. from St Alexander and St Eventius (3 May) to Whit Saturday; 27v–35v; summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 35v–37v: votive, Requiem Masses and Trinity; 37v–43: Sundays after Pentecost; 43–46: processional antiphons; 46–47: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 47v–48: litany. Antiphoner, ff.49–129. Ff.49–96v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (inc.; Easter, 87v); 96v–97: lacuna; 97–116: summer sanc. (beginning missing) from Translation of St Benedict (11 July) and St Lawrence (10 Aug) to St Lucy (13 Dec) and St Nicasius (14 Dec); 116–123v: Common; 123v–128: histories. PalMus, xvi (1955) [facs.];Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 157; G.M. Beyssac: ‘Le graduel-antiphonaire de Mont-Renaud’, RdM, xxxix–xl (1957), 131–50; Huglo (1971), 91

3. 11th century.

Apt, Basilique Ste Anne, 17. Troper and Lives of St Basilius and St Babylas from Apt; 11th century. 380 pp.; 22·7 × 16 cm. Diastematic Aquitanian notation without lines. Offertories with verses. The liturgical year is made up of major feasts only, and the typical Mass contains prosae, prosulas and troped introits, Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. Pp.1–13, 121–4 and 359–67: Life of St Basilius (1 Jan); 367–79: Life of St Babylas (24 Jan); 13–120: major Masses from the first Mass of Christmas to the Purification (2 Feb); 126–58: Easter; 158–224: Easter ferials up to Pentecost Sunday; 225–347: 11 Masses for the summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov) including St Castoris, Bishop of Apt (21 Sept, 285–302); 349–56: Trinity; 356–8: troped Benedicamus and Ite settings. G. Björkvall: Les deux tropaires d’Apt, mss. 17 et 18(Stockholm, 1986); G. Björkvall: ‘La relation entre les deux tropaires d’Apt’, La tradizione dei tropi liturgici: Paris 1985 and Perugia 1987, 207–25Apt, Basilique Ste Anne, 18. Troper, perhaps from northern Italy; 11th century. 106 ff.; 22·5 × 15·3 cm. Perhaps northern Italian neumatic notation (additions in Aquitanian notation ff.33v, 79, 79v, 87v, 88, 88v). Offertories with verses. The liturgical year is made up of major feasts only, and a typical mass contains prosae, prosulas and troped introits, Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. Ff.1–1v: troped Gloria Laus tibi, Domine, celsa potestas(see I-VEcap CVII, f.44) and SanctusDulcis est cantica melliflua; 1v–2v: 9 Office responsories and a troped introit for the Dedication of a Church; 3–58: major Masses for the winter–spring temp. and sanc. from the first Mass of Christmas to Pentecost (Quem queritis, 33v; Easter, 34); 58–84v: 8 Masses for the summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 84v–92: Common, Trinity, Holy Cross and Sundays I–III of Advent; 92–95: 6 prosae, partly notated; 95v–106: prosulas; 106rv: prosa Stetit Michael patrono etc. G. Björkvall: Les deux tropaires d’Apt, mss. 17 et 18 (Stockholm, 1986); G. Björkvall: ‘La relation entre les deux tropaires d’Apt’, La tradizione dei tropi liturgici: Paris 1985 and Perugia 1987, 207–25Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.5 (Ed.V.9). Troper, proser, offertoriale and tonary from Reichenau; dated 1001. 198 ff.; 19·3 × 14·6 cm. German neumes with significative letters. Ff.4v−27: tonary with a lengthy list of Office and Mass incipits; 27v: Notker’s letter defining significative letters; 29–63: Proper and Ordinary tropes; 66–161: notatedprosae with sequences in the margins; 163–186v: offertory verses; 187–188: tonary with a brief list of offertory and communion verses; 188–196: introit psalm verses and ad repetendumverses (texts only). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 30; Froger (1962), 23–72; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 58; Jammers (1965), 82; Rönnau (1967), 44; Huglo (1971), 37; Hoffmann (1986), 311Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.7 (A.II.54) (‘Cantatorium des heiligen Heinrich’). From Seeon (Upper Bavaria); early 11th century (before 1024). 79 ff.; 26·6 × 11·1 cm. German neumes. Cantatorium contains introits, alleluias and tracts. Ff.1–47: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 39); 47–57: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 57–57v: Trinity; 58–61: graduals for Sundays after Pentecost; 61–69v: alleluias primarily for Sundays after Pentecost and the Common; 72–76: Easter antiphons; 76v–78: Laudes regiae. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 30Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.8 (A.II.55) (‘Cantatorium der heiligen Kunigunde’). Probably from Seeon (Upper Bavaria); early 11th century. 63 ff.; 27·7 × 10·9 cm. German neumes. Cantatorium contains graduals, alleluias and tracts. Ff.1v–41: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 37); 41–49: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 49rv: Trinity; 49v–52: graduals for Sundays after Pentecost; 52–61v: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost and the Common. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 30Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, 38. Gradual with tropes,prosae, prosulas and kyriale from Benevento; 11th century. 171 ff. Beneventan diastematic notation with added lines and clefs. Offertories with verses. Beginning of MS lacking. Ff.1–101v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. beginning within the tract De profundis for Septuagesima Sunday to Whit Saturday (Quem queritis, 47v; Easter, 48); 101v–140v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 140v–152: Sundays after Pentecost; 152–154v: several votive and Requiem Masses; 154v–165v: alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost and the Common with prosae and prosulas; 165v–170: supplement consisting of a brief kyriale and a notated litany. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 32; Planchart (1994), xviiBenevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, 39. Gradual with tropes,prosae and prosulas from Benevento; end of 11th century. 195 ff. Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. Beginning and end of MS lacking. Ff.1–13v: Rogation antiphons beginning within Libera, Domine, populum tuum de manu; 14–104: spring temp. and sanc. from Monday of the fifth week of Lent to Whit Saturday (Quem queritis, 28; Easter, 29v); 104–179: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 179v–190: Sundays after Pentecost; 190–195: several votive Masses and Masses of the Dead; 195rv: alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost (inc.). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 33; Planchart (1994), xviiBenevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, 40. Gradual with tropes,prosae and prosulas from Benevento; 11th century. 165 ff. Beneventan notation without lines or clefs. Offertories with verses. Beginning and end of MS lacking. Ff.1–82v: spring temp. and sanc. beginning within the verse of the introit Judica, Domine, nocentes mefor the Monday after Palm Sunday to Whit Saturday (Quem queritis, 20; Easter, 21); 82v–83: lacuna; 83–143: summer sanc. beginning within the Mass for St Vitus and Companions (15 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 143–153: Sundays after Pentecost; 153–157v: several votive Masses and Masses for the Dead; 157v–165v: alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost with prosulas andprosae (inc.). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 33; N. Albarosa and A. Turco, eds.: Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare 40, Graduale (Padua, 1991) [colour facs.]Berkeley, University of California Music Library, 746(‘Wolffheim Antiphoner’). Fragment of a secular antiphoner from the region of Nevers; second half of 11th century. 59 ff.; 28 × 17·5 cm. French neumes on 4 black lines overlaid later with red semi-quadratic neumes. Beginning and end of MS missing. Ff.1–46: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Epiphany (6 Jan) to Trinity; 46–55v: histories; 55v–56: lacuna; 56–57v: Sundays after Pentecost (nos.15–25 only); 57v–59v: summer sanc. feasts of St John the Baptist (24 June) and St Peter and St Paul (29 June) only. P. Wagner: ‘Aus der Frühzeit des Liniensystems’, AMw, viii (1926), 259–76; J. Emerson: ‘The Recovery of the Wolffheim Antiphonal’, AnnM, vi (1958–63), 69–97Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Secular antiphoner of the canonesses of the collegiate church of St Servatius, Quedlinburg; 11th century. 144 ff.; 25 ×19 cm. German neumes with significative letters. Ff.1-6v: Calendar of Quedlinburg; 7–71v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Easter Saturday; 71v–76v: antiphons, responsories for Sundays after Easter, Common of Easter season; 76v–118v: summer sanc. from St Philip and St James (1 May) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 118v–129: Common of the Saints; 129–141v: Dedication, Trinity, histories (inc. at end); 142–144v:Magnificat antiphons (inc. at beginning), antiphons for Sundays after Pentecost. H. Möller: Das Quedlinburger Antiphonar (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, 1990) [facs.]Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Theol.Lat.Quart.15(Rose 693). Gradual written at St Gallen c1030 for Minden Cathedral. Two sister MSS written under the same circumstances also survive: the gradual D-W 1008 Helmst. and the troper and sequentiary Bs (facs. in Tropi carminum, ed. K. Schlager and A. Haug, Munich, 1992). 234ff.; 13 × 10 cm. St Gallen neumes with some superscript letters. Offertories with verses. Ff.1v–162v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 124); 162v–189: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 190v–191: Trinity; 191v–192: Requiem; 194–209v: Sundays after Pentecost; 209v–214v: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 214v–220: Common (alleluias only); 220–233v: processional antiphons. V. Rose:Verzeichnis der lateinischen Handschriften der Königlichen Bibliothek zu Berlin, xiii/2 (Berlin, 1903), 682; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 34Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 72. Notated missal written for the abbey of Lure (Haute-Saône) and used at church of the Madeleine, Besançon; second half of 11th century. 228 ff.; 32·8 × 23·7 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.2v–6v:prosae (texts only); 7–10: Calendar and computus; 12–15v: vesting, entrance, Offertory and Canon prayers; 15–113v: winter temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 95v); 113v–142v: Sundays after Pentecost; 144–188v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 189–192v: Common; 192v–228v: Dedication, Trinity, votives, benedictions etc., generally without notation. Leroquais (1924), i, 173; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 34Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 79. Gradual and proser from Besançon; 11th century. 96 ff. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.2–52v: winter temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 43); 52v–59v: Sundays after Pentecost; 60–78v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 78v–79: Common; 79–80: Dedication; 81rv: Requiem masses; 82rv: brief kyriale; 83–90v: prosae (partly notated); 91–6: votive lessons. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 35Besançon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 143. Notated breviary from St Claude, formerly St Oyan-de-Joux, France; second half of 11th century. 232 ff.; 27·7 × 19 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–122: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning lacking) from Christmas to Trinity (Easter, 87); 122–146: Sundays after Pentecost; 146v–217: summer sanc. from St Urban (25 May) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 217v–221: Dedication; 221–232: Common (inc. at end). Leroquais (1934), i, 136Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, 2679. Calendars, votive missal and rituale from Torcello, nr Venice; end of 11th century. 242 ff.; 21 × 14·5 cm. Occasional chants in Nonantolan notation with no clef lines. Offertories lack verses. Bound to the front of the MS:Kalendarium venetum (‘Romae, Apud Benedictum Francesium, 1773’); 16 pp. and a five-page handwritten index. Ff.3–11v: Calendar and computus tables. Part I (ff.12–102v) selected temporal and votive masses, not arranged by the church year. Part II (103–242) rituale containing confession and funeral liturgies, blessings of water and oils, etc. Ebner (1896), 18; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 36; A. Moderini: La notazione neumatica di Nonantola, i (Cremona, 1970), 53 and pls. 9b–12bBrussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, 2031–2 (Cat.450). Calendar, sacramentary and gradual (inc.) with prosaefrom Stavelot; end of 11th century. 143 ff.; 24 × 16 cm. Messine neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–18v: vesting prayers and Ordinary of the Mass, except Canon; 19–23: Calendar with obituary notices; 23v–27v: Canon; 27v–119v: sacramentary with some notated cues. Gradual, ff.120–136 (Advent to Saturday after Easter is missing). 120–123v: spring temp. from First Sunday after Easter to Trinity; 123v–128: Sundays after Pentecost (nos.18–21 are missing or partly missing); 128–135v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Lucy (13 Dec); 135v: Dedication; 135v–136: Common (alleluias only); 136v–138: notated prosae; 138v–142v: a series of Mass epistles, gospels and votive prayers; 142v: Requiem (added). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 36Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 473 (‘Winchester Troper’). See §IV, 2.Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 391 (‘Portiforium of St Wulstan’). Notated portable monastic collectar from Worcester; dated 1065–6. 724 pp.; 22·5 × 13·5 cm. English neumes. Pp.3–23: Calendar and computus; 24–227: psalter; 227–78: hymnal; 279–92: canticles; 295–560: notated collectar; 560–617: blessings, ordeals, private prayers in Latin and Anglo-Saxon; 621–99: collectar, Common of the Saints (series II) with full Offices; 700–12: Offices of the Holy Cross, BVM, for Saturday and the Dead; 713–21: prognostications in Anglo-Saxon; 723–4: O antiphons. E.S. Dewick and W.H. Frere:The Leofric Collectar, ii, Henry Bradshaw Society, lvi (London, 1921); A. Hughes: The Portiforium of Saint Wulstan, Henry Bradshaw Society, lxxxix–xc (Leighton Buzzard, 1958–60) [edn of texts only]Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 1946. Combined sacramentary and gradual from Echternach; dated c1030. 278 ff.; 23·6 × 16·7 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–17: vesting, entrance and offertory prayers, Gloria and Credo (texts only), and Preface and Canon; 19–165v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 146); 165v–183: Sundays after Pentecost; 183–184v: Trinity; 184v–186: Dedication; 186–187: Holy Cross Mass Nos autem gloriari; 187–235: summer sanc. from St Tiburtius and St Valerian (14 April) to St Chrysogonus (24 Nov); 235–241v: Common; 242–277v: votives. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 47; Eizenhöfer-Knaus (1968), 33; K.H. Staub, P. Ulveling and F. Unterkircher, eds.:Echternacher Sakramentar und Antiphonar(Graz, 1982) [colour facs.]Durham, University Library, Cosin V.V.6. Gradual, kyriale, tonary and processional of Christ Church, Canterbury, with prosae added at Durham; last quarter of 11th century. 115 original and 13 added ff.; 16 × 10·5 cm. Non-diastematic Anglo-Norman notation which has been erased in a number of places especially in the Advent and Eastertide sections of the MS. Offertories with verses. Ff.2–8v: 11prosae (added); 9–19: 9 Kyries and 13 Glorias; 19v–21: Laudes regiae; 22–93v: temp. from Advent I (imperfect) to Pentecost XXIII; 93v–95: Trinity; 95–99v: Dedication; 100–109v: sanc. from the Vigil of St John the Baptist (23 June) to the Octave of the Assumption of the BVM (22 Aug); 110–113: 6 Sanctus and 10 Agnus; 114–119v: antiphons and other music for processional use; 120–123: tonary; 123v–129v: processional antiphons and 4 prosae(added). K.D. Hartzell: ‘An Unknown English Benedictine Gradual of the Eleventh Century’, Anglo-Saxon England, iv (1975), 131–44Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, LX (91). Gradual probably from Pavia; mid-11th century. 157 ff. Italian neumatic notation. Offertories with verses. The major Masses contain prosae, prosulas and troped Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. Ff.1rv:Liber generationis Gospel and troped Sanctus and Agnus (addns); 3v: Gregorius presul meritus prologue; 3v–97: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 70v); 97–123: summer sanc. from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 123–127: votive Masses; 127–129v: Masses of the Dead; 128v–139: Sundays after Pentecost; 139–140v: Trinity; 140v–147: Benedictus andMagnificat antiphons for the Sundays after Pentecost (Hesbert, 1963–79, no.144); 147–155v: processional antiphons; 156–157: incomplete Office of the Finding of St Stephen (added). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 54Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 236(388). Partly notated missal from Reims; late 11th century. 198 ff.; 25 × 19 cm. French neumes (ff.1–119v); Messine neumes (120–89). Offertories with and without verses, especially after f.120. Ff.1v–4: Calendar; 5–6v: litany; 7–12v: baptism services, exorcisms and Liber generationis; 13–91v: winter temp. from Vigil of Christmas to Whit Saturday (Easter, 73); 91v–112v: Sundays after Pentecost; 112v–119: Advent Masses; 119rv: Trinity; 120–189: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 189–198v: special sanc. and votive Masses (primarily texts). Leroquais (1924), i, 129;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 56London, British Library, Add.30850. Monastic antiphoner and tonary of the Roman rite from Silos; 11th century. 243 ff.; 38 × 24 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes with additions in Aquitanian notation. Ff.1–5v: Dedication Office etc. (added); 6–141: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 104v); 141–145: Sundays after Pentecost; 145–188: sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 188v–204: Common; 204–215v: histories; 215v–217v: Office of the Dead; 217v–222: Venite settings; 223v–234v: appx of a mixed character; 235–241v: tonary. Hesbert (1963–79), ii, MS S [edn of text only]; I. Fernández de la Cuesta, ed.: Antiphonale silense: British Library Mss. Add.30.850 (Madrid, 1985) [facs.]London, British Library, Cotton Caligula A.XIV. Troper; Mass Ordinary chants with proser; Lives of St Martin, St Thomas and St Mildred. 130 ff.; 22×13·2 cm. The MS consists of 3 distinct parts. Part I (ff.1–36v): Proper tropes for major feasts, many illustrations, many lacunae; probably copied at Winchester for Worcester, dated third quarter of 11th century; English neumes. Part II (ff.37–92v): Kyrie, Gloria and Sanctus tropes (37–42v) and a proser (43–92v), inc. at end; copied at Worcester; dated late 12th century; English quadratic notation on four red lines. Part III (ff.93–130v): Lives of St Martin, St Thomas and St Mildred in Anglo-Saxon, inc. at beginning and end. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 154; Planchart (1977); E.C. Teviotdale: The Cotton Troper (London, British Library, Cotton MS Caligula A.xiv, ff. 1-36): a Study of an Illustrated English Troper of the Eleventh Century (diss., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1991)London, British Library, Harl.2961 (‘Leofric Collectar’). Notated Office collectar with hymnal and proser from Exeter; 11th century (copied under Bishop Leofric of Exeter, d1072). 256 ff.; 21·5 × 13·5 cm. English neumes. Ff.2–110v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 84); 110v–152v: summer sanc. from the Vigil of St John the Baptist (23 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 154–177v: Sundays after Pentecost; 177v–184v: histories; 186–215: Common; 215–217v: Dedication; 218–251: hymnal; 251–256: inc. proser. E.S. Dewick and W.H. Frere:The Leofric Collectar (Harl. MS.2961), Henry Bradshaw Society, xlv (London, 1914); lvi (London, 1921) [edn of text only]; Jammers (1965), 114London, British Library, Harl.4951. Gradual and tonary from Toulouse bound with the sermons of Jean d’Abbeville; 11th century. 301 ff.; 36·5 × 27·5 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–118v: Jean d’Abbeville Sermones dominicales; 121v–249v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 215); 250v–264: Sundays after Pentecost; 264–294: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 295v–301v: tonary, inc., only into 6th tone. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 64Modena, Duomo, Archivio Capitolare, O.I.7. Gradual and kyriale with tropes and prosae from Forlimpopoli, nr Ravenna; late 11th century. 225 ff. North Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–28 are badly mutilated, ff.29 and following less so. The Masses are largely complete and often contain Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus and Agnus tropes, prosae, prosulas, Fraction antiphons etc. Ff.1–149: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 104v); 149v–182v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 182v–187v: ordination, Pro iter agentibus and Requiem Masses; 188–202: Sundays after Pentecost; 202–203v: Trinity; 204v–210: kyriale with tropes; 210–225v: supplement of votive Masses, prosae, tropes etc. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 72Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médicine, H159. Tonary of Mass chants from St Bénigne, Dijon; 11th century. 163 ff.; 30·4 × 23·3 cm. Double notation: French neumatic and alphabetical (musical scale lettersa–p). Pp.3–7: lists of alleluias and tonary of Office antiphons; 9–10: monastic Office of St Urban. Pp.13–313: tonary in double notation arranged by liturgical classes and musical modes. 13–94: introits and communions; 97–127: alleluias; 127–38: tracts; 143–90: graduals; 191–297: offertories; 298–306: tracts; 307–13: processional antiphons; 315–16: inc. Office of St Blaise; 318–22: Office of St Hylarius. PalMus, vii–viii (1901–5) [facs.]; M. Huglo: ‘Le tonaire de St-Bénigne de Dijon’,AnnM, iv (1956), 7–18; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 75; Jammers (1965), 112; F.E. Hansen: H 159 Montpellier, Tonary of St Bénigne of Dijon (Copenhagen, 1974) [edn]Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 14083. Proser, cantatorium, troper and kyriale from St Emmeram, Regensburg; dated 1031–7. 128 ff.; 32 × 14 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–6v: notated Gloria, prosaLaus tibi Christe qui es creator (text only), Humili precelitany, Exultet jam for Holy Saturday and Preface for Holy Saturday V.D. invisibilem Deum; 7–38v: prosae (texts only) with sequences in the margins; 39–61: graduals and tracts; 63–80: alleluias; 80v–99v: Proper tropes, processional antiphons, versus, Laudes regiae (92v) and Greek Gloria, Credo and Sanctus; 110rv: Ordinary tropes; 111–127: offertory verses; 128rv: troped Ites. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 80; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 74Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 14322. Proser, cantatorium, kyriale and prosulas from St Emmeram, Regensburg; dated 1024–8. 156 ff., 29 × 12 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–5v: Greek Gloria, Laudes regiae no.1 and Greek Credo and Sanctus; 5v–12v: alleluia prosulas; 13–14: prosaLaus tibi Christe qui es creator (text only); 15rv: Notker’s Cum adhuc preface; 16–44: prosae(texts only) with sequences in the margins; 45–75v: graduals and tracts; 76rv:versusBenedictus es Domine; 77–98: alleluias; 98v–99v: Laudes regiaeno.2 (text only); 100–119v: kyriale with introit tropes; 121–146v: offertory verses; 147–156: offertory prosulas; 156rv: Gloria. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 80; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 77Oxford, Bodleian Library, Bodley 775 (2558) (‘Winchester Troper’). Cantatorium from Winchester (Old Minster); mid-11th century with late 11th- and early 12th-century additions. 191 ff.; 27·3 × 16·7 cm. English neumes. (Anglo-Norman neumes and staff notation among additions; some of these scribes also worked inGB-Ccc 473: see §IV, 2.) Ff.8–181v: main corpus. Ff.8–61v: tropes for Mass Proper chants together with verses for graduals, alleluias and offertories, also some sequences; 61v–75v: Mass Ordinary chants, mostly troped; 76–87v: alleluias; 88–97: tracts; 97–121v: offertory verses; 122–129: sequentiary; 136–181v: proser (notation often erased, sometimes rewritten). Additions, various scribes, late 11th and early 12th centuries. Ff.1–7v: principally troped and untroped Kyries and Gloria tropes; 87v: alleluias; 121v: troped Agnus; 129–135v: proses; 182–190: mostly proses. W.H. Frere, ed.: The Winchester Troper, Henry Bradshaw Society, viii (1894/R); RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 158; A. Holschneider: Die Organa von Winchester (Hildesheim, 1968); A.E. Planchart:The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester(Princeton, NJ, 1977)Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon.liturg.366(19450). Gradual and notated secular breviary from Brescia; 11th century. 284 ff.; 30 × 18·6 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories lack verses. Gradual, ff.1v–36v. Ff.1v–26v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 22); 26v–32v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 32v–36: Sundays after Pentecost; 36rv: Trinity. Breviary, ff.39–284. Ff.39–179: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 149); 179–239v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 239v–251v: Common; 251v–254: Dedication; 254–257: St Nicholas; 260–262: Sundays after Pentecost; 262–281v: histories combined with the lessons for the Sundays after Pentecost (order 1–8, 16–21, 9–15 and 22–3); 281v–284: Trinity. Frere, i (1901), 76; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 89; S.J.P. Van Dijk and J.H. Walker: The Origins of the Modern Roman Liturgy (London and Westminster, MD, 1960), 354; M.T. Rosa Barezzani: La notazione neumatica di un codice Bresciano (secolo XI) (Cremona, 1981)Oxford, Bodleian Library, Douce 222 (21796). Troper, proser, offertoriale and processional from Novalesa, Italy; 11th century. 207 ff.; 14 × 8·5 cm. Novalese neumes. Ff.2v–37: troper containing a mixture of Mass chant incipits, introit tropes, Gloria tropes, gradual, alleluia and offertory verses, tracts, prosulas etc. grouped by major feasts; 37v–43: Kyrie tropes; 43–54v: Gloria tropes; 54v–70: alleluias and alleluia prosulas; 70–75: Rogation litany Pater de caelis and mass; 75–80: Vigil of Ascension Mass and litany; 80–81v: Assumption prosa Aurea virga; 82–101v: proser (inc. at end); 102–172v: offertories with verses; 172–174: offertory prosulas; 174–205: processional antiphons. Frere, i (1901), 72; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 88; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 160Paris, Bibliothèque Mazarine, 384(748). Notated gradual (ff.1–158v) and a list of incipits for a monastic antiphoner without notation (163–199v) from St Denis, Paris; 11th century. 208 ff.; 27 × 15·2 cm. French neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–113v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning lacking) from the Vigil of Christmas to Whit Saturday (Easter, 95v); 113v–138v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 139–152v: Sundays after Pentecost; 152v–153v: Trinity; 153v–154: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 155–158v: Requiem Masses; 158v–159v, 161v–162v and 208rv: ordines; 160–161v: 12 notated responds for the Office of St Denis; 163–199v: an abbreviated monastic antiphoner consisting of a table of Office incipits without notation; 201–203 and 204v–207v: notated Rogation antiphons and litanies. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 92; Bernard (1965–74), ii, 17; R.-J. Hesbert, ed.: Le graduel de Saint-Denis(Paris, 1981) [facs. of gradual]Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.776. Gradual with prosulas and tonary probably from St Michel, Gaillac, nr Albi; c1079. 155 ff.; 40·5 × 27·7 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. Ff.3–95v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 71v); 95v–123: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 123–124: ordination Masses; 125–134: Sundays after Pentecost; 134–135v: Trinity; 135v–136: 3 Pro iter agentibusMasses; 136: nuptial Mass; 136–138v: Requiem Masses and Preces; 139–145v: processional antiphons; 147–155v: inc. tonary, only into 5th tone. Catalogue général, i (1939), 270; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 93Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.780. Gradual and tonary from the Cathedral of SS Just et Pastor, Narbonne; probably shortly after 1081. 130 ff.; 37 × 27 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–86v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 69); 87–106v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 108–118: Sundays after Pentecost; 118v–122v: votive Masses including the chants for the Reconciliation of a Violated Church, which probably relate to the excommunications of Guifred of Cerdagne, Archbishop of Narbonne (d 1079). References to the patron saints of Narbonne, St Paul of Narbonne and St Just and St Pastor: ff.25, 25v, 63, 76v, 80. Catalogue général, i (1939), 272; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 94; M. Gros: ‘El ordo romano-hispánico de Narbona para la consagración de iglesias’,Hispania sacra, xix (1966), 321–401Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.887. Troper, kyriale, sequentiary and proser from ?Aurillac, later in Limoges; early 11th century. 158 ff.; 27 × 19 cm. Aquitanian notation. Ff.1–6: troped Kyrie, Glorias, Credo and Holy Week chants (different hand); 8–45: Proper tropes; 45v–46v: 12 tropedBenedicamus settings; 47–69: Kyries, Credo Credimus, Sanctus, Agnus and Ites with and without tropes; 69v–86v: troped Glorias andRegnum settings; 87–95: sequentiary; 96–155: proser; 155–157v: Rogation and Mandatum chants (different hand). Catalogue général, i (1939), 314; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 117; Rönnau (1967), 29; Evans (1970), 52Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.903. Gradual with prosulas, processional antiphons, troper, kyriale and proser from St Yrieix, nr Limoges; probably second half of 11th century. 204 ff.; 40·5 × 31·5 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–94v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 76v); 94v–116v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov), St Elegius (1 Dec) and St Valeria of Limoges (10 Dec); 117rv: nuptial mass; 118–119v: Requiem masses; 119v–130v: Sundays after Pentecost; 130v–132: Trinity; 132–133: Dedication; 133v–147v: processional antiphons and Preces; 147v–163: troper; 163–179v: kyriale with Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 180–203v: proser. PalMus, xiii (1925) [facs. of ff.1–147];Catalogue général, i (1939), 320; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 96; Chailley (1957), 172; Rönnau (1967), 26; Evans (1970), 53; C.W. Brockett: ‘Unpublished Antiphons and Antiphon Series found in the Gradual of St-Yrieix’,MD, xxvi (1972), 5–35Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.909. Troper, sequentiary, versicular and tonary from St Martial, Limoges; c1025–30. 277 ff.; 26 × 16 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. MS bound incorrectly (correct order given here). Ff.1–8v: added gathering with miscellaneous chants; 9–61v: Proper tropes; 65–85v: substitute gatherings (for contents see Emerson); 86–104v: Gloria and Regnum tropes; 105–109v: Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 190–197v, 174–189v and 166–167: alleluias; 168v–173v and 142–165v: processional antiphons for Holy Week, Rogations and major feasts; 110–125v: sequentiary; 126–140: tracts; 198–205: 2 prosae and aversus to St Martial; 206–245v: offertories with verses; 251–257v: tonary; 260v–268v: antiphons for Sundays after Pentecost; 270–275v: Trinity Office. Catalogue général, i (1939), 322; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 118; J.A. Emerson: ‘Two Newly Identified Offices for Saints Valeria and Austriclinianus by Adémar de Chabannes’, Speculum, xl (1965), 31–46; Rönnau (1967), 23; Evans (1970), 48Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1087. Gradual, kyriale, proser and sequentiary, from Cluny; 11th century. 118 ff.; 23·5 × 16 cm. French neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.2–72v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 37); 72v–86v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 86v–95v: Sundays after Pentecost; 95v–96: Trinity; 96–97v: Requiem Masses; 98–101v: kyriale with some tropes; 102–108: brief proser with sequences in the margins; 108–111: sequentiary; 112v–115: Office of St Odilon (ed. Hesbert); 116v: 3 troped Benedicamussettings. Catalogue général, i (1939), 394; R. Hesbert: ‘Les témoins manuscrits de culte de saint Odilon’, A Cluny: Congrès scientifique: Cluny 1949, 51–120; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 97; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 123; D. Hiley: ‘Cluny, Sequences and Tropes’, La tradizione dei tropi liturgici: Paris 1985 and Perugia 1987, 125–38; M.P.R. Ferreira:Music at Cluny: the Tradition of Gregorian Chant for the Proper of the Mass: Melodic Variants and Microtonal Nuances (diss., Princeton U., 1997)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1119. Troper and proser with sequences from St Martial, Limoges; dated c1030. 251 ff.; 22·5 × 13·4 cm. Aquitanian notation. Ff.4–81: Proper tropes; 84–88v: Kyrie tropes; 90–139: Gloria and Regnum tropes; 140–243v: prosae containing sequence melismas; 244–248: Sanctus tropes; 248v–250: Agnus tropes; 250v–251v: AssumptionprosaAurea virga(added). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 126; Rönnau (1967), 24; Evans (1970), 49Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1120. Troper, proser, processional and offertoriale from St Martial, Limoges; early 11th century. 221 ff.; 23 × 10·5 cm. Aquitanian notation. Polyphonic elements, ff.73v, 77v, 78v, 80v, 81, 104v–105v. Ff.1–66v: troper; 67–72v: Kyrie tropes; 73v–78v: Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 82–102v: Gloria andRegnum tropes; 106–153v: proser; 154–183v: processional; 184–213v: offertory verses; 217–219: Office of St Valericus (see also ff.103–4). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 98; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 128; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 401; Rönnau (1967), 21; Evans (1970), 47Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1121. Troper, sequentiary, offertoriale, alleluias and proser fragments from St Martial, Limoges; early 11th century. 247 ff.; 26·5 × 17 cm. Aquitanian notation. Ff.180–231v bound out of order. Ff.2–41v: troper, inc. at end; 42–57v: Gloria andRegnum tropes, inc. at end; 58–72v: sequentiary, inc. at beginning; 73–86v: tracts; 86v–89: benedictiones; 90–137: offertories with verses; 138–174: processional antiphons and Preces; 174–176v: 3 Venite settings; 176v–178: Lamentations of Jeremiah for Holy Saturday; 178–179v: Office antiphons for Sundays I–IV after Epiphany; 179v, 218–223v: multiple Office alleluias (Hesbert (1963–75), iii, nos.1327–38); 223v–229: monastic Trinity Office; 229v–230: Extreme Unction antiphons; 230–231v: Ember Saturday Office antiphons De tribus pueris; 210v–217v, 180–186v: Mass alleluias for the year, inc. at end; 187–195v: Office antiphons for Sundays I–XXVI after Pentecost; 196–201v: proser fragment no.1, beginning lacking; 201v–206v: tonary; 207–10: monastic Office of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 Sept); 232–239v:versus of Abraham and Joseph; 240–243: proser fragment no.2, beginning lacking; 243–245v: Ember Saturday blessing Benedictus es in firmamento celi; 245v–246: Kyrie tropes; 246v–247: prosaLaudiflua cantica (added). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 98; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 130; Rönnau (1967), 22; Evans (1970), 119 [edn of tropes]Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1132. Gradual, kyriale and proser from St Martial, Limoges; late 11th century (after 1063). 146 ff.; 25 × 16 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories with verses. Ff.5–78: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 60v); 78–95v: summer sanc. from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 95v–106: Sundays after Pentecost (alleluia cycle follows Cluniac use); 106v–107v: Requiem; 107v–113v: kyriale with troped Sanctus and Agnus; 113v–131, 132–144: proser in 2 series; 144–145v: supplement of Masses. Catalogue général, i (1939), 413; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 99Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1137. Proser, sequentiary, kyriale and cantatorium from St Martial, Limoges; dated c1030. 167 ff.; 20 × 13 cm. Aquitanian notation. Ff.1–24v: alleluias; 25–38v: kyriale with troped Sanctus and Agnus; 39–51: sequentiary; 51v–109: proser; 110v–115: gradual verses; 118–164: offertory verses. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 135Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.9435. Notated missal (inc.) from St Pierre, Maillezais; 11th century. 288 ff.; 34 × 23·5 cm. The original French neumes have been systematically erased and replaced with small 12th-century quadratics on 4 black lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–165: winter temp. from Christmas to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 127v); 165–204: Sundays after Pentecost; 207–15: Advent Sundays I–IV; 217v–219: Dedication; 219–220: Trinity; 220–227v: votives; 228–288v: S (inc.) from Holy Innocents (28 Dec) to St Cornelius and St Cyprian (16 Sept). Leroquais (1924), i, 184;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 101Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.9436. Notated missal from St Denis, Paris; mid-11th century. 165 ff.; 31 × 23 cm. French neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1v–2v: Ordinary chants, with Glorias and Credo in Greek and Latin; 3v–4v: complete Calendar; 5–12: ordo missae, vesting and Ordinary prayers; 13v–18: Canon no.1; 18–59v: winter temp. from Vigil of Christmas to Saturday after Trinity Sunday (Easter, 50v); 59v–67: Sundays after Pentecost; 67–70: Advent Sundays V, I–IV; 71–116: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 116–119v: Common; 120v–121v: Dedication; 123v–125v: Canon no.2; 127v–165: votive Masses and Masses and prayers for the Dead (texts only). Leroquais (1924), i, 142; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 101Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.9449. Troper and proser with Mass chant incipits from Nevers; dated c1060. 100 ff.; 27 × 13·5 cm. French neumes. A typical Mass might include several troped introits, a troped Kyrie and Gloria, an alleluia with a prosula, one or moreprosae, an offertory with verses and a troped Sanctus and Agnus. Ff.1–54: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 35 and Laudes regiae, 36v); 54–75: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 75–76v: St Benedict (texts only); 76v–78v: Dedication; 78v–79: St Cyricus, patron of Nevers; 79v–84: Sundays after Pentecost (alleluia cycle as F-Pn lat.1235); 84: Trinity; 84rv: Marian MassSalve sancta parens; 84v: Holy CrossNos autem gloriari; 84v–89v: prosae, with and without melodies; 91–98v: sermon of St Augustine. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 102; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 140; Rönnau (1967), 33; N.M. Van Deusen:Music at Nevers Cathedral: Principal Sources of Medieval Chant (Henryville, PA, 1980); E.J. Reier: The Introit Trope Repertory at Nevers: MSS Paris B.N. lat.9449 and Paris B.N. (diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 1981)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.10510. Monastic troper, proser and abbreviated gradual from Echternach; end of 11th century. 117 ff. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1v–22: introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Regnum, Sanctus and Agnus tropes grouped by feasts and arranged according to the liturgical year; 23v–72: 50 prosae (texts only) with sequences in the margins. Ff.73v–117, an abbreviated gradual containing only the major feasts. The Lenten ferials, Holy Week services, the Sundays after Epiphany, Easter and Pentecost and the Common of the Saints are lacking. Ff.73v–107: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Christmas to the Wednesday after Pentecost (Easter, 96); 107–117: summer sanc. consists of 12 major feasts from St Philip and St James (11 May) to St Andrew (30 Nov). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 103Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Cantatorium and proser from southern France; end of 11th century. 89 ff.; 28·8 × 12·4 cm. Aquitanian notation with later additions. Many changes of neume hands. Final folios bound in upside down. Ff.2–9: miscellany ofprosae, Regnum settings, troped Kyries etc.; 9v–14: offertories with verses; 14–15: Kyries without tropes; 17–28: gradual verses; 28–43v: alleluias; 43v–51: tracts; 53–77v: 27 prosae by several different hands; 78–86: supplement of 15prosae (added 12th–13th centuries). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 110; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 145Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Troper, sequentiary, proser and prosulas perhaps from Moissac; end of 11th century. 178 ff.; 29·1 × 19 cm. Late Aquitanian notation. Ff.1v–41v: Proper tropes; 43v–49: Kyrie tropes; 52v–55: Sanctus tropes; 55v–57: Agnus tropes; 60–76: Gloria tropes; 76v–87: sequentiary; 88–91v: 7 prosae; 92–170v: proser, inc. at beginning (commences within Regnantem sempiterna); 171–178v: about 65 prosulas, inc. series breaking off at the end with few melodies and no rubric cues. C. Daux: Deux livres choraux monastiques des Xe et XIe siècles (Paris, 1889) [contains a misleading inventory]; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 145; Rönnau (1967), 32Rome, Biblioteca Angelica, 123 (B.3.18). Computus tables, gradual, processional antiphons and troper-proser from Bologna; first half of 11th century. 268 ff.; 26·4 × 17·4 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–16v: 2 computus tables and Calendar of movable feasts; 17–112v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 112v–113: lacuna; 113–128v: Easter Thursday to Vigil of Pentecost; 128v–129: lacuna; 129–146: inc. summer sanc. from St Donatus (7 Aug) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 146–152v: votives and Masses for the Dead; 153–166: Sundays after Pentecost (double series of alleluias); 166–167: Trinity; 167–183v: processional antiphons; 184–265v: prosulas, Proper and Ordinary tropes andprosae. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 119; L. Gherardi: ‘Il codice Angelica 123 monumento della chiesa bolognese nel sec. XI’, Quadrivium, iii (1959), 5–114; PalMus, xviii (1969) [facs.]; A. Kurris: ‘Les coupures expressives dans la notation du manuscrit Angelica 123’, EG, xii (1971), 13–63; M.T. Rosa Barezzani and G. Ropa, eds.: Codex Angelicus 123: studi sul graduale-tropario bolognese del secolo XI e sui manoscritti collegati (Cremona, 1996)Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Lectionary, gradual and proser from St Etienne, Besançon; mid-11th century (before 1066). 243 ff.; 19·7 × 14·5 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. F.3: list of bishops of Besançon; 4–132v: lectionary (texts only); 135–136: Laudes regiae(texts only); 136–193v: winter temp. of the gradual from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 182v); 193v–201: Sundays after Pentecost; 201v–222v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 222v–227: Common, Dedication, votives, Requiem, kyriale; 227v–243v: notated proser. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 124; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 43Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Partly notated missal from S Bartolomeo, Musiano, nr Bologna (?or Subiaco); 11th century. 254 ff.; 34·5 × 27 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories with verses. Melodies generally confined to ff.1–92v (Advent to Good Friday). Ff.2–114v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning missing) from Christmas Mass Lux fulgebitto Holy Saturday; 114v–117: Preface and Canon; 117–152v: Easter to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 152v–215: Sundays 1–23 after Pentecost and summer sanc. from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov) are combined; 215–220: Common; 220–223v: Trinity and ferials; 223v–225v: Dedication; 225v–254v: blessings, votives, collects etc. (texts only). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 124; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 156; L. Gjerløw: ‘Votive Masses Found in Oslo’, Ephemerides liturgicae, lxxxiv (1970), 113–128 [discussion of dating controversy]Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Notated secular breviary-missal (summer part) from Reggio nell’Emilia; late 11th century. 224 ff.; 31·3 × 20 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories lack verses. MS based on a French model (see Salmon). Ff.1–58v: Offices and masses for the Sundays after Pentecost; 58v–62: Trinity; 62–65v: Dedication; 66–160v: summer sanc. from St Tiburtius and St Valerian (14 April) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 161v–173: Common; 173–180v: votive and Requiem Masses; 181v–185v: services for the sick and the dead; 186–187: Preface and canon; 188–215: psalter (texts only); 215–218v: canticles, Pater noster, Credo, Psalmi speciales, orations etc.; 219–224: episcopal blessings. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 125; P. Salmon: ‘Un bréviaire-missel du XIe siècle’, Mélanges Eugène Tisserant, vii (Rome and Vatican City, 1964), 327–43; Salmon, ccli (1968), 182, and ccliii (1969), 163Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Gradual fragment (season of Lent) from Benevento or Apulia; early 11th century. 35 ff.; 26 × 17·5 cm. Beneventan neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–35 (ed. in PalMus, pp.1–71): temp. from Septuagesima Sunday (inc.) to Holy Saturday. Good Friday and Holy Saturday services contain Beneventan elements. PalMus, xiv (1936) [facs.];Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 126; Jammers (1965), 88; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 90; Kelly (1989)Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, 3830. Cantatorium, troper and proser (3 fragments) from north Italy; 11th century. 58 ff.; 14·7 × 10·4 cm. North Italian neumes. Ff.1–32v: fragment I, offertory verses from Advent to Pentecost; 33–50v: troper fragment: Gloria tropes (33–43) and alleluia prosulas (43–50v); 51–58v: proser fragment for 4 feasts, 8 Sept to 11 Nov. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 121; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 182Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 243 (A.164). Notated monastic breviary from Marmoutier, nr Tours; 11th century. 301 ff.; 35·8 × 25·5 cm. French neumes. Ff.1–116v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 87v); 116v–150v: Sundays after Pentecost; 151–294v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 295–301: Common (inc. at end). Leroquais (1934), iv, 114St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 339. Calendar, gradual and sacramentary from St Gallen; early 11th century. 550 pp.; 25·3 × 17·8 cm. St Gallen neumes. Offertories with verses. Pp.8–27: Calendar; 33–174: Gradual (ed. in PalMus, pp.1–142); 33–126 (PalMus, 1–95): winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 107 [76]); 126–44 (95–113): summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 144–5 (113–14): Requiem; 145–6 (114–15): Trinity; 146–57 (115–26): Sundays after Pentecost; 157–61 (126–30): alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 161–4 (130–33): Common (alleluias only); 164–74 (133–42): processional antiphons; 181–8: vesting, entrance and offertory prayers; 189–96: Preface and Canon; 197–535: sacramentary. PalMus, i (1889) [facs.]; Munding (1948), 10; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 131; D.H. Turner: ‘Sacramentaries of St Gall in the Tenth and Eleventh Centuries’, Revue bénédictine, lxxxi (1971), 186–215St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 376. Calendar, troper, kyriale, gradual, processional and proser from St Gallen; c1070. 435 pp.; 19·5 × 16·7 cm. St Gallen neumes with significative letters. Offertories with verses. Pp.1–12: selected chants; 13–37: Calendar and computus; 39–65: troper; 65–76: kyriale; 76–80: Te Deum prosulas and 2versus; 82–228: winter–spring temp. and sanc. of the gradual from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 196); 228–67: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 267–8: Dedication; 268–9: Requiem; 269–70: Trinity; 271–87: Sundays after Pentecost; 287–91: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 291–5: Common (alleluias only); 298–311: processional antiphons; 312–434: proser (texts only) with sequences in margins. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 132; Rönnau (1967), 42St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 378. Calendar, troper, kyriales, prosers, offertory and communion verses from St Gallen; c1070 (13th-century additions). 400 pp.; 18·8 × 12·5 cm. St Gallen neumes. Pp.1–35: Calendar and computus; 40–102: troper; 102–26: kyriale no.1; 127–32: 2 versus; 132–43: primarily communion verses; 146–296: proser (texts only) with Notker’s Cum adhuc preface and sequences in margins; 297–343: offertory verses for both the temp. and sanc., 345–52:prosae (series 2) with melodies and sequences in margins; 353–60: prosae(series 3) notated, but lacking sequences; 362–85: kyriale no.2 with and without tropes; 386–400: appx of selected tropes,prosae, alleluias etc. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 133; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 35St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 380. Calendar, troper, kyriale, proser, offertoriale and versicular from St Gallen; c1080. 393 pp.; 17·6 × 8·8 cm. St Gallen neumes. Some leaves bound out of order. Pp.4–17: Calendar; 17–20, 41–7, 49–52: computus; 28–40, 53–83: troper; 83–101: kyriale; 101–5: 2 versus; 106–13: troped Kyries; 116–17:Fabrice prosulas; 118–272: proser preceded by Notker’s Cum adhucpreface. Prosae (texts only), sequences in the margins. 273–367: offertory verses; 369–87: notated introit and communion verses. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 133; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 39; Rönnau (1967), 41St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 382. Troper, kyriale, troped epistles, proser and offertoriale from St Gallen; 11th century. 270 pp.; 18·3 × 13 cm. St Gallen neumes. Pp.1–3: processional antiphons; 3–11: Glorias, Credos and Pater noster in Greek and Latin; 11–20: versus; 21–54: troper; 57–70: kyriale; 73–93: primarily troped epistles; 94–187: prosae(series I) texts only, sequences in margins; 187–218: prosae (series II) partly notated, lacking sequences; 219–70: offertory verses for the temp. only, the beginning and ending of the series are missing. MGG2 (‘Sankt Gallen’; A. Haug); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 133; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 44; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 55Troyes, Bibliothèque Municipale, 522. Notated missal (inc.) for use at Clairvaux; late 11th century. 162 ff.; 31·5 × 22·5 cm. Messine neumatic notation. Offertories lack verses. The beginning and end of the MS are missing. Ff.1–79v: winter–spring temp. from Advent III to Holy Saturday; 79bis–79v: inc. Canon (added leaves); 80–99: Easter to Trinity; 99–129: Sundays after Pentecost; 129–162v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Martin (11 Nov), inc. Leroquais (1924), i, 94; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 145Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, G.V.20. Gradual and processional from Bobbio; 11th century. 183 ff. Italian neumatic notation from the region of Bobbio. Offertories with verses. The major Masses contain prosae, prosulas and troped introits, Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. Ff.1–9: complete calendar with liturgical cues for the Epistle and Gospel readings; 12–120v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 97); 120v–150: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 150rv: prosa Stans a longe and other chants; 151–163v: Sundays after Pentecost; 163v–164: Trinity; 164–165: Requiem; 165rv: alleluias for the Common; 166–171v: Rogation litanies and antiphons; 171v–179v: processional antiphons; 180–183v: supplement of various chants. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 146Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 161. Gradual with a troper-proser from Vercelli; end of 11th century. 148 ff.; 26 × 18 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–77v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 63); 77v–95: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 95rv: Requiem; 96–106v: Sundays after Pentecost; 106v–107v: Trinity; 108v–112: processional antiphons; 112–148v: combined troper and proser for major feasts. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 186 (21). Gradual with tropes from S Vittore, Balerna, nr Como; end of 11th century. 199 ff.; 23 × 16 cm. Messine notation adapted for use at Como. Offertories with verses. MS inc. at beginning and end. Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus and Agnus tropes, prosulas and some ordines are incorporated within the Mass Propers. Ff.1–165v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent IV to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 114); 165v–190: summer sanc. from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 190rv: Requiem; 190v–199v: Sundays after Pentecost (MS breaks off within Sunday XIX). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, XCVIII (formerly 92). Secular antiphoner from Verona; 11th century. 267 ff.; 28·5 × 19 cm. North Italian neumes; scattered chants throughout the MS are in Nonantolan notation. Hesbert, i (1963), MS V [edn of text]; Borders (1983)Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, CVII (formerly 100). Troper and proser from S Benedetto, Mantua, later used in Verona; 11th century. 125 ff.; 18·7 × 12·3 cm. North Italian neumes; additions in Nonantolan notation. Ff.3–24v: introit tropes; 27v–33v: Kyrie tropes; 35–51v: Gloria tropes; 54–70v: prosulas; 71–118v: proser, inc. at end; 120–122: Sanctus tropes; 122v–124: Agnus tropes; 124–125v: Laudes regiae (text only). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 187; Borders (1983)Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, CIX (formerly 102). Notated hymnal from Verona; end of 11th century. 190 ff.; 22·5 × 14·5 cm. North Italian notation with letter clefs and lines. Ff.1–185v: hymns arranged according to the liturgical year and accompanied with selected antiphons, responds and lessons; 186–189: selected Matins and Vespers antiphons for Easter Week. Stäblein (1956), 357–406, 597 [edn of 207 hymns]; Borders (1983)Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.1845. Gradual and sacramentary with prosae, tropes, sequences and Calendar from Seeon, Upper Bavaria; dated 1014–24. 275 ff. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.3–33: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 27v); 33–38: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 38rv: Mass for the Dead Si enim credimus, 38v: Trinity; 38v–42: Sundays after Pentecost; 42–43: alleluias for Sundays after Pentecost; 43–44v: Common (alleluias only); 45–46: Rogation antiphons; 47–57v: proser (texts only) with sequences in margins; 58v–61: introit tropes and kyriale; 65v–72: Calendar and computus; 73–275: sacramentary preceded by a Canon. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 151; Hoffmann (1986), 414Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Rheinau 132 (Mohlberg 502). Offertoriale and proser from Rheinau; 11th century. 79 ff.; 14·5 × 12 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–21v: offertory verses; 21v–32: improperium, Greek Gloria and 11 prosae; 32–72v: proser with sequences in the margins; 72v–79v: supplement of prosae, sequences and Laudes regiae(77rv). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 54

4. 11th–12th centuries.

Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, 2824. Troper with prosae from Nonantola; 11th–12th century. 106 ff.; 18 × 12 cm. Nonantolan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Beginning of MS (Kyrie gathering) lacking. Ff.1–8: Gloria tropes; 8v–9v: additions over erasures; 10–12v: Sanctus, with and without tropes; 12v–14: Agnus tropes; 14v–15: 2 Fraction antiphons; 15v–95: Proper tropes andprosae arranged by major feasts according to the church year; 95–106: supplement containing antiphons, prosae and Ordinary tropes etc. in Nonantolan and Beneventan notations. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 170; A. Moderini: La notazione neumatica di Nonantola, i (Cremona, 1970), 54; Borders (1996), i, p.xii [description], xiv [inventory]Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, II 3822(Fétis 1162). Notated missal from St Hubert, Belgium; 11th–12th century. 144 ff. Messine neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–5: Ordinary and Canon prayers; 5v–84v: winter temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 69v); 84v–100v: Sundays after Pentecost; 101–134v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 135–137: Dedication; 137–144v: Common. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 38Gniezno, Archiwum Archidiecezjalne, 149. Ordo romanus, Calendar, gradual, proser, sacramentary and lectionary from the abbey of St Maurice, Niederaltaich, Lower Bavaria; dated 1070–1131. 474 pp.; 32·5 × 21·5 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Pp.1–16: Ordo romanus antiquus fragment from Christmas to Purification; 18–22: Calendar (Jan to Oct only); 23–128: gradual; 23–99: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 84); 99–113: St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 114: Trinity; 114–25: Sundays after Pentecost; 126–8: Common (alleluias only); 130–55: notated proser, no sequences in the margins; 158–394: sacramentary (Canon, 158–63); 395–473: lectionary. K. Biegański and J. Woronczak, eds.: Missale plenarium, Bibl.Capit. Gnesnensis, MS. 149, AMP, xi–xii (1970–72) [facs.]Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 237. Partly notated missal from Soissons; 11th–12th centuries. 91 ff.; 25 × 16·3 cm. Messine neumes. Only Common, Eastertide and votive Masses. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–11: Common; 12–18v: entrance, Ordinary and Canon prayers; 18v–28v: Easter to Trinity Masses; 28v–51v: votives; 52–59: baptism services; 59–91v: services for the sick and the dead. Leroquais (1924), i, 161; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 57Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, Aemil.18 (F.185). Notated full missal of the Roman rite copied for use at S Millán de la Cogolla, nr Nájera; dated 1090–1137. 349 ff.; 38 × 25 cm. Text in Visigothic minuscule; Aquitanian diastematic notation. Offertories without verses. Janini stated that E-Mah 35, a sacramentary of French origin, served as the exemplar for MS 18. Ff.1–12v: Calendar and computus; 13–15: Prefaces and Canon; 15v–173v: winter temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 138); 173v–226: Sundays after Pentecost; 226–298: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 298–299v: Dedication; 299v–310: Common (ff.291–9 are numbered twice); 310–311: Trinity; 311–338: votive Masses and prayers; 338–349v: Masses for the Sick and the Dead. C. Pérez: ‘Indice de los códices de San Millán de la Cogolla y San Pedro de Cardeña existentes en la Biblioteca de la Real academia de la historia’,Boletín de la Real academia de la historia, liii (1908), 483; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 66; J. Janini: ‘Un sacramentario gregoriano de Madrid’,Boletín de la Real academia de la historia, cxlv (1959), 107Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, Aemil.51(F.219). Gradual (inc.) with kyriale from S Millán de la Cogolla; 11th–12th centuries. 247 ff.; 27 × 16 cm. Aquitanian diastematic notation. Offertories with verses. Beginning of the MS (ff.1–58) is missing. Ff.59–162: spring temp. and sanc. from the Wednesday of the first week in Lent to Trinity (Easter, 126); 162–182: Sundays after Pentecost; 182–228v: summer sanc. from St Tiburtius, St Valerian and St Maximus (14 April) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 229rv: Trinity; 229v–231: Dedication; 231rv: nuptial Mass; 232–246v: kyriale with tropes. C. Pérez: ‘Indice de los códices de San Millán de la Cogolla y San Pedro de Cardeña’,Boletín de la Real academia de la historia, liii (1908), 500; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 67Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 288 (anc.C.151). Tonary, troper, proser, offertoriale; c1100, from Palermo, Sicily. 194 ff.; 20·6 × 11·3 cm. French neumes. Ff.4–12: tonary; 12v–29v: Holy Saturday antiphons and responds; 31v–42v: Kyries, with and without tropes; 43–58v: Gloria tropes; 59–80v: alleluias; 81–119v: proser; 120–151v: offertory verses; 152–159: Sanctus and Agnus, with and without tropes; 159v–163v: prosulas, troped epistle etc.; 163v–168:Benedicamus tropes; 168–170v: Magi play; 171–172v: Laudes regiae; 173v–175v:versus of Fortunatus’s Salve festa dies; 175v–187v: rhymed Offices of Julian, Egidius and Mary Magdalen; 187v–194: supplement in various hands. Anglès and Subirá, i (1946), 36 [inventory]; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 67; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 87; Janini and Serrano (1969), 15; Arlt (1970), i, 175; Hiley (1981); D. Hiley: ‘Quanto c'è di normanno nei tropari siculo-normanni?’, RIM, xviii (1983), 3–28; D. Hiley: ‘Ordinary of Mass Chants in English, North French and Sicilian Manuscripts’, Journal of the Plainsong & Medieval Music Society, ix (1986), 1–128Milan, Biblioteca Trivulziana e Archivio Storico Civico, D.127(2294). Notated missal from Civate; 11th–12th centuries. 307 ff.; 25·8 × 17 cm. North Italian neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–8v: Calendar; 9–18v: vesting and Offertory prayers, blessings, Canon etc.; 18–199v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 166); 199v–244v: St Tiburtius and St Valerian (14 April) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 244v–268: Sundays after Pentecost; 268–269v: Dedication; 269v–283: Common; 283v–284v: Trinity; 284v–305: votives and Masses for the Dead; 305v–307: supplement of prayers (13th-century addition). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 72; C. Santoro: I codici medioevali della Biblioteca Trivulziana(Milan, 1965), 321Modena, Duomo, Archivio Capitolare, O.I.13. Gradual from Bologna; 11th–12th centuries. 190 ff. Central Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–47 are badly mutilated. Alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost are the same as the first series in the Bologna gradual (I-Ra 123). Ff.1–2v: fragment of another gradual, summer sanc. from St Basilides (12 June) to St Processus (2 July); 3v–133v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 104v); 133v–162v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 162v–166v: ordination, Pro iter agentibus and Requiem masses; 167rv: St Nicholas (different hand); 168–186: Sundays after Pentecost; 186–187: Trinity; 187–190v: Rogation antiphons (inc. at end). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 73Nonantola, Seminario Abbaziale, I. Cantatorium from St Sylvester, Nonantola; 11th–12th centuries. 116 ff.; 23·4 × 14·7 cm. Nonantolan diastematic notation with red F and yellow C lines. The MS contains chants for the soloist only: graduals, alleluias, occasional alleluia prosulas and Lenten tracts. Copied by the monk Maurus (colophon f.1). Feast of St Senesius and St Theopontius (21 May), patrons of Nonantola (65v). Ff.1–71v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 55); 71v–89v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 90–109: Sundays after Pentecost; 109v–112v: alleluias. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 86; A. Moderini: La notazione neumatica di Nonantola (Cremona, 1970) [cited as MS G with photographs of 34 ff.]Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.12584. Gradual, antiphoner, processional, martyrology and Rule of St Benedict from St Maur-des-Fossés; 14th and 11th–12th centuries. 385 ff.; 31 × 20·5 cm. French neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–79v: Martyrology of Usuard (14th century); 80–119v: Rule of St Benedict, inc. at end (14th century); 120–126v: gospels for major feasts (14th century). Gradual, ff.127–210, 11th–12th centuries. Ff.127–182: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning missing) from St John (27 Dec) to Whit Saturday (Easter, 169); 182v–199v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 200–208v: Sundays after Pentecost; 208v–209: Trinity; 209v–210: Dedication; 210–216: supplementary Office and Mass chants. Antiphoner, ff.216v–385v, 11th–12th centuries. Ff.216v–303: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 289v); 303–344: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 344–345v: Dedication; 345v–355v: Common; 358–359v: Trinity; 360–369: histories; 369–373: Sundays after Pentecost; 373–382v: processional antiphons; 383v–385v: Office of St Nicholas. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 105; Hesbert (1963–79), ii, MS F [edn of text of antiphoner]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 417; A. Renaudin: ‘Deux antiphonaires de Saint-Maur: BN Lat 12584 et 12044’,EG, xiii (1972), 53–150; CANTUS databaseParis, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.13252. Troper, proser and tonary from St Magloire, Paris; 11th–12th centuries. 95 ff.; 19·8 × 9·8 cm. French neumes. Ff.3–20: introit, offertory and communion tropes for major feasts; 20v–26: Kyrie tropes; 26–38: Gloria tropes; 41–66v: proser; 67–68v: Sanctus tropes; 69–70: Agnus tropes; 71–76v: tonary; 77–80: troped epistle for St Stephen (26 Dec); 81–92v: alleluias for the liturgical year. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 106; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 143; Huglo (1971), 314Pistoia, Basilica di S Zeno, Archivio Capitolare, C121. Troper, proser and fragment of a gradual from Pistoia Cathedral; 11th–12th centuries. 91 ff.; 26·2 × 18 cm. Central Italian notation on 4 dry lines with red F line. Ff.2–6: Kyries with tropes; 6–8v: 5 Glorias without tropes; 8v–9v: gradual prologues Gregorius presul meritis etc.; 10–78v: primarily introit tropes andprosae arranged according to the liturgical year. Ff.73v–74 and 81v–82: lacunae, missing fascicles now MS 2 in R. de Zayas’s private collection, Seville (see Brunner), containing, respectively, tropes and prosae for the conclusion of the liturgical year, and Agnus with and without tropes. 79–81v: Sanctus with and without tropes (inc. at end); 82–89v: fragment of a different MS, a gradual from the feast of St Stephen (26 Dec) to Epiphany (6 Jan); 90–91v: fragment of an Easter play. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 180; L.W. Brunner: ‘Two Missing Fascicles of Pistoia C.121 Recovered’, Cantus Planus III: Tihány 1988, 1–19Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Troper withprosae and processional antiphons probably from Monte Cassino; 11th–12th centuries. 108 ff.; 16 × 9 cm. Diastematic Beneventan notation without lines. F.1: introit trope (see AH, xlix, 1906, p.24); 1v–23v: Proper tropes and beginning of Kyries, with and without tropes, erased and written over with processional chants (reconstruction by Boe); 23v–33v: remainder of Kyries; 34–60v: Gloria tropes; 61–74: Sanctus tropes; 74–79: Agnus tropes; 79v–89: prosae; 89–100v: Rogation Mass, votive Masses and versus; 101v–108v: processional antiphons. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 198; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 87; J. Boe: ‘The “Lost” Palimpsest Kyries in the Vatican Manuscript Urbinas latinus 602’,Journal of the Plainsong & Mediaeval Music Society, viii (1985), 1–24; Planchart (1994), xixRome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Notated secular breviary (winter part) from central Italy; 11th–12th centuries. 342 ff.; 27 × 18·3 cm. North Italian neumes. Ff.1–241: winter temp. from Advent I (partly missing) to Easter Saturday; 241v–287v: winter sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to the Annunciation (25 March); 288–325: Passions and Lives of St Sebastian, St Vincent, St Agatha, St Lucy, St Gregory and St Ambrose; 326–328v: order of services for Milan, Florence etc.; 339–342v: sermons of St Ambrose and St Augustine (inc. at end). Salmon, ccli (1968), 182Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, 1907 (B.II.1). Monastic notated breviary-missal from S Salvatore, Monte Amiato, south of Siena; 11th–12th centuries. 262 ff.; 39 × 22·5 cm. Central Italian neumes. Offertories without verses. The breviary and missal Propers are combined for each feast. Ff.1–152: winter temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost and its ember ferials (Easter, 124v); 152–185v: Sundays after Pentecost; 185v–187v, 191rv: Trinity and Holy Cross; 188–189v: Preface and Canon no.1 (added); 190: half-leaf; 191v: votive Masses; 192: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 192v–194: Preface and Canon no.2 (original); 194–200v: votive and Requiem prayers; 203–262: sanc. (inc. at beginning) from St Agnes (21 Jan) to St Andrew (30 Nov). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 121; Studi medievali, 3rd ser., ix (1968), 1146Rome, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Vittorio Emanuele II, 1343(Sessorianus 62). Kyriale, troper-proser and processional from Nonantola; 11th–12th centuries. 81 ff.; 25·6 × 17 cm. Nonantolan diastematic notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–17v: Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 18–51v: selected tropes,prosae, prosulas, Gospel antiphons and Proper chants for major feasts; 51v–72: processional antiphons; 72–80v: Rogation litanies, antiphons and Masses. Huglo (1956), 80; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 122; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 185; Studi medievali, 3rd ser., ix/2 (1968), 1173: Borders (1996), i, p.xiii [description], xxv [inventory]Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, CV (formerly 98). Notated missal from Verona; 11th–12th centuries. 396 ff.; 36·8 × 25 cm. Nonantolan notation ff.6v–201v and north Italian notation from ff.206–395v. Ff.1–1v: Calendar fragment (May to Dec); 3–6: Preface and Canon no.1; 9–201v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 202–205v: Preface and Canon no.2; 206–253: Easter to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 253–343: the summer sanc. and Sundays after Pentecost are combined from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Felicitas (23 Nov); 343–351: Common; 351–352v: Dedication; 352v–353v: Pro peccatisprayers; 353v–355: Trinity; 355–377: votives; 377–389v: Masses for the Dead; 390–395v: selected epistles and gospels. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 151Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.13314. Gradual (inc.) with kyriale, proser and sacramentary from ?Seckau; 11th–12th centuries. 220 ff. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–48: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning missing) from the third Sunday of Lent to Whit Saturday (Easter, 30); 48–63v: summer sanc. from St Urban (25 May) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 63v–64: Trinity; 64–74v: Sundays after Pentecost; 74v–77: Common (alleluias only); 77v–84: introit tropes and kyriale; 84–120v: partly notated proser; 121–132v: votive Masses, Rogation antiphons, tonary, etc.; 133–219: sacramentary preceded by a Canon. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 152; R. Flotzinger: ‘Zu Herkunft und Datierung der Gradualien Graz 807 und Wien 13314’, SMH, xxxi (1989), 57–80

5. 12th century.

Autun, Bibliothèque Municipale, 10 (8). Notated missal with prosae from Autun; 12th century. 345 ff.; 26·5 × 18·5 cm. French neumes. Offertories without verses. Ff.7–9v: Calendar; 10v–23: Canon; 24–170: winter temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 138); 170–209: Sundays after Pentecost; 209–261v: winter–summer sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 261v–262v: Dedication; 262v–269: Common (part I); 270–288: Common (part II, later hand); 288–294: votives; 294–319:prosae (texts only); 319–345: prayers, votives, etc. Leroquais (1924), ii, 3; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 27Avignon, Médiathèque Ceccano, 181. Carthusian gradual from Villeneuve-lès-Avignon; end of 12th century. 116 ff. Late Aquitanian notation on red, yellow and dry lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–68: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 53v); 68v–88: Sundays after Pentecost; 88–111v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 111v–113: Requiem Masses, 113–116: elements from the kyriale. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 29Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.9 (Ed.V.3). Offertoriale, tracts and troper probably from Bamberg; 12th century. 49 ff.; 21·6 × 15·8 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–1v: Palm Sunday antiphons; 2–32v: offertory verses; 32v–37v: tracts; 37v–44v: Veneration of the Cross, Rogation and votive antiphons; 44v–46v: introit tropes for Christmas, St Stephen, St John and Holy Innocents; 46v–49v: Kyries and Glorias, with and without tropes. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 30; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 61Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.10 (Ed.V.10). Cantatorium from Bamberg; 12th century. 122 ff.; 12·7 × 9·3 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–68v: offertory verses; 69–89v: alleluias for the year; 90–98: Easter antiphons; 98v–99: Tonary of Henricus of Augsburg; 100–122v: tracts from Purification to Holy Saturday. Huglo (1971), 281Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.22 (Ed.III.2). Gradual, proser and secular antiphoner from Bamberg; early 12th century. 206 ff.; 30·6 × 22 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Gradual, ff.1v–73. Ff.1v–44: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 35v); 44–51v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 52–57v: Sundays after Pentecost; 59–63: Requiem, Common (alleluias only), Rogation antiphons and selected introit tropes; 66–73: proser (texts only). Antiphoner, ff.73v–206. Ff.73v–139v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 128); 139v–173v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 173v–180: Common; 180–183v: Dedication and Trinity; 183v–192: histories; 192–195: Sundays after Pentecost; 195v–198v: Venitesettings; 198–200: Office of the Dead; 201rv: tonary; 202–6: hymns (texts only). Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.23 (Ed.V.6). Secular antiphoner from Bamberg; end of 12th century. 160 ff.; 20·7 × 14 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–102: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 83v); 102–136v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 137–139v: Office of Mary Magdalen (second hand); 140–154v: histories; 154v–159: Sundays after Pentecost. Hesbert, i (1963), MS B [text]Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.24 (Ed.III.9). Secular antiphoner from Bamberg; 12th century. 98 ff.; 28·3 × 19·7 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–64v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 53v); 64v–87: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 87rv: Sundays after Pentecost (partial series from nos.7 to 12); 88–96: histories; 96–98v: Sundays after Pentecost (full series).Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, 34. Gradual with tropes, prosae and kyriale from S Sophia, Benevento; 12th century. 288 ff.; 22·3 × 14·5 cm. Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines and letter clefs. Ff.1–194: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 122v); 194–246v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 247–265: Sundays after Pentecost; 265–266v: Requiem; 267–273v: Common (alleluias only); 274–288v: kyriale (inverted folios). PalMus, xv (1937) [facs.];Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 32; Jammers (1965), 90; Planchart (1994), xviBenevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, 35. Gradual and kyriale from Benevento; early 12th century. 202 ff. Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines and letter clefs. Offertories with verses. The major Masses contain prosae and some prosulas. Beginning of MS lacking; some mutilation of the ornamented initials throughout. Ff.1–117: winter–spring temp. and sanc. beginning within the communion Simile est regnum caelorum for the Sunday within the Octave of Christmas to Whit Saturday (Quem queritis, 68v; Easter, 69); 117–156v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 156v–166v: Sundays after Pentecost; 166v–170v: several votives and Masses for the Dead; 170v–179v: alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost and the Common; 180–185: troped Kyries; 185–195: troped Glorias; 195–199v: troped Sanctus and Agnus; 202rv: fragment of another 11th-century gradual (see PalMus, xv, p.53, no.13). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 32; Planchart (1994), xviBerlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, (Z.78). Gradual, kyriale and proser from Quedlinburg; 12th century. 289 ff. German notation on 4 lines, with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–153: winter temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 124); 153–179v: Sundays after Pentecost; 180–237: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 237v–239: Dedication; 239v–244v: Common (alleluias only); 247–252v: kyriale; 252v–287: proser (ed. Drinkwelder). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 33; O. Drinkwelder: Ein deutsches Sequentiar aus dem Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts (Graz and Vienna, 1914)Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, II 3823 (Fétis 1172). Cluniac gradual, processional, kyriale and proser from the Auvergne; early 12th century. 184 ff.; 27 × 16·5 cm. Late Aquitanian notation with red F, yellow C and 2 dry lines. Offertory verses are notated only from Advent to the end of Lent, the verse melodies after Easter are suppressed. Ff.1–91: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 76); 91–117: summer sanc. from St Ambrose (4 April) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 117rv: Dedication; 117v–130: Sundays after Pentecost (alleluia cycle follows Cluniac use); 130–131: Trinity; 131–132: Requiem; 132v–150v: processional antiphons; 151–158: kyriale; 158–178v: proser; 178v–184v: additions (prosae, obits, etc.). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 38; M. Huglo: ‘Trois anciens manuscrits liturgiques d’Auvergne, Bruxelles Bibl. Royale II 3823’, Bulletin historique et scientifique de l’Auvergne, lxxvii (1957), 81–104Colmar, Bibliothèque de la Ville, 445. Cistercian gradual from Pairis (Alsace); c1175. 134 ff.; 32 × 22·5 cm. German Hufnagel notation on 4 lines with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–70: winter temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 55); 70v–82v: Sundays after Pentecost; 83–120: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 120v–121: Dedication; 121–125v: votives; 125v–129v: kyriale; 132v–134: later additions. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 46; Hammer (1968), 57Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 868. A Premonstratensian gradual, kyriale and proser from Arnstein, later Steinfeld; dated c1180. 172 ff.; 26·5 × 17 cm. Hufnagel notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Scattered missing folios throughout the MS; ff.44 and 45 badly mutilated. Ff.2–3v and 172rv: guards from the books of Daniel and Judith; 4–78: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 60v); 78rv: Trinity; 78v–89v: Sundays after Pentecost; 89v–90: Dedication; 90rv: Common (alleluias only), end missing; between 90v and 91 a gathering containing the end of the Common and the beginning of the sanc. is missing; 91–112: sanc. from the Conversion of St Paul (25 Jan) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 112v–116: Kyries and Glorias; 116v–150: notated proser; 150rv: notated Credo; 150v–152: Sanctus, Agnus and Ites; 152rv: 4 Marian antiphons; 152v–153v: Requiem Mass; 153v–154: table of Mass incipits entitled ‘Incipiunt misse familiares’; 154v–171v: supplement ofprosae, metrical alleluias, index to the MS, Masses etc., by different hands. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 46; Eizenhöfer and Knaus (1968), 44Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Ashburnham 62. Gradual fragment from Aquitaine; early 12th century. 50 ff.; 20 × 12 cm. Aquitanian notation. Offertories lack verses. MS bound out of order. Ff.19rv: Palm Sunday processional Preces Gloria laus; 19v–42v: Palm Sunday to first Sunday after Easter; 42v–43: extensive lacuna; 43rv: 9–18 June feasts (inc.); 43v–44: small lacuna: 44–49: summer sanc. from end of St Peter (29 June) to St Felicissimus and St Agapitus (6 Aug); 49v–50v: 2 prosae,Laetabundus and Ecce pulchra(added); 1–18: St Cyriacus (8 Aug) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 18rv: St Martin Mass O beatum virum. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 51; Grégoire (1968), 505Graz, Universitätsbibliothek, 211. Secular antiphoner from Székesfehérvár, Hungary; first half of 12th century. 160 ff.; 25 × 18 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–100v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 83v); 100v–136: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 136–138: Dedication; 138–147v: Common; 147v–156v: histories; 156v–160: Sundays after Pentecost (complete). Z. Falvy and L. Mezey:Codex Albensis, ein Antiphonar aus dem 12. Jahrhundert (Budapest and Graz, 1963) [facs.]Graz, Universitätsbibliothek, 807. Gradual from Klosterneuburg; dated c1150 (after 1133). 168 ff.; 23 × 15 cm. Messine notation (‘notation of Klosterneuburg’) on 4 lines, red F line, yellow C line. Offertories with verses. Erasures and corrections of the melodies and text throughout the MS. Ff.1–130v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 103); 130v–148: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 148rv: Trinity; 148v–162v: Sundays after Pentecost; 162v–166v: Common (alleluias only); 166v: prosaSalve pater Augustine vas electum (added); 167–168: 4 introit tropes for Christmas, St Stephen, St John the Evangelist, and Innocents; 168v: Mass of St Vincent. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 53; PalMus, xix (1974) [facs.]Grenoble, Bibliothèque Municipale, 84(395). Carthusian lectionary and gradual used at La Grande Chartreuse, nr Grenoble; end of 12th century. 150 ff.; 28·8 × 20 cm. Late Aquitanian notation on 1 red and 3 dry lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–87v: lectionary; 88–134v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 126v); 134v–142: Sundays after Pentecost; 142–149: summer sanc. from the Vigil of St John the Baptist (23 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 149rv: Mass for the DeadRespice Domine; 150v: Mass ordines. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 54Laon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 226bis. Notated missal from St Paul, Verdun; first half of 12th century. 215 ff.; 26·5 × 18·8 cm. Messine neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–3v: vesting, Ordinary of the Mass and Canon prayers; 3v–114v: winter temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 92); 114v–139v: Sundays after Pentecost; 141–191v: sanc. from St Aygerius (1 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 191v–195: Common; 195: Dedication (text only); 195v–196v: Office of the Dead (inc., text only); 197–215: votives, Masses for the Dead, etc. (little notation). Leroquais (1924), i, 231;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 56Le Havre, Bibliothèque Municipale, 330 (A 32). Notated missal (inc.) from New Minster, Winchester; second half of 12th century. 177 ff.; 29·7 × 20·2 cm. English neumes. Offertories lack verses. Beginning of MS is missing. Ff.1–26v: winter temp. from Friday after Easter Sunday to Trinity; 26v–61v: Sundays after Pentecost; 62–167: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 173–174: Dedication; 174–177v: votives. Leroquais (1924), i, 190;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 54; D.H. Turner, ed.: The Missal of the New Minster, Winchester, Henry Bradshaw Society, xciii (Leighton Buzzard, 1962) [edn of text only]London, British Library, Add.11669. Gradual, proser and sacramentary from Augsburg; 12th century. 117 ff.; 30·5 × 21·6 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.r1–v: Calendar (Sept to Dec only); 2–35v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 29); 35v–38v: sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 38v–43: Sundays after Pentecost; 43rv: Trinity; 43v–44: Requiem; 44–45: Common (alleluias only); 45–46v: kyriale; 46v–47v: Rogation antiphons; 49–55v: proser (texts only); 56–57v: Canon; 57v–117v: sacramentary (gradual chant incipits in margins without notation). R. Priebsch: Deutsche Handschriften in England, ii: Das British Museum (Erlangen, 1901), 117; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 61London, British Library, Add.17302. Carthusian diurnal; 12th century. 123 ff.; 24 × 16·5 cm. Early quadratic notation with red F line. Ff.2v–45v: Advent I to the Saturday after Epiphany I (see Hesbert, 1963–79, no.32) with notation; 45v–70v: notated Common; 71–122v: Office collects for the entire year (texts only).London, British Library, Add.34209(‘Antiphonarium Ambrosianum’). Offices and masses of the Ambrosian rite, probably from Milan; 12th century. 270 pp.; 25 × 14 cm (ed. in PalMus). Milanese notation with red and yellow lines. Pp.1–260: winter temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 260–69: Glorias, Preces, hymn, sequences, etc. PalMus, v–vi (1896–1901) [facs.]; M. Huglo and others:Fonti e paleografia del canto ambrosiano, Archivio ambrosiano, vii (Milan, 1956), 39London, British Library, Eg.857. Gradual from Noyon; early 12th century. 58 ff.; 26·4 × 18 cm. Messine neumes. Offertories lack verses. Masses numbered 1–211 in the manner of a sacramentary. Ff.1–41v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 33); 41v–50v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 50v–51: Trinity; 51–6: Sundays after Pentecost; 57v–58v: ferial Offices after Epiphany (see Hesbert, i, 1963, nos.26–32). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 64London, British Library, Roy.2 B.iv. English troper and gradual (inc.) with prosae, from St Albans; 12th century. 215 ff.; 26·2 × 17·5 cm. Anglo-Norman notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. The temp. from Christmas to Holy Saturday, the Sundays after Pentecost and part of the summer sanc. are lost. Ff.1–23v: Kyries, with and without tropes; 24v–54v: Gloria andRegnum tropes. Gradual, ff.55–173v, with complete introits, graduals, alleluias, prosae, offertories and communions. Ff.55–68v: Advent I to Christmas Mass no.1; 68v–69: lacuna; 69–98v and 199–208v: end of Holy Saturday Mass to Trinity; 98v–99: lacuna; 99–139: summer sanc. from the end of St Peter (29 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 139–169: Common; 169–173v: Dedication; 173v–183v: 3 Marian and one Holy Cross prosae; 184–194v: Sanctus tropes; 195–198 and 209–215: Agnus tropes. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 65; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 156Lucca, Biblioteca Capitolare Feliniana e Biblioteca Arcivescovile, 601. Camaldolese antiphoner (monastic) from the abbey of S Petri, Puteoli (Pozzeveri), diocese of Lucca; early 12th century. 560 pp.; 36·5 × 25·5 cm (ed. in PalMus). Central Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Pp.1–267: winter temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 206); 267–309: histories; 309–20: Sundays after Pentecost; 320–505: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 505–46: Common; 546–53: Dedication; 553–60: Office of the Dead. PalMus, ix (1905–9) [facs.]Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 289 (anc.C.153). Troper and proser from Palermo, Sicily; mid-12th century. 156 ff.; 20 × 12·5 cm. Norman-Sicilian notation on 4 dry lines with letter clefs. Ff.2–13v: Kyrie tropes; 13bis–32: Gloria tropes; 33–89v: proser; 89v–96v: Sanctus tropes; 96v–99v: Agnus tropes; 99v–120v: troped epistles; 117–118v: drama De Peregrino in die Lune Pasche; 122v–126v: Venitesettings arranged by tones; 126v–140v: 28Benedicamus tropes; 141–148: 15 monophonic conductus; 148v–155: alleluia cycle (partly notated); 155v–156: conductus and Laudes. Young (1933), ii, 458; Anglès and Subirá, i (1946), 18; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 88; Janini and Serrano (1969), 15; Arlt (1970), i, 175; Hiley (1981); D. Hiley: ‘Quanto c'è di normanno nei tropari siculo-normanni?’, RIM , xviii (1983), 3–28; D. Hiley: ‘Ordinary of Mass Chants in English, North French and Sicilian Manuscripts’, Journal of the Plainsong & Medieval Music Society, ix (1986), 1–128Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 19421 (anc.C.88). Troper and proser from Catania, Sicily; 12th century. 119 ff.; 27·5 × 17 cm. Norman-Sicilian notation on 4 dry lines with letter clefs. Ff.3–15: Kyries, with and without tropes; 15v–36: Glorias, with and without tropes; 36v–87v: proser; 88–95: Sanctus tropes; 95v–98: Agnus tropes; 98–106: troped epistles, Exultet, Liber generationis, etc.; 106–110v: primarily Benedicamus and Ite settings, with and without tropes; 111–115v: primarily Palm Sunday processional antiphons; 115v–118: 4 polyphonic compositions. Anglès and Subirá, i (1946), 66; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 90; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 243; Janini and Serrano (1969), 197; Arlt (1970), i, 175; Hiley (1981); D. Hiley: ‘Quanto c'è di normanno nei tropari siculo-normanni?’, RIM , xviii (1983), 3–28; D. Hiley: ‘Ordinary of Mass Chants in English, North French and Sicilian Manuscripts’, Journal of the Plainsong & Medieval Music Society, ix (1986), 1–128Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Vitrina 20, 4(anc.C.132). Gradual with prosaefrom Palermo, Sicily; dated 1130–38. 240 ff.; 21·9 × 15 cm. Norman-Sicilian notation on 4 dry lines.Ff.3–10v: Kyries, Glorias, Marian antiphons, tracts and offertory verses; 11–154: winter temp. from Advent to Trinity (Easter, 102v; Peregrinusdrama, 105v–108v); 154–155v: Dedication; 155v–206v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 207–210v: Common; 210v–212: Requiem; 212v–219v: alleluias; 221rv: Sanctus; 222v–223: Agnus; 224–232v: troped readings; 232v–240: 9 prosae(added). Young (1933), ii, 476; Anglès and Subirá, i (1946), 54;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 67; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 91; Janini and Serrano (1969), 246; Hiley (1981); D. Hiley: ‘The Norman Chant Traditions: Normandy, Britain, Sicily’,PRMA, cvii (1980–81), 1–33Metz, Bibliothèque Municipale (now Médiathèque), 452. Troper, proser and tonary from the Cathedral of St Etienne, Metz; early 12th century. 92 ff. Lorraine (Messine) neumatic notation. MS destroyed during World War II; microfilm copy at the abbey of Solesmes, France. Ff.1v–41v: major masses of the liturgical year containing introit, Kyrie, Gloria, offertory, Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 41v–47v: procession antiphons; 48–91v:prosae (mostly texts) with sequentias in the outer margins; 91v–92: mnemonic formulae of the 8 tones ‘Primus ut exsurge’ (see Huglo, 1971, p.320); 92rv: noted Gloria without tropes (added). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 108Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 7905. Cistercian gradual from Kaisheim; dated before 1185. 184 ff. German Hufnagel notation on 4 lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–87v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 66v); 87v–88v: Trinity; 88v–110v: Sundays after Pentecost; 110v–162v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 162v–163: brief Common; 163–164: Dedication; 164–165v: Requiem; 165v–169v: votives; 169v–173v: kyriale; 173v–175bis: Pater de caelis litany; 175bisv: Ites; 176–178v: processional antiphons; 178v–181v: hymns; 181v–183v: added material. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 79Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, VI-G-34. Processional, kyriale and proser from Troia, nr Foggia; late 12th century. 139 ff.; 21 × 15 cm. Late Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–12v: processional antiphons and responds (inc.) fromLetania majore to the Finding of the Holy Cross (3 May); 12v–31v: Kyrie tropes; 31v–39: Gloria tropes; 39–72v: troped epistles; 72v–88v: Liber generationis, Exultet, Preface and alleluias; 88v–139v: proser (beginning lacking). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 175; Arnese (1967), 146Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. liturg.202 (19314). Secular antiphoner with rubrics from Austria, later at S Pietro, Carnia, nr Udine; 12th century. 150 ff.; 25·3 × 17·8 cm. German neumes. F.1v: date of 1361 (added); 1v–90: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 72); 90v–121v: St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 121v–129: Common; 129–131: Dedication; 131–139v: histories; 139v–142: Sundays after Pentecost; 142–148v: inc. hymnal (texts only). Frere, i (1901), 30; Flotzinger (1991), 67Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. liturg.297 (19395). Notated monastic breviary from St Felicitas, Schwarzach, Austria; after 1154. 352 ff.; 21·5 × 15 cm. German neumes. Ff.3–9: Calendar and computus; 11–142: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 110v); 142–171: histories; 171–188: Sundays after Pentecost, sanc. from St Nicholas (6 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov) and St Damasus (11 Dec); 262v–297: Common; 297–301: Dedication; 302–315: hymnal with few melodies; 315–327: ad canticacanticles, litanies, collects, hymns and Offices for the dead; 329–352v: ferial psalter. Frere, i (1901), 34Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. liturg.321 (19410). Notated votive missal and monastic breviary (Common of the Saints only) from Ravenna; 12th century. 129 ff.; 23·1 × 16·1 cm. Beneventan notation with red line and letter clefs. Missal, ff.3–94v. Ff.3–13v: baptism services (inc. at beginning); 13v–37: ordo for the sick and the dead including litanies, Office and Masses etc.; 37–41v: ordo missae including vesting prayers, Ordinary, Preface and Canon; 41v–43: Trinity Mass; 43–47v: votive weekday ferial Masses; 47v–59: votives (texts only); 59–66v: Blessing of Candle service for Holy Saturday; 66v–94v: notated Masses Puer natus estfor Christmas, Epiphany, Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, Common and Dedication. Breviary, ff.94v–129v. Ff.94v–110: Common and Dedication hymns, collects, lessons and gospels (texts only); 110–129: Common and Dedication, notated antiphons and responds. Frere, i (1901), 112Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. liturg.341 (19427). Gradual with kyriale, prosae and tropes from Innichen (now San Candido), South Tyrol; 12th century. 62 ff.; 25·8 × 18·3 cm. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–30v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 23); 30v–32v: summer sanc. (inc.) from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Peter (29 June); 33–38: Sundays after Pentecost (complete); 38–39v: Common (alleluias only); 40rv: kyriale (group I); 41–58v: proser with little notation; 59–60: introit tropes for major feasts; 60–61: kyriale (group II); 61v–62v: additions. Frere, i (1901), 74; Flotzinger (1991), 73Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon. liturg.350 (19436). Notated missal from north Italy, probably S Martino, Beligna, nr Aquileia; 12th century. 243 ff.; 28·5 × 20·4 cm. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–135: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from the Christmas Mass Dominus dixitto the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 106); 135–172v: summer sanc. from St Nicomedes (1 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 172v–174: Dedication; 174v–210v: Sundays after Pentecost; 211–220: Common; 220: Holy Cross; 220v–221v: Trinity; 221v–230: votives; 230–233v: Requiem Masses; 234–237v: Blessing of the Candle on Holy Saturday; 238–242v: elements from the Offices of the BVM, the Trinity and St Michael. Frere, i (1901), 73; Flotzinger (1991), 87Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawl.C.892 (12726). Gradual, possibly for use in the Benedictine monastery of Downpatrick, Northern Ireland (see Turner); second half of 12th century. 149 ff.; 22·8 × 15·6 cm. Anglo-Norman notation on brown, red, green, blue etc. lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–86v: winter–spring temp. Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 68v); 87–97: Sundays after Pentecost; 97v–101v: Sundays after Pentecost, alleluias; 101v–125: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 125–126: Dedication; 126–47: Common; 147v–149: Requiem; 149rv: troped Christmas Epistle, inc. (see AH, xlix, 1906, p.169). Frere, i (1901), 70; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 89; D.H. Turner, ed.: The Missal of the New Minster, Winchester, Henry Bradshaw Society, xciii (Leighton Buzzard, 1962), appx; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 573Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, A47. Gradual with tropes and prosae from Ravenna; early 12th century. 244 ff. Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. The major Masses contain prosae, prosulas and troped Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. F.1: troped Sanctus Agie Deus altissime; 2v–184: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 131v); 184v–220: summer sanc. from St Primus and St Felician (9 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 220–225: Masses for a pope, a bishop and the Dead; 225–242: Sundays after Pentecost; 242v–244v: Trinity. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 90; G. Cattin: ‘Un témoin des tropes ravennates (Pad 47) dans le cadre de la tradition italienne’, Research on Tropes: Stockholm 1981, ed. G. Iversen (Stockholm, 1983), 39–58Palermo, Archivio Storico Diocesano, 2. Notated missal (inc.) from Palermo, Sicily; dated after 1130. 112 ff.; 32·5 × 20 cm. Quadratic Norman-Sicilian notation. Beginning and end of MS missing. Ff.1–71: winter–spring temp. from the Saturday after the second Sunday of Lent to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 57v); 71–96: Sundays after Pentecost; 96–112v: sanc. (inc.) from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June). F. Terrizzi, ed.: Missale Antiquum S. Panormitanae Ecclesiae (Rome, 1970) [edn of text only]; Hiley (1981)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.742. Notated monastic breviary (temp. vol.) from Ripoll; beginning of 12th century. 281 ff.; 24·5 × 15·3 cm. Aquitanian diastematic notation. Ff.143, 144, 142: Advent I–III (folios bound out of order); f.1: Advent IV; 2–225v: Ember ferials in Advent to Pentecost (Easter, 165); 225v–226: lacuna; 226–279v: Sundays after Pentecost nos.2 to 22 only, with summer histories interspersed throughout; 280–281: Trinity Office (inc.). Leroquais (1934), ii, 417; J. Lemarié: Le bréviaire de Ripoll, Scripta et documenta, xiv (Montserrat, 1965); J. Lemarié: ‘Influence lyonnaise sur l’antiphonaire de l’office de St-Victor de Marseille’,Revue bénédictine, lxxviii (1968), 138–45Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.778. Troper and proser from Narbonne; 12th century. 220 ff.; 27·5 × 18 cm. Late Aquitanian notation on red and yellow lines. Ff.1–8v: troped epistles; 9–23: troped Kyries arranged according to the 8 tones; 24–40v: Glorias and Regnum settings, troped; 41–199v: proser with about 135prosae; 200–217: Sanctus and Agnus, troped; 217v–218v: Laudes regiae, names of Pope Gregory X (1271–6), Archbishop Petrus de Montbrun of Narbonne (1272–86) and King Philip of France (1270–85) added. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 113; H. Husmann: ‘Notre Dame und Saint-Victor’, AcM, xxxvi (1964), 191–221; Rönnau (1967), 31Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1139. Prosae (4 series), historical documents, versus andBenedicamus tropes (some polyphonic), medieval dramas, troped kyries and Marian Offices from the region of Limoges; early 12th and 13th centuries. 236 ff.; 18·5 × 14 cm. Late Aquitanian notation by several notators. Ff.2–8v and 10–20v (early 12th century):prosae (series I); 21–31v and 229–236v (early 13th century): historical chronicles of Limoges (ed. in Duplès-Agier); 32–79 (early 12th century; ff.40–47 in another hand): primarily versus andBenedicamus tropes (some polyphonic) with a Sponsusdrama (53–55v), Procession of the Prophets drama (55v–58) and troped epistles (63–73v); 80–108v (dated c1100): 16prosae (series II); 108v–116 (same period): troped Kyries; 119–148v (13th century): Marian Office and ferials (partly ed. in AH, xlv, 1904, p.23); 149–201 (12th–13th centuries): 37 prosae (series III); 202v–209: Marian Office; 209v–228v (13th century): 14 prosae (series IV). The number of polyphonic items (all for 2vv) is disputed, since several pieces are recorded in successive notation, and because of the absence of clefs it is not always clear when parts are intended to be combined in polyphony. Fuller's (1971) estimate of 11 pieces is reasonable. H. Duplès-Agier:Chroniques de Saint-Martial de Limoges(Paris, 1874); Young (1933), ii, 109, 138, 361, 456; Catalogue général, i (1939), 415; S. Fuller: Aquitanian Polyphony of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 1969); G. de Poerck: ‘Le MS Paris, B.N. lat. 1139’, Scriptorium, xxiii (1969), 298–312; Arlt (1970), i, 190; S. Fuller: ‘Hidden Polyphony: a Reappraisal’, JAMS, xxiv (1971), 169–92; B. Gillingham, ed.: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds latin 1139 (Ottawa, 1987) [facs.]; see also edns by Karp and Van der Werf cited in bibliography of §IV, 1Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.10508. Troper, proser, cantatorium and theory treatises from St Evroult in Normandy; early 12th century. 159 ff.; 20·5 × 12·5 cm. French notation on 4 dry lines with red F and green C lines. Ff.3–5: table of introit, offertory and communion incipits for the liturgical year; 6–17: Kyrie tropes; 17v–43v: Gloria andRegnum tropes; 44–117: graduals, alleluias and prosae arranged according to the liturgical year; 117v–125: Sanctus tropes; 125v–129v: Agnus tropes; 130–135v: supplement of mixed character; 136–158v: 6 medieval theory treatises. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 103; RISM, B/III/1 (1961), 112; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 142; A. Dennery: La musique liturgique en l’Abbaye de Saint-Evroult d’après le tropaire-prosaire Ms. Paris B.N. lat.10508(diss., U. of Paris IV, 1987)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.12044. Monastic antiphoner from St Maur-des-Fossés; 12th century. 241 ff. French notation on 4 black lines with letter clefs. Beginning and end of MS lacking. Ff.1–125: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent III (lacuna between 1v–2) to Trinity (Easter, 99v); 125–139: histories; 139–143: Sundays after Pentecost; 143–226: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 226–241: Common, MS breaks off within the Office for Holy Virgins. A. Renaudin: ‘Deux antiphonaires de Saint-Maur: BN Lat 12584 et 12044’, EG, xiii (1972), 53–150; CANTUS databaseParis, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.17296. Antiphoner from St Denis, Paris; 12th century. 355 ff.; 29 × 20 cm. French notation on dry lines or a 4-line staff with letter clefs. Ff.1–168v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 136); 169–264v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 264v–287: Common; 287–289v: Dedication; 289v–312v: histories; 312v–317v: Responsoria de psalmis (Hesbert, ii, p.742); 317v–322: de cantico antiphons and Hymnum trium puerorum (Hesbert, ii, p.746); 322–327v: Sundays after Pentecost; 327v–330: Office of the Dead with the title ‘In natale Dagoberti Regis’; 330–342: processional antiphons (Hesbert, ii, p.780); 342–348: Advent alleluias, Libera me with 19 verses andVenite settings; 348v–355v: Offices of St Mary Magdalen, St Cornelius and St Cyprian, and St Pantaleon. Hesbert (1963–79), ii, MS D [text]; J. Udovich: Modality, Office Antiphons, and Psalmody: the Musical Authority of the Twelfth-Century Antiphonal from St.-Denis(diss., U. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1985)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Troper and proser from Gerona, Spain; 12th century. 120 ff.; 16·6 × 10·9 cm. Late Catalan notation without lines, but with many melodies in quadratics on lines and over erasures. Ff.1–2v: bifolium from an antiphoner; 3–17: Kyrie tropes beginning within Clemens rector; 17–43v: Gloria tropes; 44–49v: Sanctus tropes; 51–117: 37 prosae; 117rv: Agnus without tropes. Anglès (1935), 150; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 145Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Gradual, tonary, hymnal, proser, troper and kyriale from the Cathedral of St Cyr, Nevers; 12th century. 262 ff.; 28 × 18·5 cm. French notation on red F, yellow C and 2 dry lines. Offertories with verses. This is a sister MS to F-Pn, part of an antiphoner. Ff.2–8v: supplement (14th century); 9–93: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 75v); 93–109v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 109v–119v: Sundays after Pentecost; 119v–120: Dedication; 120–121v: Masses for the Dead; 121v–136v: processional antiphons; 136v–141v: responds; 141v–146: tonary; 146–147: troped Kyries; 147v–177v: hymnal (ed. Stäblein, 1956); 177v–244v: tropes,prosae, kyriale and Mass chant incipits grouped together by feasts and arranged according to the liturgical year (Officium stellaeMagi play, 198); 245–262v: secular Offices of St Anne and Augustine, 8 prosae, etc. (added 14th century). Stäblein (1956), 69;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 111; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 446; Huglo (1971), 323; N.M. Van Deusen: Music at Nevers Cathedral: Principal Sources of Medieval Chant (Henryville, PA, 1980); E.J. Reier: The Introit Trope Repertory at Nevers: MSS Paris B.N. lat.9449 and Paris B.N. (diss. U. of California, Berkeley, 1981)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Troper and kyriale from Nevers; 12th century. 112 ff.; 21·2 × 15·1 cm. Late French notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–8v: added gathering containing 7 prosae; 9–63v: 59 prosae; 64–78v: kyriale; 78v–103v: supplement with 16prosae; 104–111v: last gathering with 7 prosae copied by 3 notators (13th-century additions). M. Huglo: ‘Un nouveau prosaire nivernais’, Ephemerides liturgicae, lxxi (1957), 3–30; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 148Paris, Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève, 93 (BB.1.fol.4). Notated missal (inc.) from Paris; end of 12th century. 211 ff.; 25·5 × 16·5 cm. Late French notation on 2 or 3 lines with yellow C, green F and dry line A. Offertories lack verses. First 40 folios of MS missing. Ff.1–105v: winter–spring temp. from Tuesday of the first week of Lent to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost and its ember ferials (Easter, 72); 105v–137: Sundays after Pentecost; 137–184: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 184–185v: Dedication; 185v–198v: Common; 198v–203v: votives; 203v–211: Masses for the sick and the dead. Leroquais (1924), i, 344; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 112; Bernard, i (1965), 25Piacenza, Duomo, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare, 65. ‘Liber officiorum’ or ‘Liber magistri’ of Piacenza Cathedral, containing all chants necessary for the performance of Mass and Office; second quarter of 12th century. 450 ff.; 48 × 34 cm. Central-Italian notation on 4 dry lines with red F line. In the gradual, sanc. and Common are combined in four main divisions: apostles, martyrs, confessors and virgins. Ff.1–3: tonary of invitatories; 3v–4v: tonary of antiphons; 5: treatise on alchemy and astronomy; 43: Calendar; 55v: tables, psalter, canticles, litanies, Office of BVM (texts), hymns and Office prayers throughout year; 149: tonary of Mass chants; 151v–226: gradual, temp. and sanc./Common of the Saints (Easter, 183); 226v: Kyries and Glorias; 229–261: tropes for Proper of Mass chants, Ordinary chants and sequences in liturgical order; 262–264: Cassiodorus’s Institutiones Musicae, divisions of monochord; 264v–267v: second tonary of antiphons. Secular antiphoner, ff.268–439v. Ff.268v–273v: invitatory tones; 274–365: temp. (Easter, 330v); 365v–423: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Victoria (23 Dec); 423–431v: Common of the Saints; 431v–433v: Dedication; 433v–435v: Office of the Dead; 440: Calendar; 449: mensural Credos (later addition). RISM B/III/2 (1968), 142–5; Huglo (1971), 174; P. Merkley:Italian Tonaries (Ottawa, 1988); K. Glaeske and others: Piacenza, Biblioteca Capitolare 65 (Ottawa, 1993 with introduction by P. Merkley); Il libro del Maestro: codice 65 dell’Archivio Capitolare della Cattedrale di Piacenza (sec. XII) (Piacenza, 1997) [facs.]; CANTUS databaseRome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, (XIII. 12). Notated missal (temp. part) from Caiazzo, nr Caserta; dated 1124–31. 90 ff.; 37·5 × 26·5 cm. Diastematic Beneventan notation. Offertories lack verses. Beginning and end of the MS are lacking. Ff.1–63: winter–spring temp. from Advent III to Holy Saturday; 63–65: Preface and Canon; 65–88: Easter to Whit Saturday; 88–90v: Sundays after Pentecost (nos.1–4 only). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 123; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 112Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, (XIV.72). Notated missal from the region of Veroli; 12th century. 198 ff.; 31 × 19 cm. Diastematic Beneventan notation with a dry line. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–13 are mutilated. Ff.1–138: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent to Whit Saturday (Easter, 109v); 138–158v: Sundays after Pentecost; 158v–159v: Trinity; 159v–183v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 183v–193v: Common; 193v–195v: votive ferial Masses. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 124; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 115Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Partly notated missal from the region of Monte Cassino and Benevento; 12th century. 377 ff.; 27 × 17cm. Beneventan notation with 2 dry lines; red F line used after f.127. Offertories lack verses. Notation in MS confined to ff.1–244 and 303–305v. Ff.1–217v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Easter; 217v–230v: ordo missae, Prefaces and Canon; 230v–269v: Monday after Easter to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 269v–299: Sundays after Pentecost; 300–337: summer sanc. from St Petronilla (31 May) and St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 337v–340v: ordo sponsalium; 341–367: Common; 367–368: Dedication; 368v–377v: votives. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 127; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 126Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rossiani 231. Gradual from the diocese of Venice; 12th century. 148 ff.; 28 × 18·5 cm. North Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–104v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Saturday following the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 77); 104–134v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov) and St Zeno (12 April); 134–148v: Sundays after Pentecost, breaks off within no.21. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 128; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 82Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Notated missal with calendar from Monte Cassino; first half of 12th century. 319 ff.; 29·5 × 20·3 cm. Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–6v: Calendar; 7–136v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 136v–149v: vesting prayers, Ordinary of the Mass, and Canon; 150–176: Easter to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 176v–213: summer sanc. from St Tiburtius and St Valerian (14 April) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 213–238v: Sundays after Pentecost; 239v–265: Common; 265–267: Dedication; 267–289: votive and Requiem Masses; 289–293v: baptism rites; 298–319v: Good Friday services, votives, Gospel of the Passion, etc. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 125; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 160Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, 1741 (C.IV.2). Kyriale, troper-proser and processional from the abbey of S Silvestro, Nonantola; early 12th century. 192 ff.; 18·4 × 12·4 cm. Nonantolan notation on dry lines with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–4v: notated Rogation litany Humili prece; 5–44v: kyriale, with and without tropes; 44v–46v: Fraction antiphons; 46v–134v: a combined troper-proser with tropes, prosae, prosulas, Gospel antiphons and regular Mass chants grouped by major feasts and arranged according to the liturgical year; 135–181v: processional antiphons; 181v–184: Rogation chants and litany; 185–192v: processional antiphons, Rogation and Vigil of Ascension Masses. G. Vecchi:Troparium sequentiarium nonantulanum, MLMI, i/1 (1955) [facs.]; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 121; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 182; Rönnau (1967), 49; Studi medievali, 3rd ser., ix (1968), 1145; Borders (1996), i, p.xiii [description], xviii [inventory]Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana, C.13. Notated monastic breviary (winter part) from St Eutizio of ValCastoriana, nr Norcia; 12th century. 403 ff.; 36 × 23·7 cm. Late Beneventan notation on four lines with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–403v: winter temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday (inc.). Studi medievali, 3rd ser., xi (1970), 1040; J.C. Ledwon: The Winter Office of Sant’Eutizio di Norcia: a Study of the Contents and Construction of Biblioteca Vallicelliana Manuscripts C 13 and C 5 (diss., SUNY, Buffalo, 1986)Rome, Biblioteca Vallicelliana, C.52. Gradual and kyriale from central Italy, possibly from S Eutizio of Val Castoriana, nr Norcia; 12th century. 166 ff.; 23 × 15·3 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1v–103v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 80v); 103v–127: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 127v–130: Requiem Masses; 130–143: Sundays after Pentecost; 143–144v: Trinity; 144v–145v: Dedication; 145v–166v: kyriale with tropes and prosae. Huglo (1954), 100;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 123; Studi medievali, xi (1970), 1045Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 209–10 (Y.1751-²). Partly notated monastic breviary in 2 volumes from Jumièges; second half of 12th century. 27·2 × 18·7 cm. Norman neumes. MS 209, 330 ff., temp. Ff.1v–7: Calendar; 8–256v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 189); 256v–329v: Sundays after Pentecost. MS 210, 344 ff., sanc. Ff.5–260: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 260v–330: Common; 330–338v: Dedication. Leroquais (1934), iv, 102; Hesbert (1954), 71Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 244 (A.261). Notated monastic breviary from Fécamp; end of 12th century. 313 ff.; 29·4 × 20·8 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–114: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Trinity (Easter, 78); 118v–153v: Sundays after Pentecost; 162–313: sanc. from St Thomas (21 Dec) to St Nicholas (6 Dec) and Conception of BVM (8 Dec) inc. Leroquais (1934), iv, 116Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, F.IV.18. Gradual, processional and kyriale from Bobbio; 12th century. 177 ff. North Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories with verses. Mutilated leaves scattered throughout the MS. The major Masses contain prosae, prosulas and troped introits, Kyries, Glorias, Sanctus and Agnus. F.1: gradual prologuesGregorius presul meritus, etc.; 2–111v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 87); 111v–142v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 142v–158: Sundays after Pentecost; 158–159v: Trinity; 159v–160v: Requiem; 160v–161v: St Nicholasprosa Congaudentes exultemus; 161v–168: troped Kyries, Sanctus and Agnus; 168v–177v: processional antiphons, Rogation antiphons, litanies, alleluias and Marian chants including the Gloria Spiritus et alme. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 146Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek, 406 (3.J.7). Secular antiphoner from St Mary’s, Utrecht; 12th century with some 13th-, 14th- and 15th-century additions. 256 ff.; 32·5 × 25·5 cm. Dutch notation on 4 lines with red F and yellow C lines, a letter C clef and a dot indicating an F clef. Ff.1–4 (14th century): 6 sequences and beginning of antiphoner, Advent I; 5–120v: winter temp. and sanc. (Easter, 97); 120v–207v: summer histories and sanc.; 136–141v (14th century): Corpus Christi; 142–151v (13th century): added Offices; 208–222: Common; 222v–228: Sundays after Pentecost; 228v–233v: tonary, extracts from theoretical treatises; 234–256 (14th and 15th century): additional Offices. RISM B/III/1 (1961), 137–9; C.T. Downey: An Utrecht Antiphoner: Utrecht, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit 406 (3.J.7) (Ottawa, 1997); R. Steiner, ed.: Utrecht, Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit, MS 406 (3.J.7) (Ottawa, 1997 with introduction by I. de Loos) [facs.]; CANTUS databaseVercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 124 (14). Notated missal from Novalesa; early 12th century. 227 ff.; 31 × 17 cm. Novalese neumes. Offertories lack verses. Occasional irregular numbering of the folios. Ff.1–134: winter temp. from Christmas Mass no.1 to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 112). Between ff.69 and 70: Calendar (Jan–May and Sept–Dec) and an inc. Canon. Ff.134–156: Sundays after Pentecost. Between 156 and 157: misnumbered leaves containing Credo, Gloria, offertory prayers, Prefaces, Mass of Gratiniani et Filini, vesting prayers, Sundays in Advent V, I–IV to Christmas. Ff.157v–188v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 189–205v: Common; 205v–206v: Dedication; 206v–207v: Trinity; 207v–227: votive Masses (texts only). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 146 (28). Gradual and a troper-proser from Vercelli; early 12th century. 122 ff.; 27 × 17 cm. North Italian diastematic notation with custodes. Offertories with verses. Ff.2–76: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 53v); 76–79v: summer sanc. (inc.) from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Peter (29 June); 80–88: Sundays after Pentecost (first Sunday partly missing); 88rv: Trinity; 89v–90: Dedication; 90rv: Requiem; 90v–91: lacuna; 91–94: processional antiphons; 94–119v: combined troper and proser for major feasts. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 162 (174). Gradual and troper-proser from Vercelli; early 12th century. 203 ff.; 27 × 18 cm. North Italian diastematic notation. Offertories with verse texts, but final verses often lack melodies. Ff.1–138v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning missing) from Advent IV to Whit Saturday (Easter, 102); 138v–156v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 156v–167: Sundays after Pentecost; 167rv: Trinity; 168v–169: Requiem; 169v–171v: processional antiphons; 171v–202v: combined troper, kyriale and proser for major feasts. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Series nova 2700. Collectarium, Calendar, gradual, kyriale, proser and monastic antiphoner from St Peter’s, Salzburg; c1160. 846 pp.; 42·5 × 31 cm. St Gallen neumes. Offertories with verses. Pp.3–22: 12 Office lessons for Holy Saturday at None (texts only); 23–148: collectarium (texts only); 150–63: Calendar and table of movable feasts. Pp.166–427: notated gradual. Pp.166–355: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 315); 355–95: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 396–7: Dedication; 397–8: Trinity; 398–421: Sundays after Pentecost; 421–7: Common (alleluias only); 428–37: kyriale (notated); 439–67: proser in double columns (texts only), no sequences in the margins. Pp.468–843: notated monastic antiphoner, with differentiae cues in the margins. Pp.468–675: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 632 and Office of St Rupertus, 571–6); 675–759: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 759–88: Common; 788–93: Dedication; 793–8: Trinity; 802–26: histories; 827–36: Sundays after Pentecost; 836–43: Office of the Dead with 8 lessons; 844–5: Alleluia,Solve jubente and prosaTu es Petrus (added). O. Mazal and F. Unterkircher: Katalog der abendländischen Handschriften der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, ‘Series Nova’, ii/1 (Vienna, 1963), 355; Antiphonar von St. Peter (Graz, 1969–74) [colour facs.]; S. Engels, ed.: Das Antiphonar von St. Peter in Salzburg: Codex ÖNB Ser.Nov.2700(Paderborn, 1994)Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Series Nova 2837 (Suppl.Mus.15488). Calendar, gradual, kyriale, proser and sacramentary copied for a church in the diocese of Freising and later used at a church in the diocese of Salzburg; 12th century with later additions. 173 ff.; 27 × 19 cm. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1v–7: Calendar with many additions; 9–47v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 40); 47v–55v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 55v–56: Dedication; 56: Trinity; 56–62v: Sundays after Pentecost; 62v–64: epistles and gospels (13th century); 65–87v: alleluias, kyriale and proser (14th century); 88–99v: kyriale and proser (14th century); 100–116v: Prefaces, Canon and votive masses (14th century); 117–161v: sacramentary (defective beginning); 162–173v: 3 fragments from other MSS (13th–15th centuries). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 153; O. Mazal and F. Unterkircher:Katalog der abendländischen Handschriften der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek, ‘Series Nova’, ii/1 (Vienna, 1963), 406Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Rheinau 125 (Mohlberg 495). Gradual and proser from Rheinau; 12th century. 130 ff.; 15·3 × 10·2 cm. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–62: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I (inc.) to Whit Saturday (Easter, 49); 62–74: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 74rv: Trinity; 74v–84: Sundays after Pentecost; 84–85: Saturday Marian MassSalve sancta parens; 85–88: Common (alleluias only); 88v–89: 4 prosae (texts only); 89v–126v: proser (partly notated), no sequences in the margins; 126v–130v: supplement of 3 Glorias (notated), Credo (text only),versus of Fortunatus’s Salve festa dies (notated), and prosae and an antiphon to St Findanus. C. Mohlberg:Katalog der Handschriften der Zentralbibliothek Zürich, i: Mittelalterliche Handschriften, dritte Lieferung (Zürich, 1936), 221; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 156

6. 12th–13th centuries.

Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery, 63. Cistercian antiphoner (sanc. vol.), hymnal and tonary of St Bernard, of French origin; dated 1175–1202. 135 ff.; 35 × 25 cm. Cistercian notation on 4 lines. Ff.1–93: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 93v–117: Common; 117–130: hymnal; 130v–132v: tonary of St Bernard; 133–135: vesper antiphons for St Raphael and a Marian hymn O quam glorifica luce. R. Unsinn: The Walters Manuscript 63 (diss., Catholic U. of America, Washington, DC, 1970)Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug.perg.LX. Monastic antiphoner of Zwiefalten, Swabia (taken to the abbey of Reichenau in the early 16th century); late 12th century. 276 ff.; 33·4 × 22·9 cm. Original notation fine German neumes on 4 lines with red F and yellow C lines; neumes almost completely replaced in 13th–14th century with elegant German Hufnagel notation (seven different notations in all; see Hain); letters indicating mode and differentia. Ff.2v–156v: winter temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whitsuntide (Easter, 93v). (Ff.106–143v: interpolated offices, 15th century, including Proper Offices for Reichenau saints.) 157–206v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 206v–221v: Common of the Saints; 221v–224v: Dedication; 224v–227v: Trinity; 227v–232v: Offices for Elisabeth of Hungary and Catherine of Alexandria, added in 13th century; 233–247: histories; 247–248: antiphons ‘ad Benedicite’; 248–253v: Sundays after Pentecost; 254–259: invitatory tones; 259v–265v: Office of the Dead; 265v–267v: chants ‘ad Mandatum’; 267v–271v: ferial Office; 272: Common of Mary; 273–275: St Benedict. K. Hain: Ein musikalischer Palimpsest (Fribourg, 1925); J.P. Metzinger: The Zwiefalten Antiphoner: Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. perg. LX (Ottawa, 1996 with introduction by H. Möller); H. Möller, ed.:Antiphonarium: Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Aug. perg. 60 (Munich, 1995) [microfiche facs.]; CANTUS databaseLaon, Bibliothèque Municipale, 263. Troper, proser, medieval plays and hymnal from the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Laon; late 12th or early 13th century. 188 ff.; 28·6 × 19·2 cm. Messine notation on 4 lines. Section A: ff.1–90v. Ff.1–18v: Marian ‘Ave’ psalters; 19–20v: Easter prosaZyma vetus expurgetur; 21–22v: introit psalms with tropes arranged by tones; 22v–29v: Kyrie tropes; 30–34: Gloria tropes; 34v–81v: prosae with a few sequences; 82–84: Sanctus and Agnus tropes; 85–90v: Marian prosae. Section B: ff.91–153v. Ff.91–92v: Laudes regiae; 92v–147v: prosae, hymns, respond prosulas, epistles, conductus etc. for special secular Office and Mass services for the New Year season; 114–121v (added gathering): prosae to St Thomas of Canterbury and St Vincent, troped Pater noster, Gloria, Credo, etc.; 147v–153v: 3 plays (texts only), Ordo prophetarum, Ordo stelle, Ordo Joseph. Section C: ff.154–188v: notated hymnal. Young (1933), ii, 103, 145, 266; Stäblein (1956), 141, 555; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 103; Arlt (1970); Huglo (1971), 320; D.G. Hughes: ‘Music for St Stephen at Laon’, Words and Music: the Scholar’s View … in Honor of A. Tillman Merritt, ed. L. Berman (Cambridge, MA, 1972), 137–59London, British Library, Add.31384. Carthusian gradual from the Chartreuse du Reposoir, nr Cluses (Haute-Savoie); 12th–13th centuries. 161 ff. Quadratic notation on single red F and 3 dry lines. Offertories without verses. Ff.2–16: computus and Calendar (added 17th century); 17–94v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. (beginning lacking) from Christmas MassLux fulgebit to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 81); 94v–115: Sundays after Pentecost; 115–131v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 131v–132: Missa pro defunctis Respice Domine; 132–139: kyriale; 139–161v: supplement of mixed character (different notators). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 63Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, VI-G-11. Notated missal from Acre (now ‘Akko, Israel), 237 ff.; 28·3 × 20 cm. Small quadratic Norman notation on 4 black lines. Ff.1–95v: winter temp. from Christmas Mass Lux fulgebit to Holy Saturday; 96v–99v: Preface and Canon; 100–125v: Easter to Trinity; 126–160v: Sundays after Pentecost; 161–212v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 216rv: Dedication; 221v–237: Common; 237: Requiem. Ebner (1896), 118; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 85; Arnese (1967), 132; H. Buchtal: Miniature Painting in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (Oxford, 1957); Hiley (1981), 51Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1086. Processional, troper and proser from St Leonard, nr Limoges; 12th–13th centuries. 132 ff.; 26·5 × 18 cm. Late Aquitanian notation with 1 red line. Ff.2–17v: processional; 18–27: Kyries and Glorias, with and without tropes; 27–122v: proser; 123–128: Sanctus and Agnus, with and without tropes; 128–131v: 2 troped epistles. Catalogue général, i (1939), 394; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 122; H. Husmann: ‘Notre-Dame und Saint-Victor’, AcM, xxxvi (1964), 191–221Piacenza, Basilica di S Antonino, Biblioteca e Archivio Capitolare I(formerly 677 E sotto). Gradual from Piacenza; 12th–13th centuries. 163 ff.; 27 × 19 cm. Early quadratic notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–86v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 68v); 87–102v: Sundays after Pentecost; 102v–103v: Trinity; 103v–104v: Dedication St Michael (29 Sept); 105–115: sanc. (series I) feasts of the Apostles for the year from St John (27 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 115–158: sanc. (series II) feasts of other saints for the year from St Stephen (26 Dec) to All Saints (1 Nov); 158–159v: Requiem; 159v–160: Dedication; 160rv: kyriale (inc.). F. Bussi:L’antifonario graduale della Basilica di S Antonino in Piacenza: sec. XII, Biblioteca storica piacentina, xxvii (Piacenza, 1956); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 115Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, (XII.2). Notated missal with Calendar from St Michel, Lyons; dated 1173–1223. 275 ff.; 32·5 × 22 cm. French neumes from the region of Lyons. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–3v: Calendar; 11–124v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 125–128: Prefaces and Canon; 129–171v: Easter to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 171v–209: Sundays after Pentecost; 209–241v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 241v–251: Common; 251v–261: votive and Requiem Masses; 261–262: Trinity; 263–268v: Office collects pro peccatis; 268v–275v; services for the sick and the dead. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 123, Salmon; ccliii (1969), 109Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Notated votive missal from the region of Benevento and Monte Cassino; 12th–13th centuries. 96 ff.; 25·5 × 17·5 cm. Beneventan notation with F line. Offertories lack verses. MS inc. at beginning and end. Ff.1–40v: services for the sick and the dead including a secular Office and Masses; 41–60v: vesting prayers, Ordinary of the Mass, Prefaces and Canon; 61–76: votive and Marian Masses; 76–96v: Common of the Saints, MS breaks off within the Mass of a Confessor. Ebner (1896), 228, 345 [edn of ff.43v–47, 58–60]; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 164Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, HB.I.55. Monastic antiphoner and tonary from Weingarten; 12th–13th centuries. 194 ff.; 23·5 × 17·5 cm. German neumes. F.1: lacking; 2–107: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I (inc.) to Trinity (Easter, 81); 107–151: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 151–162v: Common; 162v–165: Dedication; 165–176: histories; 176rv:Trium puerorum antiphons; 176v–182: Sundays after Pentecost; 182–185v: Venite settings; 185v–190v: supplement of Offices – All Saints, Trinity, Benedict and hymn to St Oswald; 191rv: tonary. J. Autenrieth and others:Die Handschriften der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart, 2nd ser., i/1 (Wiesbaden, 1968), 85; Huglo (1971), 255; CANTUS databaseVercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 70 (115). Secular antiphoner (winter section) with tonary and hymnal, probably from Vercelli; 12th–13th centuries. 229 ff.; 35 × 27 cm. Late north Italian notation with F and C lines. Ff.1–208v: winter temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Holy Saturday including the Offices of St Nicholas (f.8), St Fabian and St Sebastian (108) and the Purification (121); 208v–222: 2 tonaries; 222–227v: inc. hymnal from Advent to Passion Sunday. Huglo (1971), 172Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.1909. Gradual and sacramentary with Calendar, kyriale and proser from Admont; 12th–13th centuries. 209 ff.; 18·6 × 13·2 cm. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–6v: Calendar; 7–48v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 40v); 48v–56: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 56–57: Dedication and Trinity; 57–63v: Sundays after Pentecost; 63v–65v: Common (alleluias only); 65v–67: kyriale; 67v–95: proser (texts only); 97–209: sacramentary preceded by a Canon. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 151

7. 13th century.

Aachen, Bischöfliche Diözesanbibliothek, 13(XII) (Gradual of Arnoldus). Gradual, troper and double proser from Aachen; beginning of 13th century. 169 ff.; 47 × 32·5 cm. GermanHufnagel notation on 4 lines. Ff.1–78: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sundays after Pentecost inclusive; 78rv: Dedication; 78v–104v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 104v–105: Requiem masses; 105–107v: Common (alleluias only); 107v–120v: kyriale with introit tropes; 120v–156v: French proser; 157–169: German proser. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 25; R.-J. Hesbert: Le prosaire d’Aix-la-Chapelle, Monumenta musicae sacrae, iii (Rouen, 1961) [facs. of ff.120v–169]Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.25 (Ed.IV.11). Secular antiphoner from Bamberg; 13th century. 151 ff.; 24·5 × 17 cm. German notation with F and C lines. Ff.1–71v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 55v); 71v–110v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 110v–122: Common; 122–125: Dedication; 125–139: histories; 139–144v: Sundays after Pentecost; 144v–146v: Office of the Dead; 146v–151v: Venitesettings. CANTUS databaseBamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Liturg.26 (Ed.IV.2). Secular antiphoner from Bamberg; 13th century. 128 ff.; 26·7 × 21·4 cm. German neumes. Ff.1–61: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost; 61–92v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 92v–98v: Common; 98v–100: Dedication; 100–102: Trinity; 102–110: histories; 110–113: Sundays after Pentecost; 113–116v:Venite settings; 116v–117v: Office of the Dead; 118v–119v: Tonary of Henricus of Augsburg; 120–125: hymns (texts only); 126v–128: Office of St Kunigunde, notated. Huglo (1971), 281Berkeley, University of California Music Library, 752. Rubricated and notated Camaldolese breviary (temp. vol.) from Camaldoli; end of 13th century (before 1292). 340 ff.; 37·5 × 25 cm. Quadratic notation on 2 to 6 red lines. Original library shelf numbers: ‘Sacri Eremi Camalduli W-126 and Q.V-3’. MS copied by Simon of Genoa (d 18 Sept 1292). Inserted between Ember Saturday in Advent and Christmas (ff.41v–45v) are a sermon of St Augustine, a litany, a tract by St Bernard and an extended series of ordines. Ff.1–2v: ferial psalter (beginning lacking); 3–4v: Camaldolese Calendar; 5–257: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 215v); 257v–328v: Sundays after Pentecost; 329–335v: Trinity; 336–340v: supplement of Marian prayers: ‘Ave’ psalters, litany, orations, prosae, Office (texts only).Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Albert Ier, II 3824 (Fétis 1173). Gradual with prosae and kyriale from St Bénigne, Dijon; mid-13th century. 296 ff. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories without verses. A typical festal Mass includes Kyrie and Gloria incipits and a completeprosa. Ff.1–139: winter temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 91v); (duplicate nos. for ff.130–39); 139–161v: Sundays after Pentecost; 164–223: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Lucy (13 Dec); 223–225v: Dedication; 226–265: Common; 265–278v: kyriale; 278v–284v: processional antiphons; 284v–296v: prosae. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 38Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale Royale Albert Ier, 19389 (Cat.429). Notated missal with prosae from St Martin, Quesnast, nr Brussels; 13th century. 193 ff.; 30 × 20 cm. Messine notation on 4 black lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.4–14v: Calendar with obituaries; 18–82v: winter temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 83–87: Prefaces and Canon (added 14th century); 87–108: Easter to Trinity; 108–129v: Sundays after Pentecost; 130–147: Common; 147–170v: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 170v–171v: Dedication; 172–173: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 174v–175: Requiem; 175–177v: votives; 178–193v: proser (texts only, added 14th century).Cambridge, University Library, Mm.2.9 (‘Barnwell Antiphoner’). Rubricated Sarum antiphoner (inc.) probably from the house of Augustinian canons at Barnwell, England; 13th century. 302 ff.; 34 × 24 cm. Early English quadratic notation on 4 lines. Perhaps the first 4 gatherings of the MS are lacking. Ff.1–98: winter temp. from the Monday after the Octave of Epiphany to Trinity (Easter, 68); 98–116v: histories; 116v–121v: Sundays after Pentecost; 123–267: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Cecilia (22 Nov); 267–284v: Common; 285–291v: hymnal (inc.). Central MS used in the preparation of the facs. Antiphonale sarisburiense, Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society (London, 1901–25/R). Frere, ii (1932), 79Cologne, Erzbischöfliches Diözesan- und Dombibliothek, Bu 2. Notated Cistercian missal probably from the abbey of Altenberg; first half of 13th century. 293 ff.; 37 × 27 cm. German Hufnagelnotation on 4 lines with red F and yellow C lines. Beginning of MS lacking. Ff.4–116: winter temp. from Advent III: Feria VI to Vigil of Pentecost (Easter, 98v); 116v–123v: Prefaces, communicantes, kyriale, ordo missae; 124–127v: additions; 128–134v: Pentecost week ferials; 134v–162: Sundays after Pentecost; 162–163v: Dedication; 164–220: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 220v–238v: Common; 239–41: Trinity; 241–263v: votives; 264–293v: tropes,prosae and hymns. Hammer (1968), 71Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 871. Cantatorium from the colegiate church of St Kunibert, Cologne; dated c1250. 105 ff.; 26·5 × 10·3 cm. Hufnagel notation on 2 black, 1 red and 1 yellow lines. Most of the masses are composed only of notated gradual and alleluia verses intended to be sung by a soloist. Ff.1v–3: bifolium from a contemporary processional MS containing a single antiphon for Advent I Ecce karissimi dies illa iudicii; 4–37: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Thursday after Pentecost (Easter, 28v); 37rv: Trinity; 37v–45: Sundays after Pentecost; 45–58: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov) inclusive; 58–63: Common (alleluia verses only); 63rv: Dedication; 63v–76v: Good Friday and Holy Saturday chants; 77–84: notated epistles and gospels; 84v–87: elements from an Easter play (copied twice); 87v: antiphon for St Cunibert Pontifex Deo plenus Cunibertus; 88–95v: full responds for Sunday processions from the Sunday after Epiphany to Passion Sunday; 96–103: notated epistles and gospels; 103v–104v: troped SanctusGenitor summi filii and Agnus Rex eterne glorie. Eizenhöfer and Knaus (1968), 59Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek, St Thomas 391(formerly St Thomaskirche, 371). Tonary, gradual, kyriale and proser from St Thomaskirche, Leipzig. 8 parchment leaves,h8 (13th–14th centuries); 10 paper leaves,i–s (dated 1533), and 196 parchment leaves (end of 13th century); 32 × 23 cm. Gothic notation (Messine-derived neumes) on 4 lines with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories for several major feasts still retain their verses. (Ff.1–137v published in facs. by Wagner and numbered pp.1–249.) Tonary (ff.h8 ); pp.2–153 (in Wagner edn) winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, p.116); pp.153–4: Trinity; pp.154–5: Corpus Christi; pp.155–75: Sunday after Pentecost; pp.175–7: Dedication; pp.177–222: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); pp.222–4 (ff.124–5): Mass for the Dead Si enim credimus; pp.224–6 (ff.125–6): Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; pp.226–32 (ff.126–9): Common (alleluias only); pp.232–49 (ff.129–137v): kyriale; ff.138–186: notated proser containing 84prosae (inc. at the beginning, starting within Eia recolamus); ff.186–190v: alleluias for the temp. and sanc.; ff.190v–191v:Liber generationis; ff.192–194: Mass ordines with some musical incipits; ff.194–196v: supplement including Fabrice prosulas and an abbreviated Credo in cantus fractus notation. P. Wagner:Das Graduale der St Thomaskirche zu Leipzig (14. Jahrhundert), Publikationen älterer Musik, v, vii (Leipzig, 1930–32); P. Wagner: ‘Ein kurzer Tonar’,Gregorius-Blatt, liii (1929), 97–114; P. Wagner: ‘Aus dem St Thomas-Archiv zu Leipzig’, ZMw, xii (1929–30), 65–72, 129–37; Huglo (1971), 245;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 58London, British Library, Add.17303. Carthusian gradual from the Chartreuse du Reposoir, nr Cluses (Haute-Savoie), or Durbon; 1222–59. 126 ff.; 29·8 × 20 cm. Late Aquitanian notation with red line. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–70: temp. from Advent I to Trinity; 70–89v: Sundays after Pentecost; 89v–114v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec). The Dedication Mass (107rv) is placed between 28 Aug and 8 Sept; 114v–115: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 117–119v: kyriale; 119v–124: Common; 124–126v: St Catherine and Corpus Christi. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 62London, British Library, Add.23935. A service book containing the entire Dominican liturgy in one volume based on the corrections ordered by Blessed Humbert of Romans. The British Library copy of Humbert’s Codex is made up of 21 parts, and was destined to be used by the master-general of the order as an authentic copy of Dominican practice. 579 ff.; 26 × 17·5 cm. Ff.23–571 dated 1255–63 and ff.3–22, 572–9 dated 1358–63. Notated sections in quadratic notation on 4 red lines. (Cf I-Rss XIV, lit.1.) G.R. Galbraith: The Constitution of the Dominican Order, 1216–1360 (Manchester, 1925), 193; W.R. Bonniwell: A History of the Dominican Liturgy (New York, 1944), 94; D. Delalande:Le Graduel des prêcheurs, Bibliothèque d’histoire dominicaine, ii (Paris, 1949)London, British Library, Add.38723. Notated and rubricated missal and proser from Paris; mid-13th century. 232 ff.; 19 × 12·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–79v: winter temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 79v–84: Offertory, Preface and Canon prayers; 84–106v: Easter to Trinity; 106v–126: Sundays after Pentecost; 126–156v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 156v–157: Dedication; 157–175v: Common; 175v–180v: votives; 181–184v: Requiem and prayers for the dead; 185–186: Marian Masses; 186v–187: Laudes regiae; 188–191: kyriale; 191v–232v: notated proser.London, British Library, Add.39678. Premonstratensian gradual with kyriale and proser from the abbey of Park, nr Leuven; dated c1260. 237 ff.; 36·5 × 26·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. MS copied for Simon de Lovanio, prior of the abbey, 1255–66 (see colophon f.227). Ff.1–101v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 77); 101v–116v: Sundays after Pentecost; 117–136: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 136–162: Common; 162v–163v: Dedication; 163v–164: Holy Cross; 164–165v: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 165v–167: Requiem; 167–175: kyriale without tropes; 175–224v: notated proser; 224v–237v: supplement of selected Masses and chants. British Museum: Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts, 1916–1920 (London, 1933), 157London, British Library, Eg.3759. Gradual (inc.) from Crowland Abbey, Lincs.; second quarter of 13th century. 157 ff.; 21·5 × 14·6 cm. Early quadratic notation on 4 red lines. MS acquired by the British Museum in 1957. Beginning and end of MS including the Common and the Sundays after Pentecost are missing. Ff.1–57v: temp.; 57v–147v: sanc.; 147v–152v: prosae; 152v–153v: Dedication (inc.). D.H. Turner: ‘The Crowland Gradual: an English Benedictine Manuscript’, Ephemerides liturgicae, lxxiv (1960), 168–74Modena, Duomo, Archivio Capitolare, O.I.16. Kyriale and cantatorium-proser from Modena; early 13th century. 107 ff.; 26·7 × 18 cm. Central Italian notation with red F and yellow C lines. Ff.1–2v and 107rv: guards from another MS; 3: Palm Sunday antiphon Ingrediente Domino; 4–5: Rogation Mass with an epistle; 6–14v: Kyries and Glorias without tropes; 14v–77: cantatorium-proser; gradual verses, alleluia verses and prosaeare grouped by major feasts according to the liturgical year; 77–80v: 12 Sanctus; 80v–82: 10 Agnus Dei; 82–94v: procession antiphons; 95–102v: supplement of prosae; 103–104v: versusSalve dies qua inferna; 105–106v: partial leaves. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 73; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 173Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 16141. Secular antiphoner from Passau; 13th century. 175 ff. German neumes. Ff.1–95: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 76); 95–134v: summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 143–156: histories; 156v–161v: Sundays after Pentecost; 161v–170v: Common; 170v–172v: Dedication; 172v–175: Corpus Christi (added).Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 17025. Calendar, gradual, proser and sacramentary from Schäftlarn; 13th century. 331 ff. Small quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.i–v: Calendar and computus; 1v–59v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 47); 59v–60: Trinity; 60–70v: Sundays after Pentecost; 70v–71: Dedication; 71–93v: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 93v–94: votives (text incipits only); 94–96: Common (alleluias only); 96v–100v: kyriale; 101–119v: proser (partly notated); 120–331: sacramentary. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 81Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, VI-E-11. Carthusian gradual from S Lorenzo in Padula; 13th century. 142 ff.; 24·7 × 17 cm. Carthusian quadratic notation with red F and yellow C lines (ff.122–133v: red and yellow lines drawn over black lines). Ff.1–83v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 70v); 84–105v: Sundays after Pentecost; 105–120v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 121–122: Dedication; 122–130v: ferial and ember Masses; 130v–131v: Marian MassSalve sancta parens; 131v–134: Requiem Masses; 134v–140v: kyriale and litany. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 85; Arnese (1967), 80Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, VI-E-20. Notated Franciscan breviary from the Cathedral of Troia, nr Foggia; between 1226–44. 429 ff.; 21 × 16·5 cm. Late Beneventan notation on 4 lines with red F line. Ff.1–172v: winter temp. from Advent I to Pentecost (Easter, 136); 172v–219v: histories; 227–256v: psalter; 257–352: sanc. from St Saturninus (29 Nov) to St Clement (23 Nov); 352–388: Common; 390–404: hymnal; 404–416: Franciscan Offices to St Francis, St Clare, St Elizabeth and St Anthony; 420–426v: Venite settings; 427–429v: Franciscan Calendar. Arnese (1967), 88Naples, Biblioteca Nazionale Vittorio Emanuele III, VI-G-38. Notated Franciscan missal probably from south Italy (from the library of S Giovanni a Carbonara, Naples); 1230–50. 297 ff.; 19 × 13 cm. Late Beneventan notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–6v: Calendar and Paschal table; 7–14v: ordo for visiting the sick; 15–141: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 141–149v: kyriale, Preface and Canon; 150–174: Easter to Whit Saturday; 176v–203: Sundays after Pentecost; 206–258v: sanc. (inc. at beginning) from St Felix (14 Jan) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 258v–279v: Common; 279v–281: Dedication; 281–287v: votives; 287v–290v: services for the dead; 291–297: ‘Missa nove … Corpus Christi ordinatum per … Urbanum IV’ (added). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 85; Arnese (1967), 151Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon.liturg.340 (19426). Gradual with Calendar, kyriale and proser from Admont, Austria, Calendar from St Gallen at Moggio, nr Udine; c1216. 153 ff.; 28·3 × 19·1 cm. German neumes. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–8v: Calendar and computus; 9–94: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 77v); 94–109v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 110–111: Dedication; 111rv: Trinity; 111v–123v: Sundays after Pentecost; 123v–127v: Common (alleluias only); 127v–135: kyriale with tropes; 136–153v: notated proser. Frere, i (1901), 75; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 88; Flotzinger (1991), 49Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lyell 9. Procession antiphons, vesper antiphons and responds, kyriale and proser from an English Augustinian house, possibly Breamore, Hants.; 13th century. 202 ff.; 15·4 × 10·8 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–45: procession antiphons for the winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Pentecost; 45v–56v: selected vesper responds for the temp. from Advent I to Pentecost and the summer histories; 58–88v: selected vesper responds for the sanc. from the Dedication of a Church and St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Cecilia (22 Nov) inclusive, the Common, and Marian feasts; 89–112v: selected vesper antiphons for the sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Cecilia (inclusive) and the Common; 113–121: Kyries, with and without tropes; 121v–126: Glorias without tropes; 126v–188v: proser (notated); 189–192v: prosae for the Common (different hand). A. De La Mare: Catalogue of the Collection of Medieval Manuscripts bequeathed to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, by James P.R. Lyell (Oxford, 1971), 21 [lengthy description]Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, 135. Notated and rubricated Sarum missal with non-Sarum kyriale and proser used in London or Canterbury; second half of 13th century, with French, 14th-century additions ff.290v–317. 317 ff.; 18·5 × 13 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–6v: Calendar; 7–118v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 95v); 118v–140v: Sundays after Pentecost; 144v–145: Dedication; 147–152: Prefaces and Canon; 153–186v: sanc. from the Vigil of St Andrew (29 Nov) to St Saturninus (29 Nov); 186v–207v: Common; 208–226v: votive and special Masses; 228–235v: Kyrie and Gloria tropes; 236–283v: 103 notated prosae; 283v–288v: troped Sanctus and Agnus; 290v–291v: motets; 292–303: Corpus Christi Office and Mass; 303v–305v: Transfiguration; 305v–315v: Office and Mass of St Flavia (5 Oct); 316–317: motets. Leroquais (1924), ii, 132; La Laurencie and Gastoué (1936), 22; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 91; RISM, B/IV/1 (1965), 369; Bernard, iii (1974), 47Paris, Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal, 197. Gradual and proser from St Victor, Paris; dated 1270–97. 278 ff.; 31·5 × 20·4cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–80v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 61); 80v–104v: Sundays after Pentecost; 104v–105v: Dedication; 105v–143v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 143v–163v: Common; 163v–164v: Requiem; 164v–168v: kyriale; 169–256: notated proser; 256–278v: supplement, primarilyprosae. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 91; La Laurencie and Gastoué (1936), 16; Bernard, iii (1974), 52Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.904. Rubricated gradual with tropes, prosae and medieval dramas from Rouen Cathedral; 13th century. 268 ff.; 32 × 22·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Play of the Shepherds (ff.11v–14). Ff.1–164v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 107); 165–183: Sundays after Pentecost; 183–185: Dedication; 187–237v: St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Clement (23 Nov); 237v–263v: Common; 263v: Requiem (inc.); 264–268v: kyriale (14th–15th century). H. Loriquet, J. Pothier and A. Colette: Le graduel de l’église cathédrale de Rouen au XIIIe siècle (Rouen, 1907) [facs.]; Young (1933), ii, 16; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 96Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1105. Notated missal with a Calendar and prosae from the abbey of Bec (Le Bec-Hellouin) formerly in the diocese of Rouen, now Evreux; dated 1265–72. 220 ff.; 18·4 × 13·1 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories without verses. Ff.1–5: Calendar (March to Dec only); 6–10: 12 prosae; 11–110v: winter–spring temp. (beginning lacking) from Epiphany (6 Jan) to Trinity (Easter, 81v); 110v–139v: Sundays after Pentecost; 140–188v: sanc. (beginning lacking) from St Fabian and St Sebastian (20 Jan) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 188v–190v: Dedication masses; 190v–207v: Common; 207v–219: votives. Leroquais (1924), iii, 158;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 97; A. Hughes, ed.: The Bec Missal, Henry Bradshaw Society, xciv (Leighton Buzzard, 1963) [edn of text only]Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.1112. Notated missal with Calendar, kyriale and proser from Paris; early 13th century (c1225). 315 ff.; 20·9 × 14·6 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories without verses. Ff.1–6v: Calendar; 9–102v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 103–105v: Preface and Canon; 105v–131v: Easter to Trinity; 131v–152: Sundays after Pentecost; 152–154: Dedication; 155–205v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 206–229: Common; 229–248: votives; 248v–256: notated processional antiphons and rogation litanies; 257–259v: Kyries and Glorias, with and without tropes; 259v–307v: 148 notated prosae; 307v–308v: troped Sanctus, Agnus and Ite settings; 309–310: Laudes regiae; 311–314v: Corpus Christi Mass with prosa (14th-century addition). Leroquais (1924), ii, 47;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 98Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.14452. Gradual, kyriale and proser of Adam of St Victor, Paris; 13th century (suppl. dated 1567). 252 ff. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Frequent rubrics in the margins. Sections of melismas are frequently encircled with ink in the gradual. The same sequence of alleluias for the Sundays after Pentecost is also found in GB-Lbl Add.38723, F-Pa 197, Pn lat.1112,Psg 93 and 1259, etc. Ff.1–63: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 48); 63–64: Trinity; 64–83v: Sundays after Pentecost; 83v–116v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 116v–133v: Common; 133v–134: Dedication; 134–139: 11 Kyries and 6 Glorias; 139–223v: proser of Adam of St Victor (ed. Misset and Aubry); 223v–248: supplement ofprosae and Masses dated 1567. E. Misset and P. Aubry: Les proses d’Adam de Saint-Victor (Paris, 1900/R); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 107Paris, Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève, 99(BB.1.fol.10). Calendar, missal and gradual from Senlis; 13th century (Leroquais and Le graduel romain), 14th century (Bernard). 220 ff.; 27·1 × 20 cm. Small quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.3–8v: Calendar; 9–144: missal (texts only). Gradual, ff.145–219v. Ff.145–190: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 180); 190–193v: Sundays 1–4, 20–23 after Pentecost (nos.5–19 are missing); 194–207v: sanc. from Vigil of St Andrew (29 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 207v–208: Dedication; 208v–219: Common; 219rv: Requiem (different hand). Leroquais (1924), ii, 60; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 113; Bernard, i (1965), 59Paris, Bibliothèque Ste Geneviève, 1259(BB.4o.11). Calendar and notated missal with prosae from Ste Geneviève, Paris; first half of 13th century. 296 ff.; 24·8 × 15·1 cm. Small quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses.Prosae for principal feasts are incorporated within the Mass Propers. Ff.2–8v: Calendar; 9–14v: prayers and aprosa to Ste Geneviève (texts only); 15–136: winter–spring temp. (beginning missing) from Advent II to Trinity (Easter, 104v); 136–160v: Sundays after Pentecost; 161–178: Prefaces and Canon; 179v–228v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 228v–229v: Dedication; 229v–250v: Common; 250v–264v: votives and blessings; 265–268v: notated processional antiphons and Kyrie and Gloria incipits; 268v–296: episcopal blessings (texts only; 14th century). Leroquais (1924), ii, 85;Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 113; Bernard, i (1965), 69Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rossiani 76. Gradual and proser from Aquila; 13th century. 256 ff.; 16·5 × 10·8 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 lines. Offertories lack verses. Foliation nos. on verso side of leaf. Ff.1–127: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 100); 127–144: Sundays after Pentecost; 144v–147: Masses for the Dead; 147v–190: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); 190–192v: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens with Spiritus et alme troped Gloria; 192v–197v: Common (alleluias only); 198–207: 5 introit tropes and kyriale; 209–256v: notated proser. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 127; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 81Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, 410 (A.II.25). Franciscan psalter and hymnal probably from Italy; 13th–14th centuries. 30·2 × 21 cm. Large quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–4v: Calendar (May to Aug lacking); 6v–104: psalms with notated antiphons; 104v–114: cantica, Te Deum, Credo, Gloria, etc.; 114–117v: Rogation litanies and prayers; 118–157v: notated hymnal with special hymns to St Martin (156v–157v). C.-A. Moberg: Die liturgischen Hymnen in Schweden(Copenhagen, 1947), 192; Stäblein (1956), 461, 553Rome, Biblioteca Casanatense, 1695 (C.V.2). Notated missal from Paris; early 13th century. 279 ff.; 17·1 × 12·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–117v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 117v–121v: offertory prayers, Prefaces, Canon; 121v–153: Easter to Trinity; 153–174: Sundays after Pentecost; 175–178: Liber generationis(different hand); 179–224: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 224–225: Dedication; 225–254: Common; 254–261: votives; 261–267v: services for the dead; 277–279v: Calendar. Ebner (1896), 159; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 121Rome, S Sabina, Biblioteca della Curia Generalizia dei Domenicani, XIV, lit.1. A service book dated 1259–62 containing the entire Dominican liturgy in one volume based on the corrections ordered by Humbert of Romans, master-general of the Dominican order from 1254 to 1277. The codex consists of 14 sections and is considered the prototype of Dominican use. 997 ff.; 48 × 32 cm. Notated sections in quadratic notation on 4 red lines. (CfGB-Lbl Add.23935.) W.R. Bonniwell: A History of the Dominican Liturgy (New York, 1944), 85; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 122; K. Levy: ‘A Dominican Organum Duplum’, JAMS, xxvii (1974), 183–211, esp. 185Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 248 (A.339). Monastic antiphoner (sanc. part) from Jumièges; 13th century. 178 ff.; 26 × 17·5 cm. Norman notation on 4 lines. Ff.1–139v: sanc. (beginning of MS missing) from the Purification (2 Feb) to St Lucy (13 Dec); 140–171: Common; 173v–176: Venite settings; 176v–178v: hymnal (inc. at end). Hesbert (1954), 29Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 251 (A.393). Notated breviary (summer part) from Fécamp; second half of 13th century. 206 ff.; 24 × 16·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.3–44v: spring temp. from Easter to Trinity; 45–47v: Dedication; 47v–92v: Sundays after Pentecost; 94–206v: spring–summer sanc. (inc. at end) from the Annunciation (25 March) to St Martin (11 Nov). Leroquais (1934), iv, 117Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, HB.I.95. Cantionarium (anthology ofprosae, tropes, conductus, etc.) and St Gregory’s Moralia, from Weingarten; 13th century. 103 ff.; 12·5 × 10 cm. German neumes. Part I, ff.4–65v. Ff.4–18v: the last portion of a proser; 18v–36v: conductus and metrical songs (versus, planctus, etc.); 36v–48v: kyriale (introit, Kyrie, epistle, Sanctus, Agnus andBenedicamus tropes); 48v–65v: miscellaneous section of alleluias, tropes, prosae,versus, votive masses, etc.. Part II, ff.65v–83v: miscellaneous section of a mixed character in different hands containing alleluias, Benedicamus and Agnus tropes, metrical poems, etc. Part III, ff.84–100v: St Gregory,Moralia, bk 5, chap.4. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 81; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 97; J. Autenrieth and others: Die Handschriften der Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart, 2nd ser., i/1 (Wiesbaden, 1968), 171 [inventory]Trier, Stadtbibliothek, 2254 (2197) (‘Codex Peter Bohn’). Gradual, proser and kyriale, probably from Trier; 13th century. 384 pp. GermanHufnagel notation on 4 lines, with red F line. Offertories with verses. The beginning of the MS is lacking and scattered pages are mutilated throughout. Pp.1–149: winter–spring temp. from the Friday of the Fourth Week in Lent to Whit Saturday (Easter, 108); 149–80: Sundays after Pentecost; 181–2: Trinity; 183–5: Dedication; 185–255: sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 255–7: Marian MassSalve sancta parens; 257–70: Common (alleluias only); 270–357: prosae (notated); 357–70: kyriale; 370–75: 2 Credos (notated); 375–84: supplement of mixed character. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 144Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheck, 417 (Eccl.325). Proser, tropes and alleluias from the chapter church of St Mary, Utrecht; 13th century. 57 ff.; 27·5 × 21 cm. Dutch notation on 4 lines with letter C clef and a dot indicating an F clef. Ff.1–40v: 76prosae; 41–44: Common of the Saints (alleluias only); 44v–45v: introit tropes; 46–57: Ordinary chants, with and without tropes. RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 189; N. de Goede, ed.: The Utrecht Prosarium, MMN, vi (1965) [study and transcr.]Vercelli, Biblioteca Capitolare, 56. Notated missal, probably from Ivrea; 13th century. 248 ff.; 36·5 × 27·2 cm. North Italian notation with F and C lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–22v: elements of a cantatorium containing alleluias, tracts, processional antiphons, prosae, etc. (14th century); 23–109v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 86v); 109v–130: Sundays after Pentecost; 130–131v: Trinity; 131v–132v: Dedication; 132v–137: vesting prayers, Ordinary of the Mass, Prefaces and Canon; 137–192v: sanc. from Vigil of St Andrew (29 Nov) to St Clement (23 Nov); 193–201v: Common; 201v–236v: votive Masses and blessings; 237–239v: Calendar; 241–248v: sacramentary fragment from Advent to Epiphany (bound incorrectly). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 149Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.1925. Gradual and proser from south Germany or Austria. 13th–14th centuries. 150 ff.; 18·8 × 14·3 cm. Messine notation on 4 lines. Ff.5–14v: kyriale (addition); 15–78: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 66); 78–89: Sundays after Pentecost; 89–90: Dedication; 90–115: sanc. from St Nicholas (6 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 115v–117v: Common (alleluias only); 117v–118: patron alleluia and prosa of St Achatio (see AH, lv, 1922, p.47); 118v: Marian GloriaSpiritus et alme; 119rv: Mass ordines; 120–148v: notated proser; 149–150v: Liber generationis (addition). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 152Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.13682. Abbreviated missal with notation probably from Vienna or St Pölten. 13th century. 176 ff. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Some masses haveprosae. MS lacks Advent, Epiphany, Lenten and Eastertide masses, the summer sanc. feasts and masses for the Sundays after Pentecost. Ff.1–11v: epistle, gospel, votive mass, psalms, prayers, etc.; 12–45v: vesting prayers, Ordinary of the Mass, communicantes and notated Prefaces; 46–53v: kyriale chants; 54–64v: Canon; 65–72: votives; 73–129: major Masses from the Vigil of Christmas to Pentecost (Easter, 115v); 129–133v: St John the Baptist (24 June); 133v–147: Common; 147–149v: Marian Saturday MassSalve sancta parens; 149v–160: All Saints (1 Nov), St Caesarius (1 Nov) and Dedication of St Michael (29 Sept); 161–163: decree dated 1215; 163v–167v: episcopal blessings (texts only); 168–170: Holy Cross; 170–175v: Requiem. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 152Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.14208. Calendar, gradual, proser and sacramentary, perhaps from the region of Salzburg; 13th–14th centuries. 109 ff. German neumes. Offertories lack verses. Ff.3–8v: Calendar; 9–48: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 40v); 48–53v: summer sanc. from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 53v–54: Dedication; 54–59v: Sundays after Pentecost; 59v–61v: Common (alleluias only); 62rv: Kyries and Glorias; 63–64: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens; 64–77v: proser (texts only); 77v–82: Prefaces, communicantes and Canon; 82v–109v: sacramentary, no notation. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 152Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Guelf.45 Helmst. (Heinemann catalogue 40). Gradual with prosae and sacramentary probably from the region of Westphalia, Germany; 13th century. 236 ff.; 34·5 × 24·5 cm. German notation on 4 lines. Offertories lack verses. Prosae are included among the gradual feasts. Ff.1–6: Calendar; 6v–40v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 32v); 40v–45: Sundays after Pentecost; 45–46v: kyriale; 47–214: sacramentary; 214v–229v: the sanc. of the gradual from St Lucy (13 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 229v–230v: Common (alleluias only); 230v–233v: 8 notated prosae; 233v: Marian alleluias and antiphons (added). Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 154Worcester, Cathedral Library, F.160. Monastic antiphoner, processional, Calendar, psalter, hymnal, collectarium, tonary, kyriale, gradual and proser (fragment) from Worcester; dated c1230 with 14th-century additions. 354 ff.; 26 × 18 cm. Small quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories in the gradual lack verses. Portions of the antiphoner section of the MS are bound out of order (reconstructed correctly in PalMus, xii). The following sections of the MS are reproduced in facs. in PalMus: ff.1–1v(pp.308–9), ff.2–115v(pp.4–231), ff.147–8 (pp.1–3), ff.164v–169v (pls.1–11), ff.182–286 (pp.232–442). Antiphoner and processional: PalMus, xii, pp.4–439. Pp.4–157: winter–spring temp. from Advent I (inc., beginning within the first respond of the second nocturn) to Whit Saturday (Easter, 127); pp.157–67: Trinity; pp.167–86: histories; pp.186–91: Sundays after Pentecost; pp.192–9: Venite settings; pp.200–31: processional; pp.232–410: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Clement (23 Nov); pp.410–35: Common; pp.435–9: Office of the Dead; p.440 (f.285): St OswaldprosaAd honorem summi; pp.441–2 (ff.285v–286):Magnificat and Benedictus tones. Ff.121–133v: Office and Mass of the Visitation (14th century); ff.135–145v: Office and Mass of Corpus Christi (14th century); ff.147–148: Calendar (PalMus, xii, pp.1–3); ff.149–164v: psalter, canticles, litany, collects (not in PalMus, xii); ff.164v–169v: hymnal (PalMus, xii, pl.1–11); ff.170–181: collectarium (not in PalMus, xii). Ff.287–292: troped Kyries; ff.292–293v: troped Glorias. Gradual; ff.294–346v (not in PalMus, xii). Ff.294–327v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 320); f.327v: Trinity; ff.327v–334v: Sundays after Pentecost; ff.334v–335: Dedication; ff.335–344v: sanc. from the Conversion of St Paul (25 Jan) to St Nicholas (6 Dec); ff.334v–346v: Common (inc. at end); ff.347–348v: fragment of a notated proser (final 5 prosae); ff.348v–350: troped Sanctus; ff.350–351: troped Agnus Dei; ff.351–352: notated Laudes regiae; ff.352–354v: Mass ordines (texts only). E. Bishop: ‘An Old Worcester Book’, Downside Review, xxv [new ser., vi] (1907), 174–87; PalMus, xii (1922–5); Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 154; CANTUS database

8. 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.

Aarau, Aargauische Kantonsbibliothek, Wettingen Gr.Fol.1–3. MS in 3 folio vols. from the region of Wettingen, Switzerland; second half of 14th century. 61 × 41 cm. Large quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Vol.1 (279 ff.): temp. from Advent IV to Holy Saturday (ff.1–10v missing). Vol.2 (189 ff.): temp. from Easter to the Sundays after Pentecost (Trinity, 72; Corpus Christi, 75v; Dedication, 177v). Vol.3 (208 ff.): sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov). According to the index, this volume originally had 342 ff.; the Common and a proser are now lacking. M. Mollwo: Das Wettinger Graduale (Berne-Bümpliz, 1944)Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, 20541 E (‘Penpont Antiphoner’). Secular antiphoner of Sarum use from Wales, probably diocese of St David’s; mid-14th century. 324 ff.; 38·5 × 25 cm. Several lacunae. Square notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–157: temp. from Christmas (Easter, 95v); 158–176: psalter with music; 177–300: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov) including Proper Office of St David; 301–324: Common of the Saints (extremely fragmentary). O.T. Edwards: Matins, Lauds, and Vespers for St. David’s Day(Cambridge, 1990); O.T. Edwards: National Library of Wales MS. 20541 E: the Penpont Antiphonal (Ottawa, 1997) [facs.]; CANTUS databaseCambridge, University Library, Add.710 (‘Dublin Troper’). Troper, proser and Sarum consuetudinary from Dublin; dated c1360. 141 ff.; 30·4 × 18 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.3–32v: Sarum consuetudinary; 32–38: Kyries, with and without tropes; 38–41: Glorias, with and without tropes; 41–102: proser; 102–103v: Sanctus; 104–105: Agnus Dei; 105–127v: Marian proser; 128–141v: supplement of mixed character; 130rv: Angelus ad virginem (3vv; added in 14th century). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 151; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 488; R.-J. Hesbert: Le tropaire-prosaire de Dublin, Monumenta musicae sacrae, iv (Rouen, 1970) [facs. of ff.32v–131]Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 847 and 856. Two-volume Cistercian antiphoner from Fürstenberg; dated c1340. GermanHufnagel notation on 4 lines. MS 847: winter vol.; 164 ff.; 36·2 × 25·2 cm. Ff.1–124v: winter temp. from Advent I to Holy Saturday; 125–164v: winter sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to the Annunciation (25 March). MS 856: summer vol.; 240 ff.; 37 × 26 cm. Ff.1–71v: temp. from Easter to the 25th Sunday after Pentecost; 72: Dedication; 78–92v: rhymed Offices; 94v–193v: summer sanc. from St Philip and St James (11 May) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 194–225v: Common; 226–238v: supplement. Eizenhöfer and Knaus (1968), 166Darmstadt, Hessische Landes- und Hochschulbibliothek, 872. Secular antiphoner, tonary and hymnal of the Knights of the Teutonic Order; dated c1300. 241 ff.; 31·3 × 22·5 cm. Hufnagelnotation on 4 lines with a red F line. Ff.1–7: 12 Venitesettings; 7–91v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Saturday after Pentecost (Easter, 74v); 91v–94v: Trinity; 95–106: histories; 106–109v: Sundays after Pentecost; 109v–112: Dedication; 112–195: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 195–213: Common; 213–214: Te Deum; 214–216: Tonary of Henricus of Augsburg; 216v–228: hymnal (notated); 229rv: rhymed Office of St Lancie and St Clavorum (see AH, v, 1889, p.35, no.7); 230–235v: Corpus Christi Office, with additions; 236–241v: rhymed Office of the Visitation, with additions (ibid, xlviii, 1906, p.427, no.399). Eizenhöfer and Knaus (1968), 155; Huglo (1971), 281, 422London, British Library, Harl.622. Gradual with prosae from Roncton, diocese of Worcester; 14th century. 231 ff. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.2–128: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 90); 128–156v: Sundays after Pentecost; 157–205: sanc. from Vigil of St Andrew (29 Nov) to St Cecilia (22 Nov); 205–228: Common; 228–230: Dedication; 230–231v: Requiem. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 64Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, Música 1361. Gradual and kyriale from Toledo; 14th century. 199 ff.; 29 × 21·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 or 5 red lines. Ff.1–134: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to the Sundays after Pentecost (Easter, 87); 136–152: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to the Translation of St Isidore (22 Dec); 152v–176v: Common; 177–178: 2 Credos; 178–183v: Kyries, with and without tropes; 184–188v: troped Glorias andRegnum settings; 188v–195: troped Sanctus; 195v–196v: Agnus and Ite settings; 196v–198: 6 polyphonic compositions; 198–199: 3 alleluias. Anglès and Subirá, i (1946), 155; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 67; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 97; Janini and Serrano (1969), 284Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 716. Anthology of Marian songs and prosae from Tegernsee; dated c1425. 205 ff.; 22·5 × 16·5 cm. German Hufnagel notation on 4 lines. (Abbreviated by LudwigMüD.) The MS contains 266 items not arranged according to the liturgical Calendar, including Marian devotional songs,prosae, Marienklagen and some doubtful 2-part motets. F. Ludwig: ‘Die Quellen der Motetten ältesten Stils’, AMw, v (1923), 184–222, 273–315, esp. 308; repr. in SMM, vii (1961); J.A. Emerson: ‘Über Entstehung und Inhalt von MüD’, KJb, xlviii (1964), 33–60 [full inventory]; RISM, B/IV/3 (1972), 354Munich, Universitätsbibliothek, 2o 156(‘Moosburg Gradual’). Gradual, kyriale, proser, cantional and troper from the Augustinian Kollegiatstift St Castulus, Moosburg; dated 1355–60. 266 ff.; 48 × 25·5 cm. German Hufnagel notation on 4 lines. Ff.2–121: temp. and sanc. (Easter, 77v); 121–123: Requiem; 123–145: Sundays after Pentecost; 145–146: Dedication; 146–154: Common (alleluias only); 154v–164: kyriale; 164–221: 90 prosae; 221–230v: gospels and troped epistles; 230v–246: cantional containing 33 religious songs; 246–264: tropes and prosae including 4 2-part compositions. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 84; Jammers (1965), 86; C. Gottwald: Die Musikhandschriften der Universitätsbibliothek München(Wiesbaden, 1968), 9; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 81; D. Hiley, ed.: Moosburger Graduale: München, Universitätsbibliothek, 2o Cod. ms.156 (Tutzing, 1996) [facs.]Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon.liturg.408 (30622). Abridged English Sarum processional; 14th century. 153 ff.; 14 × 9·4 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.3–103: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Corpus Christi (Easter, 69v); 103–113Av: processional chants and rubrics for the Saturdays from Trinity to Advent; 113Av–115: Dedication; 115–143: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 143–148v: Common; 148–151v: Rogation litany Pater de caelis and collects. Frere, i (1901), 104; Bailey (1971), 5Oxford, Bodleian Library, e Mus.2(3491). Notated and rubricated Sarum breviary from Salisbury; mid-14th century. 1008 pp.; 39 × 25 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 lines. No Common of the Saints. Pp.1–411: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (389) and Corpus Christi (Easter, 306); 411–78: histories; 478–500: Sundays after Pentecost; 500–16: Dedication services; 517–28: Calendar; 530–32: litany; 535–634: psalter with notated antiphons; 635–986: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Cecilia (22 Nov), inc. Office; pp.987–98 are missing; 999–1005:Venite settings, inc. at beginning. Frere, i (1901), 11Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat.lit.b.5 (32940). Notated and rubricated gradual, proser and kyriale from York; 15th century. 137 ff.; 41·5 × 30·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–59v: winter–spring temp. (beginning lacking) from Advent II to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 35); 59v–70v: Sundays after Pentecost; 70v–72: Dedication; 72–79v: Marian Masses andprosae; 79v–80: Credo; 80v–90: kyriale; 90v–118: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 118–132v: Common; 133–134: Requiem. D. Hiley, ed.: Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS. Lat.liturg.b.5 (Ottawa, 1995) [facs.]Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat.lit.d.5 (32556). Cistercian gradual (sanc. vol.) from Hauterive, Switzerland; c1300. 140 ff. (117 + 23); 28·6 × 18·3 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 black or red lines. Ff.1–76v: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 76v–80v: Common and votive Masses; 82–84: Requiem; 84v–89v: kyriale; 90–99v: proser; 99v–140: additions and fragments from other notated MSS. RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 539Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lyell 72. Dominican processional, ritual, kyriale and proser from Italy – according to Van Dijk from a ‘priory in a suffragan diocese of the patriarchate of Aquileia’; second quarter of 14th century. 177 ff.; 11 × 8 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–8v: rubrics for processions; 10–61v: procession antiphons and responds (notated); 62–69: Holy Saturday Exultet (notated); 69v–73v: Dominican ritual for the last sacraments and burial service including a litany (71v–72v) (partly notated); 85–88: Liber generationis(notated); 88v–91v: 2 notated Genealogy of Christ Gospels; 92–95v: 16th-century addition containing commemorations for the dead (partly notated); 96–97v: respond for the deadLibera me, Domine; 98–107v: kyriale with a notated Credo; 108–174: notated proser, Marian texts predominate (ff.159v–164 contain polyphonic Marian prosae and ‘Notre Dame’ motets).RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 162; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 564; C. Allworth: ‘The Medieval Processional: Donaueschingen MS 882’,Ephemerides liturgicae, lxxxiv (1970), 169–186; A. De La Mare:Catalogue of the Collection of Medieval Manuscripts bequeathed to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, by James P.R. Lyell (Oxford, 1971), 216Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawl.liturg.d.4 (15846). Full Sarum processional used at the church of St John the Evangelist, Dublin; 14th century. 190 ff.; 28·1 × 17·5 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1–4: rubrics, prayers and chants for the blessing of the salt and water and sprinkling of the altar; 4–118: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Corpus Christi (Easter, 85v); 118–126: processional chants and rubrics for Saturdays from Trinity to Advent; 126–127v: Dedication; 127v–132: Visit to the Sepulchre drama; 132v–158v: sanc. from St Andrew (30 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 159–162v: Common; 162v–172v: votive Masses; 172v–176: Rogation litany Pater de caelis and collects; 176v–181:Liber generationis; 181–182v:Salve regina; 183–189: special responds and prosae for the feasts of Andrew, Nicholas, Purification, Finding of the Holy Cross, Catherine, Patrick and Audoenus. Frere, i (1901), 107; Young (1933), i, 347 [edn of drama]; Bailey (1970), 12–61Padua, Duomo, Biblioteca Capitolare, A20. MS in 2 parts from Padua; 14th century. Part 1 (ff.1–92v): troper with prosae and kyriale; part 2 (93–189v): special Offices and chants. 189 ff. Large quadratic notation on 4 lines. Ff.1–3v: Mass of the Corona Domini; 4–7v: troped Kyries; 7v–14: troped introits for major feasts; 14v–19v: Glorias without tropes; 19v–69v: proser including prosae to St Daniel of Padua (26) and St Justina of Padua (60); 69v–72v: Sanctus and Agnus, with and without tropes; 72v–74: Mass of the Beheading of St John the Baptist; 74–77: prosae for St Prosdocimus of Padua and St Catherine; 77v–78: Mass of St Anthony; 78–79v: Marian GloriaSpiritus et alme; 80–85v: kyriale arranged by classification of feasts; 85v–89v: 2 Marian alleluias,Salve regina and 2 Regis Credos; 89v–91: Requiem; 93–111: Office of the Dead; 111–115v: prosaDies irae; 115v–122: mandatum chants for Holy Thursday; 123–147v: Office of the Transfiguration with lessons and orations; 147v–150: antiphons from the Office of St Peter of Verona; 150v–180: Office of the Visitation with lessons, orations and rubrics; 180–181: papal bull of Urban VI (9 Nov 1387) establishing the feast of the Visitation (2 July); 181–187: Office of St Zeno; 187–188v: 3Magnificat antiphons for the feasts of Clement, Michael and the Common of Apostles; 189: tract Effuderunt sanguinem with rubrics (added). RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 176Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.17311. Notated missal with proser from Cambrai; first half of 14th century. 263 ff.; 33 × 23·3 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.A–Fv: Calendar; 1–137: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 108); 137–170v: Sundays after Pentecost; 170v–171v: Dedication; 171v–178: Prefaces and Canon; 179–215v: sanc. from the Vigil of St Andrew (29 Nov) to St Catherine (25 Nov); 215v–237v: Common; 237v–248v: votives; 248v–250: kyriale; 250–263: 25 notated prosae. Leroquais (1924), ii, 228; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 108Rouen, Bibliothèque Municipale, 250 (A.233). Gradual with tropes, prosae and kyriale from Jumièges; 14th century. 210 ff.; 30·5 × 21 cm. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Tropes and prosae are integrated into the Mass Propers. Ff.1–137v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 99v); 137v–167v: Sundays after Pentecost; 168–71: kyriale; 173–192v: inc. sanc. (part I) from St Prisca (18 Jan) to St Hippolytus (13 Aug); 193–198v: table of Mass chant incipits without notation; 199–210v: sanc. (part II) from the Vigil of the Assumption (14 Aug) to the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (14 Sept). Hesbert (1954), 77; Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 128St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 546. Trope and prosa collection of cantor Joachim Cuontz of St Gallen; dated 1507–14. 410 paper ff.; 46·9 × 27·8 cm. German Hufnagel notation on 5 lines. Ff.11–28v: printed hymnal; 30–83: Ordinary tropes; 84–326: proser, series I, containingprosae 1–305; 326v–404v: series II, containing prosae306–416. F. Labhardt: Das Sequentiar Cod. 546 der Stiftsbibliothek von St. Gallen und seine Quellen, Publikationen der Schweizerischen musikforschenden Gesellschaft, 2nd ser., viii/1–2 (Berne, 1959–63) [study and inventory]; RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 49; RISM, B/IV/3 (1972), 125Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.12865. Premonstratensian gradual, kyriale and proser from north-west Germany; end of 14th century. 232 ff. Quadratic notation on 4 red lines. Ff.1v–113: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Trinity (Easter, 89v); 113–114: Corpus Christi; 114–135: Sundays after Pentecost; 135–136: Dedication; 136–184: sanc. from St Stephen (26 Dec) to St Thomas (21 Dec); 184–189v: Common (alleluias only); 190v–192: Marian antiphons; 192–197v: kyriale without tropes; 198–229: proser; 229–232v:Liber generationis and 2prosae. Le graduel romain, ii (1957), 152

9. Mozarabic chant.

León, Catedral, Archivo Histórico, 8 (‘León Antiphoner’). Offices and masses of the Mozarabic rite from León; 10th century. 306 ff.; 33 × 24 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes. Ff.1–6: Rogation Office, metrical epigram, computus table, Prefaces to the antiphoner, Office of St James, etc.; 6v–28: Calendar and computus; 28v–210v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from St Acisclus (17 Nov) to Pentecost (Easter, 176); 210v–246v: summer sanc. from St Adrian (16 June) to St Emilianus (12 Nov); 246v–287: Common, votives, Dedication, Offices and Masses for the sick and the dead; 287–296: antiphons; 296–306: blessings, psalms, Laudes missae. L. Brou and J. Vives, eds.: Antifonário visigótico mozárabe de la Catedral de León, Monumenta Hispaniae sacra,Litúrgica, v/1–2 (Madrid, 1953–9) [facs. and edn of text]; Pinell (1965), 129London, British Library, Add.30845. Notated Liber misticus (Offices and masses) of the Mozarabic rite from Santo Domingo de Silos, nr Burgos; 10th century. 164 ff.; 36·3 × 25·4 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes. The MS contains only part of the summer sanc. from St Quiricus (13 June) to St Bartholomew (24 Aug). Férotin (1912), 820 [edn of text only]London, British Library, Add.30846. Notated Liber misticus(Offices and masses) of the Mozarabic rite from Santo Domingo de Silos, nr Burgos; 10th century. 173 ff.; 28·5 × 22·1 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes. The MS commences within the end of the Easter Mass and continues through Pentecost, including the feast of St Torquatus (1 May), ff.80–87. Férotin (1912), 842–70 [edn of text only]London, British Library, Add.30847. Monastic notated breviary fragment (winter part) of the Mozarabic rite from Silos; 12th century. 188 ff.; 32 × 21 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes. Notation confined to ff.1–82v; beginning and end of MS lacking. Combined winter temp. and sanc. from St Lucy (13 Dec) to the Thursday following Lent IV. Feasts include: St Fructuosus (21 Jan), 118v; St Babylas (24 Jan), 120; St Tyrsus (28 Jan), 120v; St Dorothea (7 Feb), 123; St Eulalia (12 Feb), 124; St Pantaleon (19 Feb), 124v; St Emitherius and St Celedonius (3 March), 126.London, British Library, Add.30851. Notated Mozarabic psalter, hymnal, Offices and masses of the Common from Silos; 11th century. 202 ff.; 39 × 31 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) neumes. Ff.1–110v: psalms and canticles; 110v–63v: hymnal; 164–202: Offices and Masses of the Common. J.P. Gilson, ed.: The Mozarabic Psalter, Henry Bradshaw Society, xxx (London, 1905) [edn of text only]; Férotin (1912), 870Madrid, Archivo Histórico Nacional, Aemil.30. NotatedLiber misticus (Offices and masses) of the Mozarabic rite from S Millán de la Cogolla, nr Nájera; 10th century. 230 ff.; 36·2 × 28·5 cm. Visigothic (northern Mozarabic) notation. MS heavily mutilated. Ff.1–230v: winter temp. and sanc. MS begins within the first feast of the Mozarabic liturgical year, St Acisclus (17 Nov), and breaks off within the feast of St Emitherius and St Celedonius (3 March). Férotin (1912), 893Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 10110 (formerly Toledo, Biblioteca Capitular, 35, 2). Secular breviary (ferial offices for Lent) of the Mozarabic rite from SS Justa and Rufina, Toledo; 11th century. 121 ff.; 27 × 19·1 cm. Visigothic (Toledan) neumes. Ff.1–121: weekday Offices from the beginning of Lent to Palm Sunday. Janini and Serrano (1969), 133 [inventory]

10. Old Roman chant.

London, British Library, Add.29988. Old Roman antiphoner from the region of Rome, perhaps from S Pietro; mid-12th century. 154 ff.; 28 × 18 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with red line. Ff.2–95: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to Pentecost (Easter, 72); 56v–57: extensive lacuna from the end of St Agatha to Passion Sunday; 95–143v: histories are distributed throughout the summer sanc. from St Petronilla (31 May) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 143v–150v: Common; 151–152v: Dedication; 152v–153: Trinity; 153rv: Venite settings; 153v–154v: services for the dead (inc.). Huglo (1954), 112; Stäblein (1970), 29Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Archivio del Capitolo di S Pietro, B.79. Old Roman antiphoner from S Pietro; second half or end of 12th century. 197 ff.; 35.3 × 24·5 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with red F line. Ff.1–3v: Calendar; 4–124v: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Pentecost (Easter, 103); 124v–175: histories are distributed throughout the summer sanc. from St John the Baptist (24 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 175–184: Common; 184–185: Dedication; 185–191: Offices of St Nicholas, St Blaise, St Benedict, St Valentine, St George and St Caesarius; 191–193v: Office of the Dead; 193v–195v: Venitesettings. Huglo (1954), 113; Salmon, ccli (1968), 61; Studi medievali, xi (1970), 1110; Stäblein (1970), 30; B.G. Baroffio and Soo Jung Kim, eds.: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana Archivio S. Pietro B 79: antifonario della Basilica di S. Pietro (Sec. XII) (Rome, 1995) [facs.]Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Archivio del Capitolo di S Pietro, F.22. Old Roman gradual from S Pietro; 13th century. 104 ff.; 30·8 × 21 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with red F and yellow C lines. Offertories lack verses. Ff.1–65: winter–spring temp. from Advent I to Whit Saturday (Easter, 53v); 65–74v: Sundays after Pentecost; 74v–86: sanc. from St Sylvester (31 Dec) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 86–100v: Common; 100v–101v: Dedication; 102v–103: Marian Mass Salve sancta parens. Huglo (1954), 99; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 75; Studi medievali, xi (1970), 1127Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Old Roman gradual with kyriale and prosae from S Pietro; dated variously from the mid-11th century to the mid-12th. 158 ff.; 30·3 × 20 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with red F line. Offertories with verses. Ff.1–109v: winter–spring temp. and sanc. from Advent I to the Sunday within the Octave of Pentecost (Easter, 83); 109v–135: Sundays after Pentecost distributed among the summer sanc. feasts from St Marcellinus and St Peter (2 June) to St Andrew (30 Nov); 135–137: Dedication; 137–140v: Ordination of a Pope, Ordination of a Bishop, nuptial and Requiem Masses; 140v–145v: processional antiphons; 145v–151: kyriale with troped Kyries and Glorias; 151–158: inc. proser. Jammers (1965), 98; Salmon, ccliii (1969), 88; Stäblein (1970) [edn] Private Collection. Martin Bodmer (Cologny, nr Geneva) (‘Bodmer-Phillipps Codex’). Formerly Phillipps 16069. Old Roman gradual, troper and proser from S Cecilia in Trastevere; dated 1071. 128 ff. 31·2 × 19·6 cm. Central Italian Beneventan notation with 1 red and 2 dry lines. J. Hourlier and M. Huglo: ‘Un important témoin du chant “vieux-romain”’, Revue grégorienne, xxxi (1952), 26–37; Stäblein (1970), 25; M. Lütolf, ed.:Das Graduale von Santa Cecilia in Trastevere: Cod. Bodmer 74 (Cologny-Geneva, 1987) [facs.]


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  • A.Hughes: Late Medieval Liturgical Offices: Resources for Electronic Research, (Toronto,1994–6)
  • J.Borders, ed.: Early Medieval Chants from Nonantola (Madison, WI,1996)
  • C. Meyer,E. Witkowska-Zaremba andK.-W. Gümpel, eds.: The Theory of Music, v:Manuscripts from the Carolingian Era up to c.1500 in the Czech Republic, Poland, Portugal and Spain, RISM, B/III/5 (1997)
  • CANTUS a database for Gregorian Chant (London, ON, U. of Western Ontario) [on-line database: indexes of antiphoners; some indexes pubd in Musicological Studies, lv, Ottawa, 1992–]

III. Secular monophony

1. General.

  • David Fallows

The transmission of early monophonic song developed according to the growing consciousness among musicians and patrons of a repertory as such. So the earlier sources of Latin and English song in particular find secular works mixed in with sacred and liturgical music, with polyphony and with entirely non-musical matter. But when a group of poets became aware of common aims, admired one another and emulated one another, as the troubadours and trouvères evidently did, that awareness made itself felt in unified sources prepared for private patrons or institutions that could afford to pay for the prolonged copying labour, notational skill and refined illumination techniques found in the great manuscripts which are the basis of the survival of monophonic song today.

It is more difficult to see any pattern in the distinction between purely poetic sources and those with music. For the trouvère repertory nearly all surviving sources either contain music or leave spaces for it; of troubadour manuscripts very few contain music at all and the rest are simple poetry collections; and the Minnesang poetry survives in a few magnificent text manuscripts whereas music survives only in fragments apart from two large music collections compiled some centuries later and explicitly assembled according to the needs of their time. But perhaps here too there is a consciousness of tradition and repertory. Early Latin songs occasionally survive in enormous poetry collections of which a single piece has unheighted neumes – untranscribable for any practical purposes but sure evidence of both a song repertory and a sung repertory at the time.

Modern scholarship is increasingly inclined to treat the monophonic song repertories as a single tradition with, to be sure, divergent branches whose characteristics may be to some extent unique to each, but which share so much in terms of repertory and historical precedents that mere linguistic barriers can, if taken too literally, confuse the essential and fundamental common features. So it is curious how different the manner of the manuscript transmission sometimes is: the unplanned nature of some of the Latin manuscripts, the carefully consistent calligraphy and illuminations of the trouvère sources, or the textbook format of the cantiga and lauda sources.

Yet throughout these sources musical inconsistency is the rule and it marks a substantial rift in manner between the secular and the sacred. The liturgical music of these centuries is consciously preserved in manuscripts whose textual agreement shows a reverential concern for the authority of the parent sources. If a trouvère song survives in ten sources, however, there is very little likelihood of their all transmitting the same melody: some may vary only in detail, but others can contain a melody whose relationship to the others is scarcely recognizable if at all. Interpreting this as a symptom of a notationless culture (van der Werf), of a repertory in which song melodies were not composed but were devised or evolved as a res non confecta long before they were written down (Petzsch), seems the only sensible approach. As has often been said, most of the major sources give every impression of having been prepared primarily for the sake of possession, rarely as a reminder or as a source for a singer.

So modern scholarship has reluctantly discarded the idea of an Urtext when considering these sources. Moreover the continuing discussion as to the correct rhythm for practically all songs of the monophonic repertory makes even the most responsible editing to some extent subjective and requires in particular that any comments about the music should keep a clear reference as to what is in the source and what in the transcriber’s imagination: it is an area in which hypothesis easily becomes fact and in which musical identity between two melodies is often overlooked because the two may be transcribed according to different principles in modern editions.

A further barrier to understanding is the nature of 14th-century historical awareness. In spite of the 14th-century scribes’ habit of adding ascriptions and devising elaborate life stories for the troubadour poets, there is still a shortage of any substantial documentary basis from the 12th century to confirm most of the material found here. It is probably too late in history to establish how consciously medieval writers inflated Roland and Klingsor into superhuman figures; but those two examples should advise caution respecting practically everything in these early sources.

P.S. Allen (Medieval Latin Lyrics, 1931, pp.196ff) seems to have been the first to make an issue of a literary distinction that is particularly important for any consideration of the manuscript transmission: the learned song and the folksong. His distinction has been challenged in literary terms (see especially §2, Szövérffy, 1970, p.36) as being simplistic, but it remains a useful conceptual tool so long as one is aware that no medieval folksong is likely to survive and that much surviving medieval poetry is a mixture or fusion of these two traditions. As concerns the musical transmission, this holds even more: the fully learned music of the years after 1100 was polyphony; the most folksong-like melodies in the early repertory are written in advanced notation in one of the polyphonic manuscripts (I-Fl Plut.29.1) with Latin text; and the great majority of secular monophony gives every evidence of coming from a culture considerably less ‘learned’ in music than in poetry and philosophy. But one can try to focus the problem further: the enormous quantity of folksong that clearly existed in the Middle Ages has disappeared, more or less without trace; and the highly professional traditions of the instrumentalists (minstrels, jongleurs, and so on) survive in only a few brief extracts of which those in F-Pn fr.844 and GB-Lbl Harl.978 are the earliest but those in the trecento manuscript Lbl Add.29987 by far the most suggestive. The very stylistic differences between these pieces and what otherwise remains of early music are suggestions that here are hints of the great unwritten tradition in the context of which the written traditions should perhaps be viewed.

2. Latin.

  • David Fallows and Thomas B. Payne

While the question of chronology and priority among the various song repertories of medieval Europe remains subject to debate and, in some ways, possibly insoluble, a survey such as this must begin with the Latin repertory because there is less room for questioning the dates of the sources, and MSS containing Latin secular poetry with neumes appear in the 9th century, 200 years before the two earliest surviving Provençal poems with neumes – themselves contrafacta of Latin hymns.

It is generally agreed that late 9th-century dates are likely for D-B 58, f.1v (a setting of Boethius), HEu, f.17v(Otfried), F-Pn lat.2832, ff.123v–124, I-Nn IV.G.68 and for the Aquitanian source F-Pn lat.1154, ff.98v–142 (see Jammers, 1975, and Stäblein, 1975, p.146). With the exception of the last – whose date is questioned in any case – these all concern a very small number of neumes applied to a mere two or three lines within a larger poetry collection. The poetry is in most cases substantially earlier than the source; it is not easy to tell whether the music was newly composed or traditional for the song, particularly since the unheighted neumes are rudimentary and effectively untranscribable. All these considerations are applicable also to the sources associated with the 10th century, among them A-Wn 116, f.157v (Iam dulcis amica), D-WO 3610 (formerly Aug.56, 16/18), f.62 (‘Modus Ottinc’),E-Mn 10052, f.364v, I-Fn Ashb.23 (Virgil) and GB-Cu Gg.5.35 (the Cambridge Songbook). This last and the Carmina burana MS require further description since they are the most famous Latin songbooks of the 11th and 13th centuries respectively, and are characteristic if not entirely typical.

Cambridge, University Library, Gg.5.35 (formerly 1567) (‘Cambridge Songbook’) [c]. 2 + 446 parchment leaves, 22 × 15 cm (fig.20). Foliation: ink, perhaps from c1500, 1–454 (ff.446–51 missing, unnumbered leaf after 294). Structure: bound in quinternions with most gatherings numbered at end in an early hand (leaves missing after f.432 and f.440, although one leaf has recently resurfaced, see Page and others, 1983).Scribes: consistent continental minuscule hand throughout with regular coloured initials alternating red and mauve; song section (ff.432–441v) in a smaller hand and written in double columns. Date: an 11th-century English copy of an original prepared in north Thuringia between 996 and 1002 (see Stäblein, 1975, n.501). Provenance: at St Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury, in 12th–14th centuries. Contents: poetic, devotional and philosophical matter; ff.266v–277: treatise De harmonica institutione by Hucbald (ed. in GerbertS, i, pp.104–21) with musical notation on f.266v; ff.432–441v: collection of 49 secular poems, two with neumes (f.439, f.441v). MGG1(‘Carmina cantabrigiensia’; G. Bernt); K. Breul, ed.: The Cambridge Songs: a Goliard’s Song Book of the XIth Century(Cambridge, 1915/R) [facs.]; K. Strecker, ed.: Die Cambridger Lieder, Monumenta Germaniae historica (Berlin, 1926/R) [edn]; H. Spanke: ‘Ein lateinisches Liederbuch des 11. Jahrhunderts’, Studi medievali, new ser., xv (1942), 111–42; A.G. Rigg and G.R. Wieland: ‘A Canterbury Classbook of the Mid-Eleventh Century’, Anglo-Saxon England, iv (1975), 113–30; D. Schaller and E. Könsgen, eds.: Initia carminum latinorum saeculo undecimo antiquiorum (Göttingen, 1977); L. Richter: ‘Die beiden ältesten Liederbucher des lateinischen Mittelalters’, Philologus, cxxiii (1979), 63–8; C. Page: ‘The Boethian Metrum Bella bis quinis: a New Song from Saxon Canterbury’, Boethius, his Life, Thought, and Influence, ed. M. Gibson (Oxford, 1981), 306–11; J. Szövérffy: ‘Cambridge Songs’, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. J.R. Strayer (New York, 1982–9); I. Fenlon, ed.: Cambridge Music Manuscripts, 900–1700 (Cambridge, 1982), 20–24; C. Page and others: ‘Neumed Boethian Metra from Canterbury: a Newly-Recovered Leaf of Cambridge, Gg.5.35’, Anglo-Saxon England, xii (1983), 141–52; J.M. Ziolkowski, ed.: The Cambridge Songs (Carmina Cantabrigiensia) (New York, 1994) [with Eng. trans.]Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 4660(‘Carmina burana’; fig.21) and Clm 4660a (‘Fragmenta burana’). 112 + 7 parchment leaves, 25 × 17 cm. Foliation: 1–112 added by Schmeller; the pieces are numbered in pencil. Structure: bound in quaternions with irregular gatherings at ff.1–2, 43–56, 73–82 and 106–12; the original sequence was: [lacuna], ff.43–8, 1–42, [lacuna], 49, 73–82, 50–72, 83–98, [lacuna], 99–106; ff.107–12 and the 7 leaves of the Fragmenta burana were added later.Scribes: one main hand and one main correcting hand; fuller details in Hilka and Schumann, ii/1 (1930). Date: although Schumann considered it to belong to the end of the 13th century, modern scholarship tends to follow Dronke’s date of c1220–30; Bischoff (1967) implied a slightly later date by suggesting that some of the songs could have been copied from the Notre Dame MS I-Fl Plut.29.1, but supported Dronke’s dating in his preface to Hilka and Schumann, i/3 (1970).Provenance: in 1803 it came to the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek from the Benedictine house at Benediktbeuren, where it had been since at least the 18th century; Bischoff (1970; see Hilka and Schumann) suggested the original provenance as Carinthia or the Tyrol (see also Steer). Contents: over 250 poems, mostly in Latin, over half of them unique to this source, covering all genres of Latin secular poetry; the original organization is followed in the edition of Hilka and Schumann: moral and satirical poems; love-songs (from f.18, ‘incipiunt iubili’); drinking-, gambling- and goliardic songs (from f.83); and religious plays (from f.99). Poets: only Walter of Châtillon named, but including Hugh Primas of Orléans, Archipoeta, Peter of Blois and Philip the Chancellor. Music: non-diastematic neumes added by the main hand for nine songs and the gambler’s Mass; Schumann showed that neumes had been intended for many other songs. J.A. Schmeller, ed.:Carmina burana (Stuttgart, 1847) [complete edn]; A. Hilka and O. Schumann, continued by B. Bischoff, eds.: Carmina burana (Heidelberg, 1930–70) [critical edn]; P. Dronke: ‘A Critical Note on Schumann's Dating of the Codex Buranus’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur [Tübingen], lxxxiv (1962), 173 only; B. Bischoff, ed.: Carmina burana (Brooklyn, NY, 1967) [facs.]; M. Korth, R. Clemencic and U. Müller, eds.: Carmina burana: Gesamtausgabe der mittelalterlichen Melodien mit den dazugehörigen Texten (Munich, 1979); A. Groos: ‘Carmina Burana’, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, ed. J.R. Strayer (New York, 1982–9); G. Steer: ‘“Carmina burana” in Südtirol: zur Herkunft des Clm 4660’, Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur, cxii (1983), 1–37; P.G. Walsh, ed.: Love Lyrics from the Carmina Burana (Chapel Hill, NC, 1993) [with Eng. trans.]. For further bibliography see Carmina Burana.

That unheighted neumes appear in the Carmina burana MS a century after the introduction of staff notation and two centuries after the earliest source with heighted neumes suggests that detailed notation was required much later in secular sources than in sacred. And indeed staff transcriptions can be made only with recourse to sacred or theoretical MSS that happen to contain the song in some more developed form of notation. O admirabilefrom the Cambridge Songs appears in a combination of letter and staff notation in an Italian theory MS, I-MC 318, p.291; some of the Carmina burana songs appear in diastematic neumes in the predominantly sacred St Martial while others are in black staff notation in sources of the Notre Dame school. Further melodies may be deduced from contrafacta or by extracting a single melody from a polyphonic conductus.

Latin song did not come to an end with the 13th century; but its poetic traditions became weaker when the vernacular became more acceptable as the language for expressing secular emotions, however elevated and courtly. Though it does not contain love-songs, the following source is perhaps characteristic of the Latin tradition after the mid-13th century (see also I-Fl Plut.29.1 and F-Pn fr.146 (the roman de Fauvel )):

Lille, Bibliothèque Municipale Jean Levy, 316 (formerly 397). 48 parchment leaves, 27 × 18 cm.Foliation: modern pencil. Structure: originally 6 quaternions, but the last folio of the second gathering (f.17) was cut out along with the first 2 folios of the next gathering. One binion gathering was substituted for the former 3 leaves. This almost certainly happened in the course of the original compilation.Scribes: the main corpus in a single hand. A second hand (according to Bayart perhaps that of Adam de la Bassée) entered marginal annotations, additions and the final poem.Date: early 14th century (Catalogue général) or before the death of the author in February 1286 (Bayart).Provenance: the chapter library of St Pierre, Lille, where Adam had been a canon. Contents: ff.2–41: the Ludus super Anticlaudianum of Adam de la Bassée including 38 Latin songs; ff.42–47v: 3 Latin poems also presumably by Adam. Forms: over half the pieces identify the origin of their music, including 10 trouvère songs and 11 Latin chants, among them 6 hymns and 2 prosae; 1 conductus, 2vv; 1 motet with the tenor named but not included; some of the music may be original.Notation: apparently Franconian. Date of compilation: 1280–86. A. Dupuis: Alain de Lille (Lille, 1859);Catalogue général des manuscrits des bibliothèques publiques de la France, xxvi (Paris, 1897); P. Bayart, ed.:Ludus super Anticlaudianum (Tourcoing, 1930) [with facs. of all the music and complete edn]; A. Hughes: ‘The Ludus super Anticlaudianum of Adam de la Bassée’, JAMS, xxiii (1970), 1–25 [with inventory of contents]

3. Occitan.

  • Elizabeth Aubrey

The repertory of the Troubadours, trouvèressurvives today in about 30 major MSS and several fragmentary sources from about the middle of the 13th century to the first three decades of the 14th, as well as about 60 other sources from as late as the 19th century. The MSS contain over 2500 lyric poems, almost all in a high courtly style, and several also transmit didactic, epistolary and narrative literature, including thevidas and razos, short prose texts that relate stories about the lives and many of the poems of the troubadours. Most of these sources were never intended to include music as the scribes did not allow space for it. Only three extant manuscripts were ruled for musical staves, two of which were partially notated. With so few music sources, the number of concordant versions of a particular melody is quite small. Of the 246 Occitan courtly poems that are provided with melodies, 196 have only one melody extant.

What is striking about these MSS, besides the fact that few contain melodies, is that only about a third of them were copied in Languedoc or Provence, where the troubadours originated and for the most part worked. Almost half of them were produced in Italy and others were copied in Catalonia or France. Of the two MSS that transmit music, one (F-Pn fr.22543) is from Languedoc and the other (I-Ma S.P.4) was copied in Lombardy; both are from the very late 13th or early 14th century. Two trouvère sources, F-Pn fr.844 and fr.20050, also contain substantial sections of troubadour songs, and a few other French MSS contain one or two Occitan songs. I-Rvat Chigi C.V.151, a mid-14th-century MS containing an Occitan liturgical drama with musical interpolations, has eight melodies that appear to be contrafacta of courtly songs, although the notation is somewhat difficult to read. The earliest source of Occitan music appears to be the late 11th-century Aquitanian MS F-Pn lat.1139 which contains three Occitan religious lyrics with music, including the poem O Maria Deu maire set to a variation of the melody of Ave maris stella. On the whole, relatively few clearcut examples of contrafacta of Occitan melodies are extant.

The troubadour MSS are generally large anthologies of between 100 to 200 parchment leaves, mainly laid out in two columns. The MSS are usually organized by genre, beginning withcansos and sirventes, usually grouped by author and given red attributive rubrics; in the two music MSS, these serious courtly types are the only songs for which staves were provided, always above the first stanza of the poem. In some of the sources, the courtly songs are followed by works without music, including lyric tensos and short coblas, the prose vidas andrazos, treatises, and other non-lyric works. Many of the MSS have an index of authors and incipits that was prepared at the time of copying, keyed to folio numbers in the codex. Almost all of the MSS have some sort of decoration, including painted or calligraphic initials in red, blue, white and black and occasionally gold leaf. Several have historiated initials, some of which depict ‘portraits’ of troubadours, often with musical instruments.

Each of the two music MSS is unusual in certain respects. F-Pn fr.22543 has monumental dimensions and particularly rich and varied contents. I-Ma S.P.4 was laid out in verse format, which resulted in waste of space at the ends of systems, a situation that the scribe attempted to remedy by erasing and filling in lines, with only slight success. Both MSS have a significant number of empty staves. The music notation is square in both sources, although the scribe of F-Pn fr.22543 seems to have attempted to use mensural shapes in a few melodies.

The sigla used today to designate the sources of troubadour songs were established by Karl Bartsch in 1872. The two French sources are known in troubadour studies as W (F-Pn fr.844, trouvère MS M) and X(F-Pn fr.20050, trouvère MSU); these MSS are described below (§III, 4).

Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, S.P.4 (formerly R 71 superiore) [G ]. 2 + 142 parchment leaves, 27 × 18 cm. Foliation: modern pencil 1–141; the first 2 leaves, with the medieval index, are unnumbered. Structure: originally 130 leaves in 15 quaternions and a quinternion, to which 2 gatherings (a quaternion and a binion, plus a single leaf tipped in) of slightly smaller dimensions were added at the end; the final leaf is heavily damaged; medieval index on a damaged binion at the beginning; 2 paper flyleaves at the beginning give an index of authors in a modern hand. Layout: 2 columns with 37 lines per column; generally in verse format (one verse per line), although the scribe sometimes attempted to consolidate verses into the same line, often erasing text already written to do so. Decoration: large red initials begin each song; red strophe caputs; red rubrics with composers' names. No space was ruled off for any of these items, so they are written in the margins and on the music staves. Text scribes: ff.1–130, 1 text scribe; different hand on ff.131–140v.Notation: red staves of 4–8 lines above first stanzas and first verse of second stanzas; 1 music scribe, square notation without mensural values; music added before rubrics and decoration, not aligned carefully with text syllables. Date and provenance: early 14th century (date 1318 in a colophon on f.142 is later than main text hand), Lombardy; evidently resided in France before being acquired by the Biblioteca Ambrosiana. Contents: ff.1–90v: 170 lyric songs, 81 with melodies; ff.90v–101: 31tensos and partimens without staves; ff.101–116: 32 lyric songs with empty staves; ff.116–128v: ensenhamens and other long non-strophic works by Arnaut de Mareuil, Garin le Brun and others, without staves; ff.129–130v: 30 anonymouscoblas without staves; ff.131–140v: Ensenhamen d'onor of Sordello. Melodies: Peirol (14), Folquet de Marseille (13), Gaucelm Faidit (11), Bernart de Ventadorn (10), Aimeric de Peguilhan (6), Peire Vidal (5), etc. Beck, 14–18 [with list of melodies]; G. Bertoni, ed.: Il canzoniere provenzale della Biblioteca Ambrosiana R.71 sup. (Dresden, 1912) [edn of texts]; U. Sesini, ed.: Le melodie trobadoriche nel canzoniere provenzale della Biblioteca Ambrosiana R.71 sup. (Turin, 1942) [edn of melodies, facs. of ff.1–41]; Aubrey (1996), 38–9, 43–6Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.22543 (formerly 2701, La Vallière 14) (‘Chansonnier d'Urfé’) [R]. 4 + 147 parchment leaves, 43 × 30 cm. Foliations: medieval foliation i–cxlviii beginning after the index; modern pencil foliation A–C on the last three leaves of the index and 1–148 (most modern studies use this foliation, even though it ignores the lacuna of ff.73–4); another modern foliation 1–143 begins on f.5, where the lyric songs begin.Structure: original ff.73–4 missing (inner bifolio of gathering 9); medieval index on binion at beginning, then 13 quinternions, 1 quaternion (ff.61–8), and an irregular gathering of 7 leaves followed by a binion.Layout: for songs, 2 columns, 80 lines per column in prose format; for non-lyric works, 2–7 columns. Decoration: idiosyncratic initial decoration of uniform conception and varying levels of elaboration, including red and blue calligraphic initials and larger historiated initials at the beginnings of several composer collections; alternating red and blue strophe caputs; red rubrics with composers' names; rubrics in section of songs by Guiraut Riquier (ff.104v–111v) also give genre and date. Text scribe: one hand throughout except for a few additions from the 14th century and later. Notation: generally 4-line red staves above first stanzas, entered in the first gathering only when melodies available, thereafter for every song; large number of empty staves and somewhat random diffusion of melodies throughout the codex, except in the Guiraut Riquier section; square notation, possibly several notation hands, including a few with primitive mensural values (longs and breves) which are not in consistent modal patterns; music added after text, rubrics and decorative elements. Date and provenance: c1300, Languedoc; rubric on f.141v beginning Ensenhamen del Guarso by Cavalier Lunel de Monteg dated 1326, in later hand; owned by Jeanne Camus, Marquise de la Rochefoucauld d'Urfé, by about 1737; sold to Louis César de La Beaume le Blanc, Duc de La Vallière, sometime after 1766, and then by his heirs to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1784. Contents: ff.1–4:vidas and razos; ff.5–111v: 925 lyric songs, 160 with melodies, includes libellus of Guiraut Riquier on ff.104v–110; ff.112v–121: coblas and non-lyric letters without staves; ff.121v–142v: Tezaur of Peire de Corbian, ensenhamens and other didactic works, letters of Guiraut Riquier, and 4 lyric works without staves; ff.143–145v: 14 lyric songs with empty staves; ff.146v–148v:ensenhamens, letters, didactic works.Melodies: Guiraut Riquier (48), Raimon de Miraval (22), Bernart de Ventadorn (13), Folquet de Marseille (10), Gaucelm Faidit (9), Peire Vidal (9), Berenguier de Palazol (8), Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (8), Jaufre Rudel (4), etc. Beck, 8–14 [with list of melodies]; E. Aubrey: A Study of the Origins, History, and Notation of the Troubador Chansonnier Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, (diss., U. of Maryland, 1982) [with list of contents]; E. Aubrey: ‘The Transmission of Troubadour Melodies: the Testimony of Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale,’, Text, iii (1987), 211–50; G. Brunel-Lobrichon: ‘L'iconographie du chansonnier provençal R: essai d'interprétation’, Lyrique romane médiévale: la tradition des chansonniers: Liège 1989, 245–72; A. Tavera: ‘La table du chansonnier d'Urfé’, Cultura Neolatina, lii (1992), 23–138; Aubrey, 39, 46–8

4. French.

  • Elizabeth Aubrey

The repertory of Old French song includes not only the courtly chansons and jeux-partis of the trouvères but also a wide variety of other genres, including non-lyric lais and descorts, Marian, crusade and other religious songs, popular genres like chansons à refrain, chansons avec des refrains, pastourelles, chansons de toile, rondeaux and virelais, and lyric insertions in long narrative works. About 22 major and dozens of minor MS sources transmit these varied repertories, and all but four of the major sources contain music; two of them include important collections of troubadour songs (F-Pn fr.844 and fr.20050). Seven of the MSS (F-Pa 5198, F-Pn fr.845, fr.846, fr.1591, fr.20050 and I-Sc H.X.36) can be considered chansonniers in the strict sense of being devoted entirely to courtly lyric chansons. Other MSS, though, including GB-Lbl Eg.274,F-Pn fr.844, fr.12615, andI-Rvat, include music for other genres besides courtly songs, notably motets, liturgical music and Marian songs. The overlap of the motet repertory with Old French monophony is reflected in the transmission of vernacular texts and melodies both in polyphonic settings and as monophonic songs. Still other collections of Old French songs are found as part of large miscellanies (‘bibliothèques portatives’ in the apt phrase of Brayer, describing F-Pn fr.1109), which include didactic, historical, philosophical and religious works, dits, romances and other non-lyric texts. Song collections found in such sources include F-AS 657, F-Pn fr.847, fr.1109, fr.24406 and fr.25566. A few of the important sources of trouvère song are fragments or self-contained small fascicles bound in with other types of material later in their history (F-Pn fr.765, fr.847, fr.25566 ff.2–9 and fr.844 ff.13, 59–78). One single gathering that remains a fragment (CH-BEsu 231) is included here because of its possible kinship with a section of a larger extant MS (F-Pn fr.765).

Several of the MSS have clear relationships with others in their similar contents and order (the much-discussed KNPX group, F-Pa 5198, Pn fr.845, fr.847 and, the group of fr.844, fr.12615, I-Rvat and F-AS 657, the Adam de la Halle group of AS 657, Pn fr.847, fr.1109, fr.12615, fr.25566 and I-Rvat, or by similarity of format, layout and decoration style. A number of the MSS have some empty staves, but melodies survive for about three-quarters of the repertory. The survival of so many sources and the high incidence of concordant readings with insignificant variants point to close cooperation among composers and musicians and the scribes who recorded their music. The regions of Artois and Picardy seem to have been in the forefront of MS production for the trouvères, as some 15 of the major MSS can be placed there on the basis of decoration style and scribal orthography; Lorraine and Burgundy also produced MSS of vernacular song, but not one of the extant sources appears to have come from Paris. Most of the MSS date from the second half of the 13th century, the earliest (F-Pn fr.20050) from around 1240 to 1250 and a few from the first or second decade of the 14th century.

Most of the trouvère MSS described below are of moderate size (with the exception of GB-Lbl Eg.274 and F-Pn fr.20050 which are exceptionally small); two-thirds of them are laid out in two columns, the rest in a single long line across the page. The collections usually begin with chansons grouped by author, with red attributive rubrics and music on red staves above the first stanza. These are often followed by a group of jeux-partis (with or without music) and a large section of unattributed songs. An index of authors and incipits, keyed to folio numbers in the codex, was often produced in the copying process or shortly thereafter. Many of the MSS were lavishly decorated, often with beautiful historiated initials that depict musicians and instruments, and ‘portraits’ of trouvères or other figures, arranged in a careful hierarchy according to the contents (see Huot). The first song in a group by a major composer such as Thibaut IV, Gace Brulé and the Chastelain de Couci is given the most richly ornamented initial, while less elaborate initials mark the beginnings of the remaining songs. Several of the extant MSS have been severely damaged by the excision of miniatures, with either entire leaves or the portions of leaves that contained the illustrations being removed.

The music notation is for the most part square, althoughF-Pn fr.846 uses mensural notation andPn fr.20050 uses Messine neumes. Blank staves are scattered through some of the MSS. Some sources use modal or mensural notation for polyphony, usually laid out in parts. Attributions are often conflicting among these sources and a few lack them altogether. In the descriptions below no attempt has been made to verify a particular source's attributions, and the number following a composer's name indicates the number of songs with melodies ascribed to the composer in that MS or in other MSS.

At least eight sets of sigla have been assigned to Old French sources, sometimes depending on the repertory in question (Ludwig's system is used in a discussion of motets, for instance). The designations established by Schwan (1886) are standard when dealing with trouvère song (see Gennrich, 1921, for a table of concordance between the different sigla systems).Arras, Médiathèque [Bibliothèque] Municipale, 657 (formerly 139) [A]. Now 212 parchment leaves, 31 × 23 cm, many original leaves had been excised by the early 18th century. Foliation: modern ink 1–212, does not take account of the lacunae; another modern foliation 129–60 reflects Jeanroy's proposed order of the music fascicle. Structure: 40 gatherings of varying sizes due to the lacunae; ff.129–160v comprise a music fascicle of 5 gatherings originally of quaternions; Jeanroy (1925) argued the original gathering order of this fascicle was ff.152–6 (missing its first 3 leaves), ff.157–60 (missing its middle 2 bifolios), ff.129–35 (missing its first leaf), ff.136–51 (2 complete quaternions, the second of which ends in the middle of a piece), which is how it appears in his facsimile and in its current binding. Layout of music fascicle: 2 columns, 40 lines per column, in prose format. Decoration: painted initials and vignettes in uniform style begin important sections, including 5 in the music fascicle at the start of composer groups and of the jeux-partis; music fascicle has red and blue lettrines at beginnings of all songs, red and blue calligraphic initials beginning each interior strophe, and painted line endings; red rubrics introduce and end each major section; decoration similar to that of a (I-Rvat Text scribes: at least 2 text hands for the non-musical works, 1 of which probably also entered the poems in the music fascicle.Notation: red staves of 4 or 5 lines above first stanzas; 1 music scribe, square notation of a slightly casual but careful appearance; staves added before decoration in second and fifth gatherings (ff.157–60 and 144–51), but after in the other 3; music added last in all gatherings. Date and provenance: dated (f.212v) August 1278 by a scribe named ‘Jehans d'Amiens li petis’, copied and decorated in Artois, possibly Amiens; note on end flyleaf indicates MS was owned c1625 by Abbey of St Vaast in Arras, which was seized by the state in 1790; rebound by Bibliothèque Nationale in 1955. Contents: ff.1–128v: moral, didactic, religious works, including Alart de Cambrai'sMoralités aux philosophes, various Marian texts and Richart de Fournival'sBestiaire d'Amour; ff.129–160v, 42 chansons (of which 2 are incomplete) and 31 anonymous jeux-partis, all with music, contents and order of songs similar to those of a; ff.161–212v:Roman des sept sages and Roman de Marques de Rome. Melodies: Thibaut IV (6), Richart de Fournival (6), Adam de la Halle (6), Gautier de Dargies (5), Guillaume Le Vinier (5), Chastelain de Couci (4), etc. Raynaud, i, 1–4; A. Jeanroy: Le chansonnier d'Arras (Paris, 1925) [facs. of music fasc.]; F. Gennrich: ‘Der Chansonnier d'Arras’, Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, xlvi (1926), 325–35; Huot, 55–64Berne, Stadt- und Universitätsbibliothek, 231 [B]. 8 parchment leaves, 30 × 22 cm. Foliation: modern black ink 1–8. Structure: a single quaternion, part of a larger MS; Spanke suggested this gathering belongs with L (F-Pn fr.765). Layout: single column, 43–7 lines per column, prose format. Decoration: red and blue calligraphic initials begin each song; red and blue lettrines begin interior stanzas. Text scribes: 1.Notation: 1 scribe, 5-line red staves, square notation with many short vertical bars.Date and provenance: end of 13th or early 14th century, Picardy or Burgundy. Contents: 20 complete songs, of which 14 have melodies. Melodies: no attributions, but 11 can be authenticated from other sources as by Thibaut IV. A. Rochat: ‘Die Liederhandschrift 231 der Berner Bibliothek’, Jb für romanische und englische Literatur, x (1869), 73–113; Raynaud, i, 4–5London, British Library, Eg.274 [F]. 160 parchment leaves, 15 × 11 cm. Foliations: modern 1–160; ii, iiii–vii on ff.2–6 in late medieval hand. Structure: possibly 2 or more discrete collections, ff.1–130 and ff.131–60, bound together in 15 quaternions, 1 ternion, 5 binions and 1 bifolio, with 2 single leaves tipped in, in random order; many erasures with replacements of text and music.Layout: 19–22 lines per leaf; single column throughout, prose format.Decoration: painted initials, blue and gold lettrines (not uniform style in all fascicles); decoration in song fascicle is simpler, with no illuminations; blue and red initials with filigree beginning interior strophes; style generally belongs to Arras-Lille MS group of third quarter of 13th century. Text scribes: 1 main scribe throughout; later additions and changes especially in first strophes of song fascicle, where later scribes erased French texts and melodies and replaced them with Latin responds, usually employing the original initial letter of the vernacular text; 6 rubrics with composer attributions were added before these changes were made. Notation: several music hands, including 3 (original square, later square and Messine) in the song fascicle; in the Latin fascicles, 4- or 5-line staves, square notation, sometimes evidently altered to make mensural; polyphony is laid out in parts; in the song fascicle, 5- or 6-line red staves. Date and provenance: 1260s, Artois; 1832, in private library of Van de Velde of Ghent; also owned by Jacobus Dogimon (f.1) and Jehan Perthuis de Hacquemere (f.160); acquired by British Museum in 1834. Contents: ff.3–57: 20 monophonic sequences and conductus and 2 two-voice; 4 two-voice motets; ff.58–93: 3 troped Kyries, 6 monophonic sequences, and 2 Glorias; ff.94–97: miscellaneous liturgical monophony; ff.98–117v: 18 lyric songs (7 with original melodies intact, 11 never entered or replaced by Latin respond); ff.119–130: 2 long Latin verse works without music; ff.131–132: 1 lyric song (with fragment of original melody); ff.132v–159v: late 14th-century sacred monophony, entered over erased 14th-century mensural polyphony (e.g. Benedicamus Domino settings). Melodies: of original 19 French songs entered, 7 melodies remain unchanged: Gace Brulé (1), Chastelain de Couci (1), Jehan de Neuville (1), Colart le Boutellier (1), anonymous (3); 5 other melodies reconstructed from palimpsests by Gennrich (1925). Raynaud, i, 35–6; Ludwig, i/1, 251–63 and i/2, 606; F. Gennrich: ‘Die altfranzösische Liederhandschrift London, British Museum, Egerton 274’, Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, xlv (1925), 402–44 [edn of Fr. songs, incl. 5 reconstructed from palimpsests]; RISM B/IV/1, 496–8; A. Stones: ‘Sacred and Profane Art: Secular and Liturgical Book-Illumination in the Thirteenth Century’, The Epic in Medieval Society: Aesthetic and Moral Values, ed. H. Scholler (Tübingen, 1976), 100–12; T.B. Payne:Poetry, Politics, and Polyphony: Philip the Chancellor's Contribution to the Music of the Notre Dame School (diss., U. of Chicago, 1991), ii, 337–42Paris, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, 5198(formerly B.L.F.63) (‘Chansonnier de l'Arsenal’) [K]. 211 parchment leaves, 32 × 22 cm. Foliation and pagination: original pencil foliation i–xxxvii, corresponds to index on p.420; modern ink pagination 1–420 (with 70 followed by 70bis and 70ter), disregards lacuna between gatherings 21 and 22; scholars use the pagination. Structure: 25 quaternions, 1 binion and 1 gathering of 7 leaves; gathering signatures indicate 1 gathering missing between pp.332 and 333; p.420 has a medieval index of 64 incipits of songs on the first 2 gatherings. Layout: 2 columns, 34 lines per column, prose format. Decoration: 2 large polychrome initials begin each main fascicle (Thibaut IV holding a fiddle on p.1 and p.303); gold leaf initials with blue, pink and white paint, in a style similar (but not identical) to that of N, probably from Picardy or Artois; red or blue lettrines mark interior stanzas; circled attributive red rubrics in margins on pp.1–302 are similar to those in N. Text scribes: one scribe throughout, possibly same as that for N.Notation: one hand throughout, square notation, 4-line red staves; music entered before decoration and rubrics. Date and provenance: 1270s, Picardy or Artois; belonged to Marie d'Albret (p.1); later belonged to Marquis René Antoine de Paulmy, who made it part of his library at l'Arsenal, opened to scholars in 1756. Contents: pp.1–302: 342 attributed songs, at first arranged by author, then more randomly entered; pp.302–420: 140 unattributed songs; contents related to N, P, X andL. Melodies: altogether 481 complete melodies and 1 incomplete: Thibaut IV (59), Gace Brulé (46), Perrin d'Angicourt (21), Chastelain de Couci (16), Blondel de Nesle (16), Gillebert de Berneville (14), Richart de Semilli (10), Moniot de Paris (9), Gautier de Dargies (8), Moniot d'Arras (7), Thibaut de Blason (6), etc. Raynaud, i, 54–73; P. Aubry and A. Jeanroy, eds.: Le chansonnier de l'Arsenal (Paris, 1909–10) [facs. of pp.1–384, transcrs. of pp.1–184]; Ludwig, i/1, 336–7; H. Spanke, ed.: Eine altfranzösische Liedersammlung: der anonyme Teil der Liederhandschriften KNPX (Halle, 1925) [edn of anon. poems, 42 melodies]; H. Orenstein: Die Refrainformen im Chansonnier de l'Arsenal(Brooklyn, NY, 1970); Huot, 48–54; Everist, 187–97Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.765(formerly 71825; Colbert 3075),ff.48–63 [L]. 16 parchment leaves, 30 × 22 cm. Foliation: modern ink 48–63. Decoration: red and black calligraphic initials begin each song, with red and black lettrines for internal strophes; decoration entered after notation.Structure: 2 gatherings of quaternions, bound at the end of a paper MS of perhaps the 15th century (ff.1–45, 39 × 29 cm), containing the Roman de la Comtesse d'Anjou dated 1316; réclameat the bottom of f.63v indicates that the parchment gatherings were originally part of a larger MS; Spanke suggested these gatherings belong with the fragmentary MS B.Layout: 1 column; 49 lines per column; prose format. Text scribes: 1 for theroman fascicle, another for the song gatherings. Notation: 1 scribe; 5-line red staves, square notation; evidence of careful copying in erasures and corrections. Date and provenance: late 13th or early 14th century, France; belonged to Claude Fauchet (d 1601) who added attributive rubrics and other notes, then to Jean-Baptiste Colbert (d 1683), eventually to Charles-Eléonor, Count of Seignelay, and from him to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1732. Contents: 52 songs arranged more or less by author, all with music; final song missing last 2 stanzas and theenvoi. Melodies: attributions as found inK, where they are in the same order, to Gace Brulé (46) and Chastelain de Couci (6). P. Paris: Les manuscrits françois de la Bibliothèque du Roi, vi (Paris, 1845), 40–45; Raynaud, i, 73–5; J.G. Espiner-Scott: Claude Fauchet: sa vie, son oeuvre (Paris, 1938), 186–7Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.844 (formerly 7222; Mazarine 96) (‘MS du Roi’) [M and Mt; troubadour MS W]. 2 collections bound together with gatherings somewhat out of order, 32 × 22 cm.Foliations: modern red ink foliation B–E, 1–215, added presumably when the MS was bound with gatherings out of order and leaves missing, and after the miniatures were cut out; the Becks' facsimile assigns a new foliation to the restored codex; scholars use the foliation as the actual leaves rather than the Becks'. Structure: (i) the larger fascicle, M, now 4 + 213 parchment leaves (ff.B–E, 1 to the left column of 13, 14–58 and 79–215), which originally comprised 15 quaternions and 9 irregular gatherings; ff.B–E have incipits of this collection without folio numbers, written by the same scribe who entered the texts and decorated with the same lettrines as in the main MS; (ii) a smaller fascicle of songs by Thibaut IV, labelled Mt in the Becks' facsimile, begins in the right column of f.13 immediately following the conclusion in the left column of a small group of songs also by Thibaut; this fascicle comprises 18 parchment leaves (right column of f.13, ff.13v and 59–78, comprising 2 quaternions and 1 binion); the index does not include incipits of Mt. Present state of the large codex is poor, missing 18 of its original leaves and with many remaining leaves mutilated by excision of miniatures; mutilation occurred before the MS was described by P. Paris in 1845; many marginalia in a modern hand giving text (incipits, rubrics, etc.) lost to lacunae;Mt is undamaged. The larger codex seems to be a MS in progress, with many spaces left empty presumably for addition of more stanzas; during the late 13th century and the 14th other scribes, most using mensural notation, filled some of these spaces with 33 other works, including untextedestampies(ff.103v–104v) and songs in Old French and Occitan; the Becks' facsimile restores the original order of the gatherings and reconstructs the contents of the lacunae; added leaves at the beginning (ff.A and 216–21) have lists of authors and incipits. Layout: textblock of M is ruled in pencil and stanzas begin at left margin; textblock ofMt is ruled in dry point and stanzas are laid out in prose format; both collections have 2 columns with 41 lines per column.Decoration: M has historiated initials on first song of groups of authors' works (15 of which survived the excisions), initials painted with blue, pink, gold leaf, white tracery and black outlines at beginnings of the remaining songs, alternating blue/red and gold/blue calligraphic lettrines marking interior stanzas, line endings of gold, red and blue fill lines at ends of stanzas, and red rubrics with authors' names, almost all entered before the music was added except in the motet fascicle, where the decoration was entered last; Mt has no historiated initials, but painted initials beginning each song are in same style as in M, probably done in the same atelier; lettrines use the same colours and style as in M but are much less elaborate; decoration in Mt was added after the music notation. Text scribes: 1 text scribe forM and another for Mt.Notation: 1 scribe for Mt, square notation; 2 scribes for the songs and motets inM, 1 main hand and another less careful hand for at least 33 melodies; 4-line red staves, square notation throughout except for three melodies in mensural notation entered by the second scribe of M and by the scribes of many of the later entries; tenors of the motets are more or less modal. Date and provenance: after 1253, probably 1260s or 1270s, Artois (possibly Arras); came to Bibliothèque du Roi in 1668 from Bibliothèque Mazarine; the Becks suggested the MS was copied for Charles d'Anjou, count of Provence from 1245, but this is unsubstantiated. Contents: Moriginally contained 428 Old French songs; in its current state it preserves in complete or fragmentary condition ff.1–185: 404 songs by trouvères, 365 with melodies, grouped by author beginning with ‘li princes’ and proceeding roughly in descending order of nobility; ff.188–204: 61 songs by troubadours, 51 with melodies; ff.205–210: originally 45 French two-voice motets and 3 three-voice motets (13 tenors without music); ff.212–214, 1 Old French and 2 French-Occitan lais; Mt has 60 songs by Thibaut IV, 56 with complete melodies and 2 with unfinished melodies; contents are closely related toT, including the motets; among the later additions are 9 monophonic ‘estampies royals’ (the first a fragment) in mensural notation on ff.103v–104v. Melodies: Gace Brulé (42), Guillaume Le Vinier (27), Gautier de Dargies (19), Blondel de Nesle (21), Audefroi le Bastart (16), Guiot de Dijon (14), Jehan Erart (10), Gillebert de Berneville (14), Chastelain de Couci (11), Colart le Boutellier (12), Moniot d'Arras (13), Conon de Béthune (8), Raoul de Ferrières (9), Bernart de Ventadorn (8), Folquet de Marseille (4), Rigaut de Berbezilh (3), Gaucelm Faidit (3), Comtessa de Dia (1), etc. P. Paris:Les manuscrits françois de la Bibliothèque du Roi, vi (Paris, 1845), 450–3; Raynaud, i, 75–8 [index of Mt in its current state] and 78–94 [index of Min its current state]; Ludwig, i/1, 285–305 and i/2, 621–6; J. and L. Beck: Le manuscrit du roi, Corpus cantilenarum medii aevi, 1st ser., ii (London and Philadelphia, 1938) [facs. and study]; H. Spanke: ‘Der Chansonnier du Roi’, Romanische Forschungen, lvii (1943), 38–104; RISM B/IV/1, 374–9; Huot, 181–7; J.A. Peraino: New Music, Notions of Genre, and the ‘Manuscrit du Roi’ circa 1300(diss., U. of California, Berkeley, 1995); Aubrey, 37–43; J.D. Haines: The Musicography of the ‘Manuscrit du Roi’ (diss., U. of Toronto, 1998)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.845 (formerly 7222²; Cangé 67) [N]. 191 fine parchment leaves, 30 × 21 cm.Foliation and pagination: modern 1–191 in red ink, which does not account for the lacunae; earlier pagination 1–381 in black ink, in same hand as Varennes-Godes index inX (see below). Structure: 24 quaternions, of which the second lacks its first leaf; at least 1 gathering missing between ff.159 and 160; last gathering was bound out of order before the foliation was added; 2 paper leaves bound in at front of MS list number of songs in the codex by each author, in a modern hand. Layout: 2 columns, 32 lines per column; prose format. Decoration: f.1, historiated initial of Thibaut IV and courtiers at the head of collection of his songs; large ornamental initials begin groups of important authors' songs, the unattributed fascicle and the motet enté group; elsewhere gold leaf initials with blue and pink paint and white tracery, in a style similar to that of K; red or blue lettrines for interior stanzas; circled attributive red rubrics in margins, also similar to those in K; 2 blue rubrics, on ff.54 and 80; the former song is set off as ‘couronée’ in X andCH-BEsu 389. Text scribes: 1 scribe throughout, possibly same as that forK. Notation: 1 scribe throughout; 4-line red staves, square notation; entered after initials were painted but before rubrics or lettrines were added. Date and provenance: 1270–80, Picardy or Artois; owned by Guyon de Sardière (whose signature appears on f.1) and evidently also by Mme Varennes-Godes, according to 2 paper leaves tipped in at the end of X, ff.ii.clxxii–ii.clxxiii, which following the rubric ‘A made. de Varennes gode’ contain an index of authors and incipits of N ; eventually reached the library of Châtre de Cangé sometime after 1724; given to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1733. Contents: 393 songs, all with music, including one in Occitan; closely related to contents and order of K,L, P and X; ff.1–143: 299 attributed songs grouped by authors; ff.144–183v: 93 unattributed songs; ff.186–187v, 2 lais and 1 textedestampie; ff.184, 189 and 190: 16 monophonic motets entés. Melodies: Thibaut IV (28), Gace Brulé (50), Blondel de Nesle (15), Perrin d'Angicourt (27), Thierri de Soissons (11), Gillebert de Berneville (12), Thibaut de Blason (6), Gautier de Dargies (8), Moniot d'Arras (7), Richart de Semilli (8), Moniot de Paris (9), Gautier d'Espinal (6), Eustache le Peintre de Reims (7). Raynaud, i, 94–110; Ludwig, i/1, 336–7; H. Spanke, ed.: Eine altfranzösische Liedersammlung, der anonyme Teil der Liederhandschriften KNPX (Halle, 1925); Huot, 47–52; Everist (1989), 187–97; M. Everist: French Motets in the Thirteenth Century: Music, Poetry and Genre(Cambridge, 1994), 82–9Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.846 (formerly 7222³, Cangé 66) (‘Chansonnier Cangé’) [O]. 141 parchment leaves, 24 × 17 cm. Foliation: 1–151 in Cangé's hand; Cangé also provided indices of authors and incipits on a parchment sesternion bound at the beginning of the codex, with folio numbers that match his foliation. Structure: 18 quaternions of which the last is missing its final leaf; the last song ends on f.139v, and Cangé added texts to ff.140–41, continuing on an additional parchment quaternion (ff.144–51, whose first song he gave a melody). Layout: 2 columns, 35 lines per column, prose format.Decoration: historiated initials begin the first song of each letter of the alphabet; red and blue calligraphic initials begin all other songs; red and blue lettrines mark interior stanzas; occasional line endings. Text scribes: one, Burgundian script and orthography.Notation: one hand; 4-line red staves; mensural notation including ligatures cum opposita proprietate and numerous chromatic inflections; music entered before decoration.Date and provenance: c1280–1290, Burgundy; acquired by Châtre de Cangé in 1724, evidently from the estate of Baudelot de Dairval (d 1722); Cangé gave the chansonnier as well as N andP to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1733; Cangé added copious marginal and interlinear material to this MS, including author rubrics, extra text, translations, and 2 melodies on empty staves (ff.2 and 25v), indicating the sources from which he drew the annotations (M, N, P, Q, R,T andX). Contents: 351 songs (including one in Occitan), of which 336 have melodies (2 more were copied by Cangé fromX); no medieval attributions, songs arranged alphabetically and then by author within each letter, suggesting the collector was collating from several sources; many songs found also in K, N, P and X.Melodies (authenticated from other sources): Thibaut IV (63), Gace Brulé (27), Chastelain de Couci (10); Gautier d'Espinal (8), Adam de la Halle (8), Gillebert de Berneville (7), Blondel de Nesle (6), Moniot d'Arras (6), Conon de Béthune (5), Pistoleta (1), etc. Raynaud, i, 111–22; L. Brandin: ‘Die Inedita der altfranzösischen Liederhandschrift Pb5 (Bibl. nat. 846)’, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, xxii (1900), 230–72; A. Jeanroy and A. Långfors: ‘Chansons inédites tirées du de la BN’,Archivum Romanicum, ii (1918), 296–324; iii (1919); 1–27; 355–67; J. Beck, ed. Le Chansonnier Cangé: manuscrit français no.846 de la Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris, Corpus cantilenarum medii aevi, 1st ser., i (Paris and Philadelphia, 1927) [facs. and transcrs.]; see also review by H. Spanke,Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, lii (1929), 165–83; RISM, B/IV/1, 379–80; Huot, 74–80; Everist, 200–05; E. Aubrey, ‘Medieval Melodies in the Hands of Bibliophiles of the Ancien Régime’, Essays on Music and Culture in Honor of Herbert Kellman, ed. B. Haggh (Paris, forthcoming)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.847 (formerly 72224, Cangé 65) [P]. Now comprises 227 parchment leaves, which make up 3 distinct collections, each with a different mise-en-page and different scribes and thus probably originally separate MSS; 20 × 13 cm. Foliation: 1–228 (there is no f.92 but no text is missing), added by Cangé continuously through all 3 fascicles, which must thus have been bound together by the early 18th century.Structure: ff.1–210: 23 quaternions, 2 ternarions with 1 leaf (f.74) tipped in the first, and a sesternion at the end; the latter was probably created to accommodate the insertion of a lengthy dit at the conclusion of the collection of songs; ff.211–218: 1 quaternion; ff.219–28: 1 quaternion and a bifolio; this gathering probably belongs with ff.2–9 of W, a gathering which also does not match the rest of the codex with which it is bound; likely identity of format and scribal hands and coincidence of text support this assumption (Keyser); Cangé added an index of authors on 3 paper leaves at the beginning.Layout: 2 columns throughout; ff.1–210 have 26 lines per column; ff.211–18 have 28 lines per column; ff.219–26 have 27 lines per column; prose format. Decoration: historiated initials on f.1 (beginning of Gace Brulé songs) and 135 (where an unattributed group of songs begins); red and blue calligraphic initials begin all other songs; red or blue lettrines mark stanzas; decoration is in a similar style throughout all fascicles; ff.1–128, red rubrics with authors' names. Text scribes: several hands: one on first 2 gatherings, new hand begins on f.17; several hands from f.198v to the end of this fascicle; ff.211–18 are in a different hand and ff.219–28 in another.Notation: several hands: ff.1–198; ff.198v–201; ff.211–218v; ff.219–228; all use square notation; except on ff.219–228, all music was entered after the decoration. Date and provenance: 1270–80, Picardy-Artois region; acquired after 1724 by Châtre de Cangé, who gave it along with N and O to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1733; he made occasional annotations from comparisons withN and T (after the latter had entered the Bibliothèque du Roi, since Cangé refers to it by its royal number, Contents: 338 songs overall, 314 with music; ff.1–134v: 190 attributed songs grouped by author; ff.135–203v: 148 unattributed songs (some of which duplicate those in the attributed section); the contents of this first fascicle are closely related to those ofK, N and X; ff.204–10:Roman de vergier et de l'arbre d'amour in a new hand; ff.211–28: 34 songs by Adam de la Halle, all with music.Melodies: Gace Brulé (25), Chastelain de Couci (14), Blondel de Nesle (11), Thibaut IV (7), Gautier de Dargies (9), Thibaut de Blason (4), Richart de Semilli (7), Adam de la Halle (34), etc. Raynaud, i, 123–36; Ludwig, i/1, 336–7; H. Spanke, ed.: Eine altfranzösische Liedersammlung, der anonyme Teil der Liederhandschriften KNPX (Halle, 1925); Huot, 48–67; D.K. Keyser: Oracy, Literacy, and the Music of Adam de la Halle: The Evidence of the Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale (diss., U. of North Texas, 1996), 147–58Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.1109 (formerly 7363), ff.311–325v [Q]. 329 parchment leaves, 30 × 21 cm.Foliations: original ink i–cxxxvi, coinciding with Brunetto Latini's Livres dou tresor (beginning at the second gathering and continuing to f.179); modern pencil 1–324, including 185bis, 185ter, 2 leaves without numbers and 2 leaves numbered 322; modern pen 1–329, the foliation used by scholars today.Structure: 38 quaternions, 2 binions, 1 bifolio, and 3 irregular gatherings of 7, 5 and 3 leaves respectively; the fascicle of lyric songs occupies the last 2 complete quaternions (ff.311–325v); major works coincide with the beginnings of gatherings and new hands; gathering signatures suggest that the fascicles may now be bound out of order; uniform textblock size, decoration style and scribal orthographies (Picard) indicate that the MS was prepared as a whole. Layout: song fascicle has 2 columns of 42 lines each; prose format. Decoration: 5 miniatures with gold leaf, 4 in theTresor and 1 beginning the Régime du corps on f.242; red and blue calligraphic initials for songs and similar divisions elsewhere in the codex are of uniform style; red and blue lettrines in song fascicle; all decoration was entered after the music was written; red rubric ‘Chi coumencent les canchons d'Adanz’ on f.311, a little later than text. Text scribes: several scribes in the codex, each beginning a new work (ff.1, 144, 242, 282, 311 [song fascicle], 327, 328v) and coinciding with a new gathering; scribes appear to be contemporary with each other. Notation: one music scribe; 4- or 5-line red staves, some compression in spacing after f.313v; square notation, but with some ligatures cum opposita proprietate. Date and provenance: after 1310 (date given on f.143 at the end of theTresor), Picardy; explicit ‘Marie de Luxembourg’ on the last leaf (f.329v) suggests that the book was owned by the wife of François de Bourbon, count of Vendôme (she married in 1487; d 1546/7); the MS had entered the Bibliothèque du Roi by 1622. Contents: a miscellany mainly of long prose and poetic works: ff.1–143: Brunetto Latini's Li livres dou tresor; ff.144–179: Li dis de carité and Miserere of the Reclus de Molliens; ff.179–185v:Le chevalier au Barizel; ff.188–234v: Li mireoir dou monde; ff.236–241: Les vii Saumes Penitentians que David fist; ff.242–281v: Le régime du corps of Aldebrandin of Siena; ff.282–290v: Les enseignements des philosophes; f.291–310: proverbs of Solomon; ff.311–325v: 26 chansons (the first 3 without staves) and 16 jeux-partis (none with staves) by Adam de la Halle, 1 jeu-parti (without staves) by Gillebert de Berneville; ff.327–328, Li dit des iii vis et des iii mors by Nicole de Margival; ff.328v–329v, Explication d'un jeu de société.Melodies: 23 chansons by Adam (1 incomplete). Raynaud, i, 137–8; E. Brayer: ‘Notice du manuscrit Paris, BN fr.1109’, Mélanges dédiés à la mémoire de Félix Grat, ii (Paris, 1949), 222–50Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.1591 (formerly 7613) [R]. 185 parchment leaves, 25 × 18 cm. Foliation: modern ink 1–184 + 64bis, entered with the title page and index of authors on paper flyleaves at the beginning, dated 1895. Structure: 21 quaternions, 2 bifolios, 1 ternion, and at the end a bifolio, a single leaf tipped in and a binion.Layout: single column of 26 lines; prose format. Decoration: red and blue calligraphic initials (entered after music) begin each song; red and blue lettrines marking interior stanzas and attributive rubrics were entered before the music; uniform decoration throughout.Text scribes: 1 hand throughout.Notation: possibly 2 or 3 hands; evidence of attempts at mensural notation (differentiation of longs and breves, ligaturescum opposita proprietate, grouping notes by vertical strokes); 4-line red staves drawn with a rastrum. Date and provenance: beginning 14th century, Artois; owned by brothers Pierre (d 1651) and Jacques (d 1656) Dupuy, who bequeathed it to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1645; it entered there in 1657. Contents: ff.1–15vand 27–62: 63 attributed chansons; ff.16–26v, 17 jeux-partis; ff.62v–184: 172 unattributed chansons; all but the jeux-partis have music.Melodies: 235, of which 3 are incomplete: Thibaut IV (10), Chastelain de Couci (9), Moniot d'Arras (7), Blondel de Nesle (5), etc. Raynaud, i, 139–49; A. Jeanroy and A. Långfors: ‘Chansons inédites tirées du ms. fr.1591’, Romania, xliv (1915–17), 454–510; J. Schubert: Der Handschrift Paris, Bibl. Nat. fr.1591: kritische Untersuchung der Trouvèrehandschrift R (Frankfurt, 1963)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.12615 (formerly (‘MS de Noailles’) [T]. 234 parchment leaves, 31 × 20 cm.Foliation: modern ink 1–233, with 2 leaves numbered 226. Structure: sectionalization of contents coincides with changing gathering signatures, réclames, ruling and scribal hands to suggest 4 separate collections: (i) ff.1–22, 2 quaternions and an irregular gathering of 6 leaves; (ii) ff.23–178, 19 quaternions and 1 bifolio; (iii) ff.179–223, 5 quaternions, 1 ternion and single leaf, and 1 ternion; (iv) ff.224–33, a quaternion, a bifolio, and 1 leaf tipped in at the end. Consistent textblock size and similar decoration style indicate these fascicles were all produced in one workshop; staves, music, rubrics, and decoration were entered in different order throughout the codex as the various fascicles were circulated among different artisans during production. Layout: mostly single column; ff.1–20 and 224–33: 39 lines per column; ff.23–176 and 197–9: 36 lines per column; the dits and narrative poem on ff.199–222 are in 2 columns, thedits with 36 and the poem with 39 lines per column; the lyric songs are in prose format, thedits in verse format. Text scribes: at least 2, scattered throughout the codex; a few 14th-and 15th-century additions (ff.20v–21, 177, 178v, 222–223v).Decoration: historiated initial on f.1, and a large ornamental initial beginning the Adam de la Halle collection on f.224; elsewhere boxed ornamented gold leaf initials begin each song; blue/red and gold/blue lettrines mark interior stanzas; ff.224–33 have calligraphic initials without gold leaf, but otherwise decoration is similar; red attributive rubrics. Notation: for the monophony, at least 5 scribes, most using square notation, except for the 4 melodies by Thibaut IV in the first fascicle, which have rudimentary mensural notation; generally 5-line red staves, on ff.224–30 drawn with a rastrum; from f.30, notes occasionally extend over syllables of the second stanza which happen to be on the same line as the end of the first stanza; some melodies are left incomplete at the end; for the motets, a different scribe, square notation on 4-line red staves in parts (tenors are more or less modal; some are left unnotated but can be supplied from other sources). Date and provenance: 1270s–80s, Artois; early 14th-centurylibellus of Adam de la Halle bound in at the end (ff.224–233v); belonged to Duke Adrien-Maurice de Noailles (d 1766) by the early 18th century, but it had entered the Bibliothèque du Roi by 1733, because Cangé referred to it by its early royal number (suppl fr.184) in the leaves of P before he gave the latter to the Bibliothèque du Roi. Contents: ff.1–20: 55 songs of Thibaut IV, only 4 with music; ff.23–61v, 76v–176v and 204: 472 chansons, jeux-partis, chansons avec des refrains, and descorts, all but 18 with attributions, 350 with melodies; ff.62–75v: 9 Old French lais, 7 with melodies, and 2 Occitan lais, both with music (1 incomplete); ff.179–197: 79 two-voice motets (4 without tenors; 2 with tenor text incipit but no music), 6 three-voice motets (1 without tenor or motetus), 1 four-voice motet; ff.197–199: 4 lyric songs of Artois, none with music; ff.199–216: ditsfrom Artois, the latest from c1265; ff.218–222: Robert le Clerc's Vers de la mort; ff.224–233: 33 songs by Adam de la Halle, the first 12 with music.Melodies: Thibaut IV (4), Guillaume Le Vinier (24), Gillebert de Berneville (9), Audefroi le Bastart (13), Blondel de Nesle (9), Richart de Fournival (6), Thibaut de Blason (6), Moniot d'Arras (10), Pierre de Corbie (6), Jehan Erart (10), Thomas Herier (8), Andrieu Contredit (13), Gautier de Dargies (16), Chastelain de Couci (12), Gace Brulé (14), Adam de la Halle (12), etc. Raynaud, i, 153–72; Ludwig, i/1, 336–7; RISM B/IV/1, 381–93; R. Berger: Littérature et société arrageoises au XIIIe siècle: les chansons et dits artésiens (Arras, 1981); Everist (1989), 175–81; M. Everist: French Motets in the Thirteenth Century: Music, Poetry and Genre (Cambridge, 1994), 90–97Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.20050 (formerly St Germain fr.1989) (‘MS St-Germain-des-Prés’) [U; troubadour MS X]. 3 + 168 parchment leaves, 18 × 12 cm, plus 2 partial leaves tipped in later (ff.120 and 151).Foliations: original i–clxviii (lxxxxi is missing), beginning on the leaf after the index, in the side margin on the verso, keyed to the index; later black pen 1–173 begins with the index and ignores the lacuna; the tipped in partial leaves (ff.120 and 151) are not included in the original foliation; scholars use the modern Arabic foliation. Structure: 19 quaternions, 2 bifolios, 1 ternion with a leaf tipped in, and 1 irregular gathering of 4 leaves at the end; medieval index at the beginning is on 3 leaves, a bifolio plus 1 leaf glued in; 1 leaf is missing between ff.93 and 94 (according to the original foliation), but no text seems to be missing. Layout: single column; varying number of lines per column: 26 (ff.4–91v), 25 (ff.94–109) and 20–23 (ff.110 to the end); prose format. Decoration: 1 painted initial begins f.4; elsewhere red initials begin each song, all added after the music except on ff.22v–23; ff.4–92, interior stanzas are highlighted by red marks on the black ink letters; ff.94–152, interior stanzas begin with red ink lettrines; modern attributive rubrics in black ink. Text scribes: ff.4–91v, 1 scribe; several other hands in the rest of the codex, including that of the main scribe. Notation: 4-line red staves on ff.4–91v; space allowed for staves but none drawn in on ff.92rv, 110–152 and 154v–161; elsewhere no space allowed for music; 1 main music hand, with a few melodies added here and there by at least 2 other scribes, all using Messine neumes; 1 melody added on f.170v in square notation, possibly by a modern hand; gatherings 5 and 10 have empty staves, and gatherings 4, 5 and 11 have mostly empty staves. Date and provenance: after 1240, probably by 1250, Lorraine; Everist (1989) argues on paleographical grounds that it was produced as early as c1225, but it contains songs by several composers who could not have worked earlier than the 1240s; has been conjectured that the MS was accumulated over several decades, possibly by a jongleur, but the comprehensive index gives original foliation numbers and uses the same decorative initial highlights as in the texts, and gathering cues throughout the codex seem to be contemporary with the main text hand (Tyssens; Aubrey, p.35); the MS belonged to Henri-Charles du Cambout, duke of Coislin and bishop of Metz, who may have inherited it with the collection of his grandfather, chancellor Pierre Séguier (d 1672); Coislin placed his MS collection in the care of the abbey of St-Germain-des-Prés in 1720; the abbey retained possession after Coislin's death in 1732, and the collection entered the Bibliothèque Nationale in 1795. Contents: 304 French chansons, pastourelles and chansons de toile, 91 with music (not counting the late addition on f.170v); 28 Occitan cansos(ff.81–91 and 148v–151) copied without being segregated, 22 with melodies.Melodies: no attributions, but authenticated by concordances: Jaufre Rudel (1), Rigaut de Berbezilh (2), Bernart de Ventadorn (2), Gaucelm Faidit (7), Peire Vidal (2), Gace Brulé (16), Blondel de Nesle (3), Chastelain de Couci (10), etc. Raynaud, i, 172–83; P. Meyer and G. Raynaud: Le chansonnier français de Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris, 1892/R) [facs.]; Ludwig, i/1, 337; I. Parker: ‘Notes on the Chansonnier Saint-Germain-des-Prés’, ML, lx (1979), 261–80; Huot, 52–3; Everist, 199–200; M. Tyssens: ‘Les copistes du chansonnier français U’, Lyrique romane médiévale: la tradition des chansonniers: Liège 1989, 379–98; R. Lug: Der Chansonnier de Saint-Germain-des-Prés (Paris, BN fr.20050): Edition seiner Melodien mit Analysen zur ‘vormodalen’ Notation des 13. Jahrhunderts und einer Transkriptionsgeschichte des europäischen Minnesangs (Frankfurt, 1995); Aubrey, 34–8Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.24406(formerly La Vallière 59) [V]. 1 + 155 parchment leaves, 29 × 20 cm.Foliations: modern red ink A + 1–155; older black pagination 1–236 (on ff.1–118v). Structure: the codex comprises 2 self-contained collections: (i) ff.1–119: 15 quaternions (last leaf cut out of final gathering); (ii) ff.120–55: a sesternion, 3 binions, 1 bifolio and 1 quinternion; gathering signatures and the remains of an early foliation (viii, xiiii, vi, ix–xii, xv–xxiiii, xxvi–lx, on ff.133–9 and 146–55, and 2–36) suggest that the original order of these 2 fascicles was reversed; index of authors in modern hand on f.A. Layout: (i) 2 columns of 34 or 35 lines; stanzas begin at left margin; (ii) 2 columns of 41 or 42 lines. Decoration: (i) 1 historiated initial on f.1, a vielle player; large ornamented gold leaf initials begin each song; smaller gold lettrines mark interior stanzas; no rubrics; (ii) no decoration, although space was allowed. Text scribes: at least 2 in song fascicle, change coinciding with new gathering (f.65); different hand on ff.120–55. Notation: at least 3 hands: (a) ff.1–48: 5-line red staves drawn with a rastrum on ff.1–16, 4- or 5-line red staves drawn without a rastrum on ff.17–48; square notation with some erasures and corrections; (b) ff.49–119: (at the beginning of a new gathering, but in the middle of a song), 4-line red staves drawn without a rastrum, square notation; and (c) ff.148–152: 4-line black staves, square notation, smaller than first 2 hands with many chromatic inflections and clef changes, possibly a much later (?modern) hand; the first 2 scribes entered music before the decoration was added.Date and provenance: after 1266 (date given in a rubric on f.120), Artois; added note on f.119v refers to marriage of ‘Raoulet Bertholet’ and ‘Perrine de Fougerays’ in 1427, suggesting early ownership of the codex; arms of Claude d'Urfé (d 1558) on f.1v; sold to Louis César de La Beaume le Blanc, duc de La Vallière, sometime after 1766, and then sold by his heirs to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1784. Contents: (i) 301 unattributed chansons, all but 1 with melodies (1 of which is incomplete), arranged by author as in other MSS, but many poetic variants and unique musical readings; (ii) ff.120–140:Traité des quatres nécessaires; ff.141–147v: Richart de Fournival's Bestiaire d'amours; ff.148–155: 30 anonymous Marian songs including 1 in Occitan, 18 with melodies; most of these are contrafacta of melodies found elsewhere in the codex.Melodies: no attributions, but concordances with other sources authenticate songs by Thibaut IV, Gace Brulé, Gillebert de Berneville, Richart de Semilli, Thibaut de Blason, Thierri de Soissons, Gautier d'Espinal, Chastelain de Couci, Moniot d'Arras, etc. Raynaud, i, 186–98; A. Jeanroy, ‘Les chansons de Philippe de Beaumanoir’, Romania, xxvi (1897), 517–36; F. McAlpine: Un chansonnier médiéval: édition et étude du manuscrit 24406 de la Bibliothèque Nationale (diss., U. of Paris, Sorbonne, 1974).Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.25566 (formerly La Vallière 31) (‘Adam de la Halle MS’; ‘MS La Vallière’) [W]. 283 parchment leaves; 2 different collections bound together: (i) ff.2–9 (here called Wa, after Keyser), 21 × 14 cm, probably belongs with ff.219–28 of P, with which it seems identical in format and scribal hands; the text on f.9v of W breaks off at precisely the point that continues on f.219 of P(Keyser); (ii) the main part of the codex,W, 275 parchment leaves, ff.1 and 10–283, 25 × 17 cm. Foliations:W has an early foliation i–lxxiiii (coinciding with ff.10–89); Wa andW have separate modern foliations in black ink, 1–8 and 1–275 respectively, evidently done before the 2 collections were bound together; after their binding, a red ink foliation was added coinciding with the current order of leaves, 1–283, which is the foliation used by scholars. Structure: (i) 8 parchment leaves in 1 quaternion; (ii) a single leaf (f.1), 31 quaternions, 1 quinternion, 1 ternion, and a final ternion with a tipped-in single leaf (f.280) in the middle; gathering 21 has an added bifolio containing full-page illuminations (ff.175 and 178v), and gathering 26 has a single tipped-in leaf with a full-page illumination (f.220v). F.1 contains an index of the contents of W, contemporary with the MS but without folio numbers. Layout: both collections are in two columns; Wa has 27 lines per column in prose format; W has 34–5 lines per column, and stanzas begin at left margin for the monophonic songs; the polyphonic rondeaux are laid out in score, the motets in parts.Decoration: both collections have blue and red calligraphic initials to start each song and blue and red lettrines marking interior stanzas;W has a historiated initial at the beginning of each major section, most illustrating the content or generic identity of the works to follow; ff.175, 178v and 220v are full-page illuminations; long non-lyric works from f.83 to the end have numerous illuminations; red rubrics introduce the different genres and works.Text scribes: Wa, 1 hand, possibly same as that of P, ff.219–28;W has 1 hand for all of Adam's works; a new hand begins partway through Renart le nouvel. Notation: Wa, 1 hand, possibly same as that of ff.219–28 ofP, square notation; W has 1 scribe for all music, square with occasional mensural shapes for the monophonic chansons and jeux-partis, on 5-line red staves; mensural for the polyphony on 4- and 5-line staves (the rondeaux in score, the motets in parts) and for the lyric insertions on 4-line red staves. Date and provenance: end of the 13th century, Artois; sold by the heirs of Louis César de La Beaume le Blanc, duc de La Vallière to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1784. Contents: W is a well-planned comprehensive MS, beginning with the monophonic and polyphonic songs and motets of Adam de la Halle (ff.10–68) and continuing with many prose and narrative poetic works by other major 13th-century authors; ff.10–23v: 34 chansons, all but 1 with music; ff.23v–32v, 16 jeux-partis, all with music; ff.32v–34v: 16 three-voice rondeaux; ff.34v–37, 4 three-voice motets and 1 two-voice; ff.37v–39,Le jeu du pelerin; ff.39–48v:Jeu de Robin et Marion, with musical lyric insertions; ff.49–59v: Jeu de la feuillée; ff.59v–65:Roy de Sezile with musical lyric insertions; ff.65–66v: Vers d'amour; ff.66v–67v:Congé d'Adam; ff.68–83: Jehan Bodel's Jeu de S. Nicolai; ff.83–106v: Richart de Fournival's Bestiaire d'amour andResponse du bestiaire; ff.106v–109: Comment Dieus forma Adam and 2 dits; ff.109–177: Jacquemart de Gielée's Renart le nouvel, with musical lyric insertions; ff.179–232: Des iiii. evangelistres;Li tornoiement Antecrist and other religious and moralizing works; ff.232–283:dits and other narrative works, concluding with Jehan Bodel's Congé.Wa contains 14 chansons by Adam, the last of which is incomplete. Melodies:Wa: Adam (14 chansons); W: Adam (33 chansons, 16 jeux-partis). Raynaud, i, 198–201; Ludwig, i/2, 464–71; RISM, B/IV/1, 395–401; Huot, 64–74; Everist, 204; D.K. Keyser: Oracy, Literacy, and the Music of Adam de la Halle: the Evidence of the Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale (diss., U. of North Texas, 1996)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, (‘MS de Clairambault’) [X]. Originally 279 parchment leaves, 25 × 18 cm.Foliations: original i–cclxix in brown ink, reflecting the lacunae; modern red ink 1–272, disregarding the lacunae, begins on the paper gathering preceding the medieval codex, added with the paper title page dated 1876; scholars use the arabic foliation.Structure: originally 34 quaternions and a final gathering of 5 leaves; the second bifolio of gathering 15 (ff.cxiv and cxix) and gatherings 17, 18 and 19 (ff.cxix–clii) are missing, replaced by Clairambault with paper leaves containing songs copied from N; Clairambault also added a paper gathering at the beginning (ff.1–7) with an index of authors; several paper leaves were added at the end in several hands: ff.ii.clxx–ii.clxxi, possibly in Clairambault's hand, give remarks on some songs, a partial index, and a few additions; ff.ii.clxxii–ii.cxxiii begin with the rubric ‘A made. de Varennes gode’ followed by an index of authors and incipits of N in the same hand as and keyed to the pagination of that MS; and ff.ii.clxxiv–ii.clxxvii, in the hand of Baudelot (d 1722), give 4 poems by Thibaut IV found in O (which Baudelot owned) and T.Layout: 2 columns, 30 lines per column; all stanzas begin at left margin. Decoration: Thibaut IV libellus (f.i) and Marian song collection (f.ccliiiiv) begin with historiated initials; most other author groups begin with an ornamented initial with gold leaf; remaining songs begin with a large calligraphic red or blue initial; interior stanzas have blue and red lettrines; red attributive rubrics, entered when text copied and before staves were drawn; red crowns in margins mark 5 songs as ‘coronnée’. Text scribes: 1 scribe throughout.Notation: 1 scribe throughout, in darker ink than text; 4-line red staves, square notation, entered after rubrics and before decorated initials. Date and provenance: 1270–80, probably Arras; belonged to François-Roger de Gaignière (d 1715), from whose library it was evidently stolen by Pierre de Clairambault (d 1740), thence to his nephew Nicolas-Pascal (d 1762), who before his death ceded this and his other MSS to the Order of Saint-Esprit; it was moved to the convent of the Grands-Augustins in 1772, and finally to the Bibliothèque du Roi in 1792; in the turmoil of the Revolution many papers of Clairambault and others associated with the nobility were burnt, and this MS was thought to be lost until it was catalogued in 1876. Contents: ff.8–192: 294 attributed songs grouped by author, all but 1 with music, 2 left incomplete by lacunae; ff.192–257: 130 unattributed songs, all with music; ff.257–272: 31 Marian songs, all with music; order and contents of courtly song collection related to K and N; Marian fascicle shares a few concordances withP. Melodies: Thibaut IV (59), Gace Brulé (46), Chastelain de Couci (16), Blondel de Nesle (14), Thibaut de Blason (6), Gautier de Dargies (8), Moniot d'Arras (7), Gillebert de Berneville (13), Perrin d'Angicourt (21), Richart de Semilli (7), Moniot de Paris (9), Raoul de Soissons (4), Eustache le Peintre de Reims (6), etc. G. Raynaud: ‘Le Chansonnier Clairambault de la Bibliothèque nationale’, Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, xl (1879), 48–67; Raynaud, i, 201–19; Ludwig, i/1, 336–7; H. Spanke, ed.: Eine altfranzösische Liedersammlung, der anonyme Teil der Liederhandschriften KNPX (Halle, 1925); F. Gennrich, ed.: Cantilenae piae: 31 altfranzösische geistliche Lieder der Hs. Paris, Bibl. Nat. nouv. acq. fr. 1050(Frankfurt, 1966); Huot, 48–57.Rome, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, [a]. Earlier 4 + 204 leaves of which 23, presumably with historiated initials, were cut out, truncating many poems and melodies on adjacent leaves; surviving codex has 181 leaves, 31 × 21 cm.Foliations: original red ink [i]–xx/ix.xiij [=193], not including the index on the first 4 leaves to which it is keyed, accounts for the lacunae; modern black ink 1–181 beginning with the index, ignores lacunae; the latter foliation is the one used by most scholars. Structure: originally 22 quaternions, 1 binion, 2 ternions and 1 quinternion; medieval index with attributions, incipits, and rubrics introducing sections of the MS on a binion at the beginning; this index sometimes disagrees with attributions in the MS, omits many pieces, and lists several motets and rondeaux as chansons; index does not include the dits on ff.128–33, a gathering that seems to have been inserted later.Layout: 2 columns of 31 lines each; stanzas begin at the left margin. Decoration: historiated initials begin major composer groups; 7 of these survive; red/blue/gold initials begin remaining songs; blue and red calligraphic lettrines mark interior stanzas; painted line endings; red attributive rubrics and genre headings; decoration very smilar to that ofA. Text scribes: 1 main hand throughout, with a few slightly later additions.Notation: at least 2 music hands; 4- to 5-line red staves, square notation for monophony; motets sometimes have quasi-mensural notation, in parts; music added after decoration. Date and provenance: late 13th or early 14th century, Artois; came to Vatican from estate of Queen Christina of Sweden (d 1689); once thought to have belonged to Claude Fauchet, but this is unverified; marginalia and interlinear notes throughout the MS do not appear to be in Fauchet's hand.Contents: arranged by genre, and works by a single composer often coincide with the start of a gathering, so excised leaves with historiated initials are usually the first leaf of a gathering; ff.1–108v: 215 chansons (203 with music); ff.109–113v, 9 pastourelles (7 with music); ff.114–117: 5 three-voice motets (2 with music, 3 missing tenors, 1 also missing its motetus), 2 two-voice motets (both with music, but both missing tenors); ff.117–119v: 9 monophonic rondeaux (8 with music) and 1 virelai (with music) by Guillaume d'Amiens; ff.120–127: 15 Marian songs (14 with music); ff.128–133v: 4 dits sur l'amour; ff.134–181: 78 jeux-partis (76 with music); in addition, there are 3 rondeaux (with music), 1ballette (with music) and the upper voices of 10 motets (2 with music) scattered throughout the codex, often at the ends of gatherings where space was left initially; some of these are in the main text hand, some in different hands; the motet voices were entered into the index as chansons.Melodies: Thibaut IV (14), Chastelain de Couci (8), Gautier de Dargies (5), Gace Brulé (6), Guillaume Le Vinier (14), Richart de Fournival (15), Moniot d'Arras (5), Adam de la Halle (15), Colart le Boutellier (12), Jehan Bretel (6), Jehan de Grieviler (7), Blondel de Nesle (5), Gillebert de Berneville (9), Perrin d'Angicourt (7), Jehan le Cuvelier d'Arras (5), Guillaume d'Amiens (9), etc. A. Keller: Romvart(Mannheim, 1844), 24–327 [description and excerpts]; Raynaud, i, 219–32; Ludwig, i/2, 569–90; RISM, B/IV/1, 798–9; Huot, 53–64.Siena, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati, H.X.36 [Z]. 54 parchment leaves, 29 × 20 cm. Foliation: modern 1–53 + 10bis. Structure: 6 quaternions and 1 ternion. Layout: single column, 31 lines per column. Decoration: a gold/blue/red initial begins the first piece (f.1); red and blue calligraphic initials begin other pieces; red and blue lettrines begin interior stanzas. Text scribe: 1.Notation: 1 scribe, 4-line red staves, square notation added before the decoration.Date and provenance: late 13th or early 14th century, Artois or Picardy; came to Siena library from estate of Uberto Benvoglienti (d 1733). Contents: 77 chansons and 24 jeux-partis, all but the last of the jeux-partis with music. Melodies: a total of 101 melodies, no attributions, but authenticated from other sources are songs by Thibaut IV (13), Perrin d'Angicourt (11), Blondel de Nesle (4), Jehan de Grieviler (5), Colart le Boutellier (9), Robert du Chastel (5), etc. L. Passy: ‘Fragments d'histoire littéraire à propos d'un nouveau manuscrit de chansons françaises’, Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des Chartes, xx (1859), 1–39, 305–54, 465–502; Raynaud, i, 237–40; G. Steffens: ‘Die altfranzösische Liederhandschrift von Siena’, Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, lxxxviii (1892), 301–60 [complete diplomatic edn]; M. Spaziani, ed.: Il canzoniere francese di Siena (Biblioteca Comunale H.X.36) (Florence, 1957)

5. German.

  • David Fallows and Lorenz Welker

The active tradition of German monophonic song, which lasted uninterrupted for some seven centuries (Meistergesang was still being cultivated in the early 19th century), is reflected in a series of MSS whose very continuity is perhaps misleading but whose perpetual variety of musical readings has warned scholars not to take any of the information in them too literally. So melodies ascribed to Walther von der Vogelweide, for instance, are fairly numerous but only four of them, those in the Münster fragment, are generally accepted as being likely to resemble anything Walther knew. It is, moreover, rather more apparent from German sources than from others that the copyists were concerned primarily with presenting a relatively homogeneous repertory, not an Urtext: the melodies that were copied for later generations were actually used by them, so there would be no question of resurrecting earlier performing practice, rather the melodies had to be adapted to the current styles.

Study of these sources is made extremely difficult by the severe lack of early MSS and by the daunting profusion of enormous MSS from the 17th century, many of them not yet fully described. Even more frustrating is the clear evidence that there were once several MSS of early Minnesang with music: quite apart from the evidence of numerous fragments mentioned below, there is a record of five old songbooks with music (and including Walther von der Vogelweide's Leich) that were catalogued at Wittenberg in 1434 (see Stäblein, 1975, p.91). On the interpretation of the surviving musical evidence see Minnesang, §7, and Meistergesang, §2.

Consideration of Minnesang sources must begin with the text sources that provide the picture of the tradition accepted by scholars and literary students. The sources are all relatively late, but scarcely more so than the troubadour MSS. Their evidence is crucial for a study of the music because the musical sources are later still and mostly belong more to the era of Meistergesang.

Nuremberg, Stadtbibliothek, Will III 792, f.35, c1670 and after: two versions of the ‘Schwarzer Ton’, the first (following Puschman) with the text ‘Vor Jaren sass’; for transcription see Ton (i), ex.1

Stadtbibliothek Nürnberg


Important text manuscripts

in chronological order

  • Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Pal.germ.357 (‘Kleine Heidlberger Liederhandschrift’, ‘Alte Heidelberger Liederhandschrift’) [H, A]. 13th century. Ed. F. Pfeiffer (Stuttgart, 1844/R); facs., ed. C. von Kraus (Stuttgart, 1932)
  • Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek, HB XIII, 1 (‘Weingartner Liederhandschrift’) [W, B]. Early 14th century. Ed. F. Pfeiffer and F. Fellner (Stuttgart, 1843); facs., ed. K. Löffler (Stuttgart, 1927)
  • Heidelberg, Universitätsbibliothek, Pal.germ.848(‘Manessische Liederhandschrift’, ‘Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift’) [M, C]. Early 14th century and magnificently illuminated. Ed. F. Pfaff (Heidelberg, 1909); facs., ed. R. Sillib, F. Panzer and A. Haseloff (Leipzig, 1925–9); facs., ed. U. Müller and W. Werner (Göppingen, 1971)
  • Munich, Universitätsbibliothek, 2° 731 (‘Wurzburger Handschrift’) [E]. Mid-14th century.
  • Weimar, Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek, 4° 564 (‘Weimarer, Liederhandschrift’) [F]. Early 15th century.
  • The study of the music for Minnesang rests primarily on four sources:Jena, Thüringer Universitäts- und Landesbibliothek, El.f.101 (‘Jenaer Liederhandschrift’; fig.26) [J]. Originally 154, now 133 leaves of high-quality parchment, 56 × 41 cm. Foliations: old 1–49 entered before any leaves were lost from this section; more recent 50–133 ignoring missing leaves.
  • Structure: 19 gatherings, mostly of 8 leaves. Scribes: ff.1–72c; ff.81a–end; [later] ff.73–80. Date: mid-14th century; Holz suggested it was prepared for Friedrich der Ernsthafte, Landgrave of Thuringia and Margrave of Meissen (1324–49), partly on the basis of the magnificent format and partly because of the Eastern orthography.Provenance: came to Jena with the Elector of Saxony's library in 1548.
  • Contents: 91 melodies and many other poems without music; final section contains the Wartburgkrieg. Authors: Wizlâv III von Rügen (17), Der Mysnere (16), Meister Rumelant (9), Herman Damen (6), Brůder Wirner (6), Meister Alexander (5), Friedrich von Sunnenburg (4), Meister Kelyn (3), Der Unverzagte (3), Frauenlob (3), Meister Zilies von Seyne (2), Meyster Gervelyn (2), Der junge Spervogel, Robyn, Spervogel, Der Helleviur, Der Hynnenberger, Der Gůtere, Der Leitscouwere, Der Tannhäuser, Meister Singof, Reynolt von der Lippe, Rumelant von Swaben, Konrad von Würzburg, Meister Poppe, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Her Wolueram. The volume also includes poems without music by Meyster Růdinger, Der Urenheymer, Der Ghůter and Der Goldener. Notation: square non-mensural neumes on a 5-line staff.
  • K.K. Müller, ed.: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift in Lichtdruck (Jena, 1896) [complete facs., full size]; G. Holz, E. Bernoulli and F. Saran, eds.: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift (Leipzig, 1901/R) [complete edn]; C.G. Brandis: ‘Zur Entstehung und Geschichte der Jenaer Liederhandschrift’,Zeitschrift für Bücherfreunde, new ser., xxi (1929), 108–11; F. Gennrich, ed.: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift: Faksimile-Ausgabe ihrer Melodien, SMM, xi (1963) [facs. of music pages only, reduced size]; H. Tervooren: Einzelstrophe oder Strophenbindung? Untersuchungen zur Lyrik der Jenaer Handschrift (diss., U. of Bonn, 1967) [incl. detailed description]; H. Tervooren and U. Müller, eds.: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift (Göppingen, 1972) [facs.]; E. Pickerodt-Uthleb: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift: metrische und musikalische Untersuchung(Göppingen,1975), 444–6; B. Wachinger: ‘Jenaer Liederhandschrift’,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–); G. Kornrumpf: ‘Jenaer Liederhandschrift’,Literaturlexikon, ed. W. Killy (Gütersloh,1988–93); K. Klein and H. Lomnitzer: ‘Ein wiederaufgefundenes Blatt aus dem “Wartburgkrieg”-Teil der Jenaer Liederhandschrift’, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, cxvii (1995), 381–403; L. Welker: ‘Jenaer Liederhandschrift’,MGG2
  • Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.2701 (‘Frauenlob-Codex’, ‘Wiener Leichhandschrift’) [W]. 50 parchment leaves, 24 × 16 cm.Foliation: modern pencil 1–50.Structure: 6 gatherings of 8 leaves with 2 extra sheets around the first. Scribes: ff.1–10; ff.11–18; ff.19–50 all containing several hands. Illumination: many initials, titles and ascriptions in red ink.Date: 14th century. Provenance: taken over from A-Wu in 1756 (catalogue no.509). Notation: non-mensural Messine neumes on a 5-line staff.
  • Contents: 5 Leichsand 5 Minnelieder. Composers: Frauenlob (4), Reinmar von Zweter (2), Meister Alexander (2), Winsbeke (1) and anon.
  • DTÖ, 41, Jg.xx (1913/R) [complete facs. and edn]; C. März: ‘Wiener Leichhandschrift’,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2, 1977–)
  • Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 4997(‘Kolmarer Liederhandschrift’, ‘Colmar MS’; fig.27) [K, t]. 856 paper leaves, 30 × 20 cm. Foliations: (a) original Arabic; (b) slightly later Roman; (c) modern foliation, c1860.Structure: original index and 12-leaf gatherings; 36 lines per page. Scribes: main scribe ‘A’, who identifies himself on f.478; scribe ‘B’, perhaps from Alsace, added some contrafactum texts, etc.Illumination: ‘kunstlos’ (Aarburg). Date: mid-15th century, probably copied at Speyer, c1460. Provenance: purchased in Schlettstatt by Jerg Wickram in 1546; he took it to Colmar and founded the Colmar Meistersinger fraternity on this basis.
  • Contents: over 900 poems, arranged according to Ton; 105 melodies (including 5 Leichs). Composers: Frauenlob (24), Monk of Salzburg (10), Regenbogen (9), Konrad von Würzburg (8), Lesch (7), Der Kanzler (5), Heinrich von Mügeln (4), Marner (4), Harder (3), Peter von Reichenbach (3), Reinmar von Zweter (3), Walther von der Vogelweide (3), Liebe (2), Tannhäuser (2), Mülich von Prag (2), Muskatblůt (2), Peter von Aarburg (2), Wolfram von Eschenbach (2), Anker, Boppe, Heinrich von Ofterdingen, Tugendhafter Schreiber, Klingsor, Der alte Stolle, Der junge Stolle, Suchensinn, Meffrid, Meissner, Neidhart, [Nestler von Speyer], Peter von Sachsen, Reinmar von Brennenberg, Rumsland von Sachsen, Der Ungelehrte, Der Zwinger. Date of music: goes back apparently to the 12th century in some cases, though it is likely that all earlier material is heavily adapted.
  • K. Bartsch, ed.: Meisterlieder der Kolmarer Handschrift (Stuttgart, 1862/R) [selective text edn]; P. Runge: Die Sangesweisen der Colmarer Handschrift und die Liederhandschrift Donaueschingen (Leipzig, 1896/R) [complete music edn]; R. Zitzmann: Die Melodien der Kolmarer Liederhandschrift in ihre Bedeutung für die Musik- und Stilgeschichte der Gotik(Würzburg, 1944); H. Husmann: ‘Aufbau und Entstehung des cgm 4997 (Kolmarer Liederhandschrift)’,DVLG, xxxiv (1960), 189–243; U. Aarburg: ‘Verzeichnis der im Kolmarer Liedercodex erhaltenen Töne und Leiche’,Festschrift Heinrich Besseler, ed. E. Klemm (Leipzig, 1961), 127–36; F. Gennrich, ed.: Die Colmarer Liederhandschrift: Faksimile-Ausgabe ihrer Melodien, SMM, xviii (1967); C. Petzsch: Die Kolmarer Liederhandschrift: Entstehung und Geschichte(Munich, 1978); U. Müller, F.V. Spechtler and H. Brunner, eds.: Die Kolmarer Liederhandschrift der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek München (cgm 4997) (Göppingen, 1976) [facs.]; B. Wachinger: ‘Kolmarer Liederhandschrift’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–); G. Kornrumpf: ‘Kolmarer Liederhandschrift’,Literaturlexikon, ed. W. Killy (Gütersloh,1988–93); B. Schnell: ‘Zur medizinischen Sammelhandschrift Salzburg M II 3 und zur Kolmarer Liederhandschrift’, Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen, ccxxx (1993), 261–78; L. Welker: ‘Kolmarer Liederhandschrift’,MGG2
  • Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, Donaueschingen 120 (formerly Donaueschingen, Fürstlich Fürstenbergische Hofbibliothek) [D, u]. 321 paper pp., 28 × 21 cm.Structure: pp.1–204 theological treatises; pp.205–321 songbook, of which first layer pp.205–24, second layer pp.225–311 (3 gatherings), third layer pp.312–21. Illuminations: elaborate.Date: very late 15th century (uses void minims); perhaps copied in Alsace.Provenance: 1589 belonged to Nik. Mucheim of Uri at Mulhouse.
  • Contents: 40 poems, 21 melodies, all except Reinmar von Zweter'sSangweise found also in the Colmar MS, which is normally considered to have been copied from the same exemplar. Composers: Frauenlob (14), Reinmar von Zweter (2), Kanzler, Peter von Sachsen, Lesch, Monk of Salzburg, anon.
  • P. Runge: Die Sangesweisen der Colmarer Handschrift und die Liederhandschrift Donaueschingen(Leipzig, 1896/R); H. Husmann: ‘Donaueschinger Liederhandschrift’, MGG1; G. Steer: ‘Zur Entstehung und Herkunft der Donaueschinger Handschrift 120’,Würzburger Prosastudien, ii, ed. P. Kesting (Munich, 1975), 193–210; G. Steer: ‘Donaueschinger Liederhandschrift’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–); L. Welker: ‘Donaueschinger Liederhandschrift’,MGG2

    Beyond these four larger MSS, the earlier German repertory is known from the sources dedicated exclusively to the poetry and music of Neidhart von Reuental(D-B Mgf 779 and D-F germ.oct.18), and from a whole series of single leaves and fragmentary sources as well as from larger late medieval collections such as the ‘Sterzinger Miszellaneenhandschrift’ (Vipiteno, Stadtarchiv) and the ‘Mondsee-Wiener Liederhandschrift’ (A-Wn 2856). The following list is a relatively full census of song collections, and it gives a representative selection of single leaves and fragments.

Song collections, isolated melodies and fragments

in chronological order

13th century
  • Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Clm 4660, 4660a(‘Codex Buranus’ and ‘Fragmenta Burana’). c1230, South Tyrol, single German strophes with staffless neumes. Facs. and commentary in B. Bischoff: Carmina Burana: Faksimileausgabe (Munich and Brooklyn, NY,1967); see also §III, 2
  • [Lost Schreiber fragment] [S]. See Taylor (1968), 1, 92–3; ii, 136–7
14th century
  • Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.2675 [A′]. c1300. 1 melody. Facs. in von den Hagen, 774; see also Brunner and Wachinger, 290–91
  • Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Mgq 981[Mb]. 14th century. One melody. Facs. in E. Jammers: Tafeln zur Neumenschrift(Tutzing, 1965), 139
  • Kremsmünster, Benediktinerstift, Musikarchiv, 127 (formerly VII 18) [N ], f.130. Early 14th century. Neumatic notation for 2 lines of 1 song by Walther von der Vogelweide. Facs. and description in H. Brunner and others, eds.: Walther von der Vogelweide: die gesamte Überlieferung der Texte und Melodien (Göppingen, 1977), 37*–38*, 50*, 162–3
  • Münster, Staatsarchiv, VII 51 [Z]. 14th century. Parchment bifolio with 5 melodies, 4 ascribed to Walther von der Vogelweide. Facs. and description in H. Brunner and others, eds.: Walther von der Vogelweide (Göppingen, 1977), 51*–58*, 80*–86*, 293–6
  • Basle, Öffentliche Bibliothek der Universität, N I 3, Nr.145. Facs. in H. Tervooren and U. Müller, eds.: Die Jenaer Liederhandschrift (Göppingen, 1972), appx; extensive study, facs. and edn in W. von Wangenheim: Das Basler Fragment einer mitteldeutsch-niederdeutschen Liederhandschrift und sein Spruchdichter-Repertoire (Berne and Frankfurt, 1972)
  • Berlin, Geheimes Staatsarchiv, Stiftung Preussischer Kulturbesitz, XX. Hauptabteilung (StA Königsberg), 33.1 (formerly Königsberg, Provinzialarchiv). Early 14th century. See K. Stackmann and K. Bertau, eds.: Frauenlob (Heinrich von Meissen): Leichs, Sangsprüche, Lieder(Göttingen, 1981), i, 139
  • Engelberg, Kloster, Musikbibliothek, 314. Late 14th century or early 15th. German religious songs in the first gathering. Facs. and commentary in W. Arlt and M. Stauffacher: Engelberg Stiftsbibliothek Codex 314 (Winterthur, 1986)
  • Graz, Universitätsbibliothek, 756(‘Seckauer Cantionale’). Mid-14th century. Several German religious songs with neumes. See J. Janota: ‘Seckauer Cantionale’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)
  • Marburg, Staatsarchiv, Bestand 147, Hr.1.2. Early 14th century. 2 parchment leaves. See K. Stackmann and K. Bertau, eds.: Frauenlob (Heinrich von Meissen): Leichs, Sangsprüche, Lieder (Göttingen, 1981), 1, 150–51
  • Melk an der Donau, Bibliothek des Benediktinerstifts, s.s. 14th century. Parchment bifolio containing part of Frauenlob'sMarienleich. See Stackmann and Bertau, 146–8
  • Munich, Universitätsbibliothek, 4° 921. 2 leaves containing part of Frauenlob's Marienleich. Facs. in K.H. Bertau: ‘Wenig beachtete Frauenlobfragmente, II’, Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur, 93 (1964), 215–26; see also Stackmann and Bertau, 139
  • Wrocław, Biblioteka Uniwersytecka, I Q 368a (formerly Early 14th century. Parchment bifolio containing part of Frauenlob'sMarienleich. Facs. in J. Klapper: ‘Frauenlobfragmente’, Festschrift Theodor Siebs zum 70. Geburtstag, ed. W. Steller (Breslau, 1933/R), 69–88; see also Stackmann and Bertau, 149
15th century
  • Kraków, Biblioteka Jagiellońska, (formerly Berlin, Preussische Staatsbibliothek) [b]. 14th–15th centuries. See J. Wolf: ‘Zwei Tagelieder des XIV. Jahrhunderts’, Mittelalterliche Handschriften: … Festgabe zum 60. Geburtstage von Hermann Degering, ed. A. Bömer (Leipzig, 1926/R), 325–7 (also pubd separately)
  • Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek, 1305. Early 15th century (ff.107–10 dated 1382). See H.J. Moser: Geschichte der deutschen Musik, 1 (Stuttgart, 1920, 5/1930/R); W. Jungandreas: ‘Das Ms. 1305 der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, eine Handschrift aus Schlesien’,JbLH, xix (1972), 205–12; Brunner and Wachinger, 193
  • Erlangen, Universitätsbibliothek, B5 (formerly 1655). 15th century. 14 paper leaves containing 1 melody in staffless neumes. See Brunner and Wachinger, 155
  • Basle, Öffentliche Bibliothek der Universität, B XI 8. c1400. See P. Kesting: ‘Die deutschen lyrischen Texte in der Basler Handschrift B XI 8’,Überlieferungsgeschichtliche Editionen und Studien zur deutschen Literatur des Mittelalters: Kurt Ruh zum 75. Geburtstag, ed. K. Kunze, J.G. Mayer and B. Schnell (Tübingen, 1989), 32–58
  • Darmstadt, Hessische Landesbibliothek, 2225. Dated 1410. 10 songs with melodies. See J. Wolf: ‘Deutsche Lieder des 15. Jahrhunderts’,Festschrift zum 90. Geburtstage … Rochus Freiherrn von Liliencron (Leipzig, 1910/R), 404–20
  • Vipiteno (Sterzing),Archivio di Stato (Stadtarchiv), s.s. (‘Sterzinger Miszellaneen-Handschrift’). c1410–20. Facs. in E. Thurnher and M. Zimmermann: Die Sterzinger Miszellaneen-Handschrift (Göppingen, 1979). See also M. Zimmermann, ed.: Die Sterzinger Miszellaneen-Handschrift: kommentierte Edition der deutschen Dichtungen (Innsbruck, 1980); M. Zimmermann: ‘Sterzinger Miszellaneen-Handschrift’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–); L. Welker: ‘Ein anonymer Mensuraltraktat in der Sterzinger Miszellaneen-Handschrift’,AMw, xlviii (1991), 255–81
  • Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Mgf 922(‘Berliner Liederhandschrift’). c1420. See M. Lang and J.M. Müller-Blattau: Zwischen Minnesang und Volkslied (Berlin, 1941); B. Schludermann: A Quantitative Analysis of German/Dutch Language Mixture in the Berlin Songs mgf 922, the Gruuthuse-Songs, and the Hague MS 128 E 2 (Göppingen, 1996)
  • Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek, St Blasien 77(‘Heinrich Otters Liederbuch’). Dated 1439/42. See Brunner and Wachinger, 188
  • Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cgm 811(‘Liederbuch des Jakob Käbitz’). c1430–50. See H. Fischer: ‘Jakob Käbitz und sein verkanntes Liederbuch’, Euphorion, lvi (1962), 191–9; M. Curschmann: ‘Kebicz, Jakob’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)
  • České Budéjovice, Krajská Knihovna, 1 VB 8b (‘Hohenfurter Liederbuch’). c1450. See B. Wachinger: ‘Hohenfurter Liederbuch’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)
  • Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Series nova 3344(‘Liebhardt Eghenfelders Liederbuch’; ‘Schratsche Handschrift’). Before 1455. See H. Lomnitzer: ‘Liebhard Eghenvelders Liederbuch’, Zeitschrift für deutsche Philologie, 90 (1971), suppl., 190–216

    Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vind.2856(‘Mondsee-Wiener Liederhandschrift’). c1455–70. Gatherings 1–7 contain almost exclusively works by the Monk; gatherings 8–10 also have songs by other authors such as Heinrich von Mügeln and Albrecht Lesch. Facs. in H. Heger: Mondsee-Wiener Liederhandschrift (Graz, 1968); see also L. Welker: ‘Mondsee-Wiener Liederhandschrift’, MGG2; C. März, ed.: Die weltlichen Lieder des Mönchs von Salzburg: Texte und Melodien(Tübingen, 1999), 64–72

  • Wienhausen, Klostermuseum, 9 (‘Wienhäuser Liederbuch’). c1470. See J. Janota: ‘Wienhäuser Liederbuch’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)
  • Rostock, Universitätsbibliothek, phil.100/2 (‘Rostocker Liederbuch’). c1480. See A. Holtorf: ‘Rostocker Liederbuch’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)
  • Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Mgo 280(‘Liederbuch der Anna von Köln’). c1500. See W. Salmen and J. Koep, eds.: Liederbuch der Anna von Köln (um 1500) (Düsseldorf, 1954)

    In addition to the larger 15th-century song collections listed above, mention should be made of the sometimes very carefully prepared autograph or author-supervised collections for the 15th-century poets Hugo von Montfort(D-HEu Cpg 329), Oswald von Wolkenstein(A-Wn 2777; Iu ) and Michel Beheim(D-HEu Cpg 312; Mbs Cgm 291).A-Wn 2856, though not an authorial MS, is almost exclusively dedicated to only one author, the Monk of Salzburg. This MS and the two Wolkenstein MSS are also interesting in containing monophonic song as well as simple polyphony. Furthermore, the Wolkenstein MSS present a link to an international polyphonic song repertory by the inclusion of polyphonic contrafacta. The songbook of Anna von Köln (D-B Mgo 280) and the Berliner Liederbuch (D-B Mgf 922) also contain works in a range of styles. These last two repertories, in particular, show some striking similarities to the Dutch song tradition of the time (see below). But in view of the proliferation of styles among this disparate collection of MSS it seems especially significant that the future of secular monophony lay not with these comparatively compact song styles but with the almost prodigally expansive Meistergesang, following the style of the material in the Colmar MS. Between Colmar (c1460) and the songbook of Adam Puschman there are very few major Meistergesang sources, but the connections between the two and the nature of their repertories clearly establish the continuity and startling growth of Meistergesang.

    Robert Staiger estimated that in 1600 the repertory of Meistergesang comprised about 700 melodies; but since versions of a melody often differed widely a precise number is difficult to obtain. On the other hand, the exhaustive and compendious nature of the surviving sources suggests that they were intended as collections of all surviving melodies.

    Breslau, Stadtbibliothek, 356 (1009) [lost] (‘Puschman's Singebuch’). 460 paper leaves, folio size. Scribe: Adam Puschman. Dated 1584, Jan 1588.

  • Contents: ff.2–22Grunttlicher Bericht des deutschen Meister Gesanges, 1571, rev. 1584; ff.23–94Comedia von dem frumen Patriarchen Jacob und seinem sone Joseph und seinen Brudern (with 7 songs); ff.95–7, except from Colmar MS; ff.99–460, 327 Meisterlieder.Composers: Frauenlob (25), Regenbogen (12), Hans Folz (14), Hans Sachs (13), Hans Vogl (20) and others.
  • E. Bohn: Die musikalischen Handschriften des XVI. und XVII. Jahrhunderts in der Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau (Breslau, 1890), 375–420 [detailed index of contents]; G. Münzer, ed.: Das Singebuch des Adam Puschman nebst den Originalmelodien des Michel Behaim und Hans Sachs (Leipzig, 1906/R) [see also review by R. Staiger, SIMG, viii (1906–7), 223]

    Some further idea of the nature of Meistergesang MSS may be gained from what can be reconstructed from the collection of Georg Hager, who numbered his volumes. Those that have been located include: ii:D-Dl M 195 (lost, formerly M 100), bound in 1580 but not finished until 1623, 386 leaves, many hands, songs mostly unascribed but including Frauenlob (12), Müglin (3), Regenbogen (4), Konrat Nachtigal (4), Hans Folz (5), Hans Sachs (13) and Hans Vogl (7); iv: D-B germ.583, dated 11 July 1588, 337 leaves, many hands, Frauenlob (9), Vogl (11), Nachtigal (7), Sachs (13); xi: WRz Q 571, dated 1527–1629, bound 1596, c430 leaves, Frauenlob (11), Folz (9), Sachs (10, incl. autograph entries), Vogl (10), Hager (5); xii: A-Wn Vind.13512, 713 + 62 leaves, Frauenlob (22), Regenbogen (10), Nachtigal (10), Fritz Zan (5), Folz (12), Vogl (18), Sachs (13), Michl Vogl (8), Adam Puschman (9), Hager (18); xiii: D-Dl M 6 (lost), bound 8 March 1601, 499 + 116 leaves, with musical section on ff.335–457v written by Puschman, ascriptions to Frauenlob (19), Regenbogen (9), Wolfram von Eschenbach (5), Nachtigal (8), Folz (10), Sachs (10), Vogl (15), Onoferus Schwarzenbach (14), Sepherinus Kriegsauer (11), Puschman (27), Hager (17).

    Other important Meistergesang sources include D-HEu 392 (c1481, 122 leaves, 50 Töne) and HEu 680 (15th century, 88 leaves, 55 Töne): both described by Holzmann in F. Pfeiffer'sGermania, iii (Stuttgart, 1858), 308;D-B germ.fol.22, 23, 24 (c1603), 25 (c1615); Ju El.fol.100 (prepared in 1558 in Magdeburg by Valentin Voigt); Nst Will III 784 (c1616), 792–6 (c1670 and after; fig.28). Some of these MSS contain over 600 leaves, and there are many others like them: it may be some years before it becomes possible to compile a reasonably full catalogue of the repertory.

  • H. Brunner: Die alten Meister (Munich, 1975); F. Schanze:Meisterliche Liedkunst zwischen Heinrich von Mügeln und Hans Sachs (Munich, 1983–4); F. Schanze: ‘Meisterliederhandschriften’,Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon, ed. K. Ruh and others (Berlin, 2/1977–)

6. Galego-Portuguese.

  • David Fallows and Manuel Pedro Ferreira

In the Iberian peninsula, during the 12th and 13th centuries, Galego-Portuguese was the language chosen for poetic literature not only in the western kingdoms of Portugal and Galícia but also in the central kingdoms of Castile and León (Occitan was used in Catalonia and Arabic in the Andalus). A corpus of more than 1680 secular poetic texts in Galego-Portuguese survives in three major sources without music: the Cancioneiro da Ajuda (P-La ), written about 1300; and the Cancioneiro da Vaticana (I-Rvat and Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti (P-Ln 10991), the latter both copied about 1525 in Rome from a lost 14th-century Portuguese exemplar. Of these songs the only extant music is for six cantigas de amigo by Martin Codax written on a loose bifolio (the so-called Vindel MS) and sevencantigas de amor by Dom Dinis entered on a fragmentary folio, discovered in 1990 by Sharrer; this was originally part of a Portuguese songbook (see below). Over 400 Cantigas de Santa Maria – songs dedicated to the Virgin by Alfonso el Sabio, King of Castile and León – survive, however, with music in three closely related codices written between 1270 and 1290 in connection with the royal court (see Cantiga).

Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 10069 [To]. 161 parchment leaves, 32 × 22 cm. Modern arabic foliation in pencil; red and blue illuminated capitals; each song headed in red. Layout: mostly 2 columns containing between 27 and 29 lines of text or 9 staves of music. No miniatures. Structure: quires of 8 and 10 leaves (see Ferreira, 1994: f.9 belongs to the first quire).Scribes: 5 for the text (French gothic script), 1 for the music (see Ferreira, 1994).Notation: semi-mensural, based on the shapes of 13th-century Iberian (Aquitanian-type) chant notation (Ferreira, 1987, 1993). Date: ?c1275 (Ferreira, 1994) Contents: 128 songs: 102 cantigas corresponding to the earliest redaction of the Cantigas de Santa Maria(f.9v ff), and 3 appendices with 26 more cantigas (f.136 ff) Ribera [edn and pseudo-facs.]San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Biblioteca del Real Monasterio, T.I.1 (also known as T.j.1) [e; ; T]. 256 parchment leaves, 49 × 33 cm. Modern arabic foliation in pencil; songs numbered with illuminated Roman numerals on both leaves, top centre. Layout: normally 2 columns, 44 lines or 11 staves a page; red and blue illuminated capitals; each song headed in red.Illuminations: 1264 magnificent miniatures, normally grouped by 6 (1 full page corresponding to a song) or 12 (2 full pages, singling out the fifth song in each group of 10). Scribes: no detailed study; seemingly uniform French gothic hand.Notation: proto-mensural, based on, but not identical to French pre-Franconian practice (Ferreira, 1987, 1993). Date: ?1280–84 (Ferreira, 1994) Contents: on f.4, after the surviving folios of the index, a fragmentary cantiga without music forms an ‘appendix’; on f.4v the main collection begins, with 194 cantigas (including 3 fragmentary, of which 2 without music, and 1 more with empty staves). This is the first volume of a set of 2; the second, incomplete volume, containing 104 songs with empty staves, is now in Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, B.R.20 [F]. Facs.: El ‘Códice Rico’ de las Cantigas de Alfonso el Sabio: Ms. T.I.1 de la Biblioteca de El Escorial (Madrid, 1979)San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Biblioteca del Real Monasterio, b.I.2 (also known as j.b.2) [; E]. 361 parchment leaves, 40 × 28 cm. Modern arabic foliation; songs (except for the 2 Prologues and the last cantigas) numbered with illuminated Roman numerals on both leaves, top centre. Layout: normally 2 columns containing 40 text lines or 10 staves; red and blue illuminated capitals; each song headed in red. Illuminations: 40 detailed miniatures of musicians playing instruments before every tenth song (for illustration see Cantiga, fig.1). Structure: largely composed of quaternions (see Anglès, i).Scribes: no published study; text: French gothic script; at least 2 scribes (compare, for instance, ff.29–76 with preceding); music: 2 scribes (compare ff.203–4, 326, 328, etc., with other leaves). 2 marginal notes ‘aras nunez’ on f.204 and f.267 may refer to the contemporary cleric and troubadour Airas Nunez, who possibly entered the music on ff.203–4. On f.361, a scribe identified himself as Johannes Gundisalvi [González].Notation: proto-mensural, based on, but not identical to French pre-Franconian practice (Ferreira, 1987, 1993) Date: ?c1284 (Ferreira, 1994) Contents: 416 songs (including 9 repeated cantigas, a repeated melody and 4 cantigas without music) thus distributed: appendix, ff.1v–12: 13 songs; after the index on ff.13–26, the main collection of 403 songs starts on f.28v and occupies the remaining folios. Anglès, ii, iii/2 [edn]; i [facs., with notational details drawn in by J.M. Llorens]New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M 979 [N; R;PV]. Loose bifolio written on one side only, 34 × 45 cm. Layout: 2 columns of 36 lines per page; red and blue illuminated capitals; no miniatures. Scribes: 1 main text scribe, last cantiga in different hand; 2 copyists for the music. Notation: proto-mensural (Ferreira, 1986).Date: ? last quarter of 13th century. Contents: 7 cantigas de amigo by Martin Codax, one of them without music. Ferreira (1986) [edn and facs.]Lisbon, Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, Capa do C.N.L. n° 7A, cx 1, m. 1, l. 3 (Casa Forte) [T; PS ]. Fragmentary folio written on both sides in French gothic script. Unduly restored in 1993 (the musical content suffered). Layout: 3 columns; red and blue illuminated capitals; no miniatures. Scribes: 2 calligraphic styles, possibly by same copyist, with corrections by a different hand. 3 music copyists.Notation: proto-mensural (see Ferreira, forthcoming). Date: c1300. Contents: 7cantigas de amor by Dom Dinis, King of Portugal (ruled 1279–1325), with lacunae. Ferreira (forthcoming) [edn and facs.]

7. Italian.

  • David Fallows

The two surviving Lauda sources with music were probably prepared for confraternities. The few surviving fragments suggest similar scope and provenance for the MSS from which they originally came. On the other hand the primarily devotional or evangelical character of the MSS explains their casual approach to texts: the 18 songs that the two larger sources have in common show widely varying readings in all cases, often with the Florence source representing a far more florid version.

The fragmentary sources – GB-Cfm 194, Lbl Add.35254B, US-NYpm 742 and NYlehman (formerly Worcester, MA, private collection of Frank C. Smith) – are all reproduced in Liuzzi, i, 223. These are not the only evidence that the repertory was relatively widespread: several of Jacopone da Todi’s poems are set, and there is no reason to think that the others were not set and sung; and Francis of Assisi’s Canticum creatorumappears in I-Ac 338, f.33, below empty staves (facs. in Nolthenius, p.198).Cortona, Biblioteca Comunale e dell’Accademia Etrusca, 91. 171 parchment leaves, 23 × 17 cm. Foliations: ? original roman at top; later arabic at top; cursive arabic at bottom. Structure: i–xv in 8s (with leaves missing in v and vi); xvi of 10 leaves. Scribes: consistent hand, but far more modest in scope than the Florence MS.Date: c1260–91. Contents: 46 laude with music. Liuzzi, i [facs. of music and complete edn]; L. Lucchi, ed.:Il laudario di Cortona (Vicenza, 1987); T. Karp: ‘Editing the Cortona Laudario’,JM, xi (1993), 73–105Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Banco Rari 18 (II.1.122). 153 parchment leaves, 40 × 29 cm.Foliations: modern 1–153, 1 early Roman i–cxxxiv at bottom of leaf, 1 top right as modern but adding 5 folios at beginning.Scribes: consistent Italian Gothic hand with large brown square notation on a 4-line staff throughout. Date: Early 14th century.Provenance: Confraternità di S Maria presso li Agostiniani di Santo Spirito, Florence, identified from miniatures. Contents: original index; 88 laude, ff.1–135v; 2 disjunct quaternions containing sequences and other sacred music, including 1 lauda, ff.152–153v, with music in an apparently much later hand. Versions are often far more elaborate than those in the Cortona MS.Liuzzi, ii [facs. of music and complete edn]; B. Wilson and N. Barbieri, eds.:The Florence Laudario: an Edition of Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Banco Rari 18, RRMMA, xxix (1995); B.McD. Wilson: ‘Indagine sul laudario fiorentino (Firenze, Biblioteca Nazionale, MS Banco Rari 18)’,RIM , xxxi (1996), 243–80

8. Other languages and later repertories.

  • David Fallows

Elsewhere in Europe there are isolated fragments of lyric poetry, occasional traces of a repertory, but rarely enough music to give any clear impression of a musical tradition. In England, for example, the nearest thing to a monophonic song collection is that containing the four songs of St Godric(GB-Lbl Roy.5 F.vii), though if a much looser definition of ‘collection’ is admissible a survey would include Lbl Harl.978 and Lbl Arundel 248, both including isolated English songs among Latin song and polyphony; apart from that the surviving monophonic song with English text is confined to isolated fragments to whose MS nature and musical style a coherent pattern could be given only by dint of considerable imagination.

An example of an apparent song repertory from the Netherlands may be seen, however, in the late 14th-century Gruuthuse MS, described below. It belongs less to the medieval repertories than to a new tradition represented also in the French sources F-Pn fr.9346 (‘Bayeux’) and Pn fr.12744, the German Mondsee-Wiener Liederhandschrift (A-Wn Vind.2856) and perhaps also various late 15th-century volumes of devotional songs such as the songbook of Anna von Köln (D-B Mgo 280), and the two Dutch volumes A-Wn Vind.12875 and D-B Mgo 190 (ed. E. Bruning, M. Veldhuyzen and H. Wagenaar-Nolthenius: Het geestelijk lied, MMN, vii, 1963).Koolkerke, nr Bruges, Casteel Ten Berghe, private library of Baron Ernest van Calcoen(‘Gruuthuse-handschrift’). 1 + 84 parchment leaves, c25 × 18 cm. Structure: 12 ff. (6 bifolia) of which 3 are now missing; 32 ff. (4 quaternions), incl. 147 songs; 52 ff. (4 + 6 quaternions), containing 14 long poems.Scribe: Jan Moritoen. Date: finally assembled 1462. Provenance: Bruges, Loys van den Gruythuyse. Contents: c150 songs of late 14th century, nearly all with melody, untexted, copied at head of poem; melodies mostly in stroke notation. C.W.H. Lindenburg: ‘Notatieproblemen van het Gruythuyzer handschrift’, TVNM, xvii/1 (1948), 44–86; K. Heeroma, ed.:Liederen en gedichten uit het Gruuthuse-handschrift, with melodies ed. C.W. H. Lindenburg (Leiden, 1966) [song section only; see also review by R.B. Lenaerts, MQ, liii (1967), 283–7]; H. Wagenaar-Nolthenius: ‘Wat is een rondeel?’, TVNM, xxi /2(1969), 61–7; J. van Biezen: ‘The Music Notation of the Gruuthuse Manuscript and Related Notations’, TVNM, xxii/4 (1972), 231–51; C. Lindenburg: ‘Zerstreute Gruuthuser Melodien und ihre Übertragungsprobleme’, TVNM, xxiii (1973), 61–74; J. van Biezen: ‘Die Gruuthuse-Notation: eine Erwiderung auf die Kritik von Cornelis Lindenburg’,TVNM, xxiii (1973), 75–8; E. Jammers: ‘Die Melodien der Gruuthuse-Handschrift’, TVNM, xxv/2 (1975), 1–22; J. van Biezen and K. Vellekoop: ‘Aspects of Stroke Notation in the Gruuthuse Manuscript and Other Sources’,TVNM, xxxiv (1984), 3–25; F. Willaert, ed.: Een zoet akkord: middeleeuwse lyriek in de Lage Landen (Amsterdam, 1992); C. Lindenburg and K. Vellekoop: ‘Gruuthuse-Handschrift’,MGG2


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  • H.Spanke, ed.: G. Raynauds Bibliographie des altfranzösischen Liedes (Leiden, 1955, rev., enlarged 1980 by A. Bahat) [referred to as RS]
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  • M.P.Ferreira: O Som de Martin Codax/The Sound of Martin Codax(Lisbon, 1986)
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  • M.P.Ferreira: ‘The Stemma of the Marian Cantigas: Philological and Musical Evidence’,Cantigueiros, 6 (1994), 58–98
  • M.P.Ferreira, ed.: Cantus Coronatus: Seven Cantigas d'Amor by Dom Dinis, King of Portugal and the Algarve(forthcoming)
  • F.Liuzzi: La lauda e i primordi della melodia italiana (Rome,1935) [facs. and edn of entire musical repertory; see also reviews by Y. Rokseth,Romania, lxv (1939), 383–94, and J. Handschin, AcM, x (1938), 14–31]
  • G.Cattin: ‘Contributi alla storia della lauda spirituale’,Quadrivium, 2 (1958), 45–75
  • C.Terni: ‘Per una edizione critica del “Laudario di Cortona”’, Chigiana, new ser., 1 (1964), 111–29
  • H.Anglès: ‘The Musical Notation and Rhythm of the Italian Laude’, Essays in Musicology: a Birthday Offering for Willi Apel, ed. H. Tischler (Bloomington, IN, 1968), 51–60
  • H.Nolthenius: Duecento: zwerftocht door Italië’s late middeleuwen (Utrecht, 1951; Eng. trans., 1968)
  • A.Ziino: ‘La laude musicale del Duo-Trecento: nuove fonti scritte e tradizione orale’, Miscellanea di studi in onore di Aurelio Roncaglia (Modena,1980), 1465–73
  • G. Varanini, L. Banfi and A. Ceruti Burgio, eds.: Laude cortonesi dal secolo XIII al XV (Florence,1981–5)
Other languages and later repertoires
  • H.E. Wooldridge and H.V. Hughes, eds.: Early English Harmony (London,1897–1913/R)
  • J., J.F.R. and C. Stainer, eds.: Early Bodleian Music, 1–2 (London and New York,1901/R)
  • C. Brown and R.H. Robbins: The Index of Middle English Verse (New York, 1943; suppl. 1965 by R.H. Robbins and J.L. Cutler)
  • C. Page: ‘A Catalogue and Bibliography of English Song from its Beginnings to c1300’,RMARC, no.13 (1976), 67–83
  • E.J. Dobson and F.Ll. Harrison, eds.: Medieval English Songs (London,1979)

IV. Organum and discant

  • David Hiley

1. General.

Most surviving early polyphonic music is liturgical, an embellishment of the services for high feasts of the church year and for ecclesiastical cults such as that of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the 13th century. Yet its special nature caused it to be gathered in collections that, though highly individual artistically, are surprisingly anonymous in another sense. Liturgical polyphony is not usually found in regular service books such as those described in §II, whose provenance can be deduced from the liturgical use to which they conform; more often it was noted separately, in miscellanies which included secular music as well. Of the MSS described here, only GB-Ccc 473,E-SC and GB-Lbl Eg.2615 contain exclusively liturgical music. The others all include secular pieces, which, it is usually assumed, served as clerical or courtly entertainment. Determination of provenance and date often therefore requires a combination of liturgical comparisons (to find which use the source ‘fits’), paleography, and repertorial and stylistic evaluation.

Much of the sacred music of these MSS is often referred to as ‘para-liturgical’, including for instance many versus and conductus whose texts refer clearly to one of the great feasts of the church year, but which have no liturgical history in chant book or ordinal (see Versus and Conductus). The function of the clausulas (see Clausula) of MSS in §4 is also disputed. The survival of such a source asGB-Lbl Eg.2615 is particularly fortunate in that it shows sacred conductus in a specific place in the liturgy; and its rich repertory of prosulas (for example, the responsory Styrps Iesse, ff.62r–63r, has prosulas on ‘almus’, ‘eius’ and ‘sancto’; compare the setting inI-Fl Plut.29.1, ff.75r–76r, with clausulas on ‘Iesse’, ‘eius’ and ‘sancto’) is perhaps indicative of one role of clausula and motet in Parisian sources.

Fragmentary 11th-century sources of liturgical polyphony, such as the Chartres group (F-CHRm 4, 109, 130) and the Fleury group (I-Rvat,, 592), are not described here; although interesting evidence of the early cultivation of polyphony, they are individually very modest in scope (see Gushee, 1965 and Arlt, 1993).

Sources in §3 (and F-Pn lat.1139, in §II, 5) may be considered as a group because of a significant number of concordances. But the geographical dissemination of their repertory is wide, and its centre, if such there were, unknown. With the exception of the Codex Calixtinus, and those MSS catalogued by Bernardus Itier at St Martial (Pn lat.1139, 3549, 3719, which passed through his hands, and GB-Lbl Add.36881, which did not, were long cited as sources of ‘St Martial polyphony’), they survive more or less by chance; the polyphony cannot be considered as the product of a ‘school’.

Sources in §4 contain music by Leoninus and Perotinusof Paris, and their colleagues and successors (see also Philip the Chancellor). Several of them contain exceptionally large repertories, and collect music written over the previous half-century or more. I-Fl Plut.29.1,D-W 628 and 1099 bring together collections of pieces of very different functions, both liturgical and secular. Other MSS cover fewer genres, or only one. Only GB-Lbl Eg.2615, from Beauvais Cathedral, can be assigned to a specific establishment. Of the music of, for instance, St Louis’s royal household chapel we are almost entirely ignorant, let alone that of his cousins Henry III of England (see I. Bent,PRMA, xc, 1963–4, p.93) and Ferdinand III and Alfonso el Sabio of Castile. Nor is it definitely known whether the absence of settings of the Ordinary of the Mass in all butGB-Lbl Eg.2615 and D-W 628 is fortuitous or whether it reflects differences of liturgical practice (and, if so, whose?). It is understandable, therefore, that the most energetic research has concerned musical style (e.g. Flotzinger, 1969, on the clausula collections). The layering of the repertory is continually being clarified while the dating and provenance of the MSS themselves are still sometimes uncertain. Furthermore, the sources are often considerably later in date than the music they contain.

Fragments of 13th-century polyphony are relatively plentiful and continue to be discovered (see, for example, Chew, 1978, Everist, 1984); they are too numerous to be included here. Other sources related to those in §4 includeGB-Cjc QB1, from Bury St Edmunds, containing conductus particularly close to those in I-Fl Plut.29.1 and D-W 628, andD-HEu 2588, from Germany. The late influence in provincial areas of what was still, for them, a fashionable monophonic and polyphonic liturgical repertory is seen in CH-SGs 383 and D-Mbs lat.5539, in Germany; and inE-TO 97 and 135, in Spain. On the other hand, GB-Lbl 27630 and CH-EN 314 contain more independent repertories, comparable in this respect, though not of course in musical sophistication or by concordances, to English sources (§VI). While later sources of organum in Parisian style are rare (see F-MOf H196 and E-BUlh below; and D-MGs , formerly Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz lat.4o 523, described by K. von Fischer,AcM, xxxvi, 1964, p.80), the surviving motet repertory is large, giving the impression that the ‘central’ French tradition continued as a cultivation of the motet (see §V) rather than the other forms found in the sources described here.

The problem of utilizing valuable MS space for the polyphony in these books was solved in varying ways. For music in note-against-note style (i.e. conductus throughout this period), score was generally used. The exceptions are to be found in the earliest sources: a handful of pieces in the Aquitanian MSS are written in successive polyphony (see S. Fuller: ‘Hidden Polyphony – a Reappraisal’, JAMS, xxiv (1971), 169–92); the organal parts of GB-Ccc 473 are in a fascicle separate from the cantus firmi they accompany (fig.3 ).

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 473 (Winchester Troper), ff.96r, 81v, 154v (from Frere, 1894, pls.22, 4, 21). Music performed simultaneously but notated in different parts of the MS: (a) prosa, (b) sequence, (c) organal voice for sequence

The performer of the sustained notes of Parisian organum needed to see the upper part(s) in order to know when to change note, so score was also used in these pieces, although it meant that some staves might have only one note on them, or none at all. But the rhythm of motet tenors was regular, and so the concisely notated tenor could be written after the more extended texted voices.

Only editions devoted to specific sources are cited with the respective MS below. The most recent (and fundamentally different) editions of the 12th-century polyphony are by Karp (1992) and Van der Werf (1993). The Parisian organa dupla have been edited by Tischler (1988), the organa quadrupla and tripla by Husman (1940) and Roesner (1993), the conductus by Anderson (1979–) and the motets by Tischler (1982).

2. The Winchester Troper.

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 473 (fig.29). 198 parchment ff. (14·6 × 9·2 cm). Structure: 22 gatherings, alternating quaternions and quinions (but 9 and 10 are both quaternions, 17 and 18, 20 and 21 are quinions). Notation: 16 lines of text per side, with English non-diastematic neumes; significative letters; ‘instrumental’ letter notation; the partial sequence texts embedded in 2 prosaeare written in red capitals (see Frere, pp.69, 84). Scribes: 3 main scribes (Holschneider): the first wrote the troper and prosers, the second the sequentiary and collection of organa, the third the alleluia fascicle.Date and provenance: Winchester, Old Minster (Benedictine); the work of scribe 1 falls in the last years of the 10th century (after death of Ethelwold in 984, and probably after the official institution of his feast day in 996); scribe 2 worked in the 1st half of the next century; scribe 3 c1050; Holschneider suggested that the cantor Wulfstan (fl 992–6) composed the organa. Contents: alleluia fascicle in what is now the first gathering (but see H. Husmann, RISM, B/V/1, p.151); gatherings 2–6 contain tropes for the Proper of Mass; gatherings 7–9, tropes for the Ordinary, with a tonary on ff.70v–73v(between Glorias and Sanctus); gathering 10, sequentiary; 11–15, prosers; 16–21, collection of organa. Organa: 174 organal voices, without cantus firmus; 158 in main collection, 16 additions; the main collection has organa for 12 troped and untroped Kyries, tropes for 7 Glorias, 19 tracts, 7 sequences (the collection peters out here, and would presumably have continued with more sequences, Sanctus and Agnus tropes), 53 alleluias, 1 Greek Gloria, and 59 pieces for monastic Office. Alleluias series, tonary and notation style all link the tradition of this MS to continental St Denis-Corbie practice; unfortunately, no troper or collection of organa from those centres survives. The organa would supply polyphony for the Gradual, Troper and Antiphoner of Old Minster; hence this MS itself contains 68 appropriate cantus firmi, the troped Gradual GB-Ob Bodley 775 has 91. The New Minster Missal F-LH 330 has no tropes. No Winchester Antiphoner with music survives. PalMus, iii (1892), pl.179 [facs. of ff.16v–17r]; W.H. Frere, ed.:The Winchester Troper, Henry Bradshaw Society, viii (London, 1894/R) [facs. of ff.2v, 26v, 82r–88v, 96rv, 146v, 153r–154v, 163r, 195r; edn of trope texts]; H.E. Wooldridge:Early English Harmony, i (London, 1897), pls.II–VI [facs. of ff.135r–138r]; P. Wagner:Neumenkunde (Fribourg, 1905, 2/1912), 193 [facs. from f.16v]; H. Husmann, ed.:Tropen- und Sequenzenhandschriften, RISM, B/V/1 (1964), 150ff; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 453ff; A. Holschneider: Die Organa von Winchester(Hildesheim, 1968) (facs. of ff.60r, 89r, 91r, 108v, 153r–155r, 164v–165r, 175v–176r, 177v, 184v; edn of 9 organa]; H. Besseler and P. Gülke: Schriftbild der mehrstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, iii/5 (Leipzig, 1973), pl.4a (facs. from f.153r]; B. Stäblein: Schriftbild der einstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, iii/4 (Leipzig, 1975), pl.8 [facs. of ff.87v–88r]: A.E. Planchart:The Repertory of Tropes at Winchester(Princeton, NJ, 1977); S. Rankin: ‘Winchester Polyphony: the Early Theory and Practice of Organum’, Music in the Medieval English Liturgy, ed. S. Rankin and D. Hiley (Oxford, 1993), 59–99; D. Hiley: ‘The English Benedictine Version of the Historia Sancti Gregorii and the Date of the “Winchester Troper” (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 473)’, Cantus Planus VII: Sopron 1995, 287–303

3. Aquitanian and related sources.

Paris, Bibliothèque National de France, lat.1139 [St-M A]. See §II, 5.Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.3549[St-M B]. 169 ff. (19·5 × 14 cm); self-contained music section ff.149–69.Notation: Aquitanian neumes on 5 pairs of staves of 4 dry-point lines each: for polyphony the staves are separated by a red line; the 2 polyphonic Benedicamus settings in the monophonic section of the MS both have cantus firmus and vox organalis on the same staff, in the first piece there are only 3 cantus firmus notes in red ink, in the second piece each cantus firmus note has a circle round it. Date and provenance: 12th century, Aquitanian; the MS was in St Martial, Limoges, by 1205, when librarian Bernardus Itier had it rebound. Contents: 35 pieces, 19 of which are polyphonic for 2 voices. The polyphonic section comes first; it includes a trope for a Marian responsory, 9 prosae and a Benedicamus substitute. Monophonic pieces follow, beginning with 2 troped Kyries and tropes for 4 Sanctus; the 2 polyphonic Benedicamusinterrupt this section. Most other pieces in the MS are versus. Pieces from f.167vare additions, 2 without music. MGG1(‘Motette’, L. Finscher [incl. facs. of f.166v]; ‘Notre-Dame-Epoche’, H. Husmann [incl. facs. of f.159v]; ‘Saint-Martial’, B. Stäblein [incl. facs. of ff.150v–151r]); B. Stäblein: ‘Modal Rhythmen im Saint-Martial-Repertoire?’,Festschrift Friedrich Blume, ed. A.A. Abert and W. Pfannkuch (Kassel, 1963), 340–62; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 404ff; Fuller (1969), 357, 395; H. Hofmann-Brandt: Die Tropen zu den Responsorien des Officiums (diss., U. of Erlangen, 1971), i, 142f [facs. of f.157r–v]; B. Stäblein:Schriftbild der einstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, iii/4 (Leipzig, 1975), pl.38 [facs. of f.165r]; B. Gillingham, ed.: Paris, B. N., fonds latin 3549 and London, B.L., Add.36,881 (Ottawa, 1987) [facs.]Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.3719 [St-M C]. 115 ff. (15·3 × 10·4 cm); music from f.15.Notation: 4 main hands (Fuller, Grier), ff.15–22, 23–32, 33–44 and 45–92 respectively; from f.33 there are usually staves of 4 dry-point lines (7 or 8 staves per page ff.33–44, thereafter 6), with clefs and custodes; elsewhere the notation is heterogeneous, for example with less exactly heighted neumes, which do not use whatever ruling there may be, and an example of square notation on ink lines (transcribing a vox organalisfrom the opposite page); polyphony is usually in score, but 2 pieces are in successive notation (ff.29–31); on f.27 the vox organalis appears without text in the top half of the page, the vox principalis with text in the lower half; sometimes the vox organalis is in a different hand from the vox principalis, sometimes space is left over a monophonic line for a second voice, sometimes there is no music at all but space for 2 voices in score; the fact that 2 pieces begin at the second line of text, and that 2 others lack music for alternate lines, may mean that successive polyphony was originally given or planned here too. Date and provenance: 12th century, Aquitanian;Virginis filium (f.26) is for St Benignus of Angoulême; St Martial librarian Bernardus Itier wrote on f.115v ‘Hec scripsi anno 1210’. Contents: Spanke (and RISM) suggested 5 fascicles (ff.15–22, 23–32, 33–44, 45–89, 89v–100), but ff.93–100v contain Matins of the BVM with 9 lessons, ff.101–107v lessons and chant text incipits for her votive Office with music for 4 more items. The first 2 fascicles are miscellaneous, containing both sacred and secular versus,Benedicamus substitutes, introductions to lessons, 2 respond prosulas, and 2 Sanctus; several pieces are found in a more or less complete state elsewhere in the MS. 2 monophonic troped Kyries (ff.33–34v) are followed by versus; the polyphony from f.45 includes 7 prosae (usually the setting goes only to the third double verse, unless theprosa is short; for the repeating music usually only the vox principalis is given, but occasionally both); for the polyphonicBenedicamus monophonic tropes are provided; the end of this section includes tropes for 2 Agnus Dei and 4 Sanctus (monophonic). Polyphony is distributed as follows: fasc.1, 5 pieces (1 repeated later), fasc.2, 4 pieces (1 repeated later), fasc.3, 1, fasc.4, 23 (2 earlier), fasc.5, 2. MGG1(‘Notre-Dame-Epoche’, H. Husmann [incl. facs. of f.46v]; ‘Saint-Martial’, B. Stäblein [exx.2, 3, 5]); Spanke, 308, 397; W. Lipphardt: ‘Unbekannte Weisen zu den Carmina Burana’, AMw, xii (1955), 122–42 [facs. of ff.27r, 28v, 88r]; B. Stäblein: ‘Modale Rhythmen im Saint-Martial-Repertoire?’,Festschrift Friedrich Blume, ed. A.A. Abert and W. Pfannkuch (Kassel, 1963), 340–62; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 406ff; Fuller (1969), 354, 383; B. Stäblein: Schriftbild der einstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, iii/4 (Leipzig, 1975), pl.37 [facs. of ff.38v–39r]; B. Gillingham, ed.: Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds latin 3719 (Ottawa, 1987) [facs.]Santiago de Compostela, Biblioteca de la Catedral Metropolitana, s.s.(‘Codex Calixtinus’, ‘Liber Sancti Jacobi’, ‘Jacobus’). 195 ff. (now 29·5 × 21 cm); modern foliation 1–196 (f.191 is missing); a further 29 ff. (now 30 × 21·5 cm), containing the story of Charlemagne’s peers by the pseudo-Archbishop Turpin of Reims, was removed from between ff.162 and 163 in 1619 and is now kept separately.Scribes: Hämel asserted that the original text was written by 1 scribe, but that the present codex contains some replacement copies (ff.156–60) and additions (f.128 Mass of St James’s Miracles; ff.185–96 polyphonic supplement, letter attrib. fictitiously to Pope Innocent II, a pilgrim’s song, miracles [the last dated 1190], etc.). Notation: all in 1 hand except for the pilgrim’s song on f.193r (in diastematic Aquitanian neumes), east-central French neumes (i.e. with Lorraine-Messine influence) on staves of 4 ink lines (some brief incipits without lines); the characteristic forms of climacus,clivis and cephalicus used in this MS are also found together in a 12th-century gradual-antiphoner from Nevers (F-Pn, 1236); vertical lines in the polyphonic pieces to help align voices and text; for 2 pieces (ff.131rv) a second voice has been added on the same staff (for the first it was taken from the polyphonic version of the piece in the supplement; for the second it was written in red ink); for Congaudeant catholici (f.185) the lower staff has 2 voices, one in red ink. Contents: book 1 (ff.1–139v): letter fictitiously attrib. Pope Calixtus II (1119–24), legendary editor of the codex; list of contents; lectionary and homiliary for feasts of St James (Vigil 24 July, Passion of St James 25 July, ferias and Octave 26 July–1 Aug, Translation 30 Dec, Octave 6 Jan). Music for the same feasts: f.101v Office and Mass for 24 July; Office, including Matins with a ‘Hymnus’, i.e. versus, after the Venite, and Mass for 25 July; f.122v masses within and on the Octave, music incipits only; f.128 the added leaf with directions for a new Mass of the Miracles of St James 11 Oct, without music; f.129 Office and Mass for 30 Dec and Octave. F.130 troper for the liturgies of 25 July: aprosa, a Benedicamus and 4 conductus (3, or possibly all 4, to introduce lessons) for the Office; and a prelude versus, introit trope, troped Kyrie, troped Gloria, farsed epistle, troped Sanctus, troped Agnus andBenedicamus substitute for the Mass. Book 2 (ff.140–155v): 22 Miracles of St James. Book 3 (ff.155v–162): Legend of St James and of his Translation to Galicia. Book 4 (now separated, except for illuminated title-page on f.162v): Book of the pseudo-Turpin. Book 5 (now called book 4; ff.163–184v): description of the roads to Santiago (in the account of the Tours-Poitiers-Bordeaux route, at Saintes, a Passio Sancti Eutropii is included). Ff.185–190v: supplement of 20 polyphonic pieces. Ff.190v–196v: continuation of the supplement; polyphonic versus by Aimeric Picaud (in successive notation); letter fictitiously attrib. Pope Innocent II (1130–43); Greek Alleluia; more miracles of St James, poems (f.193vpilgrim’s song in Latin with ?Galician refrain). Date and provenance: in 1173 Arnaldus de Monte, monk of Ripoll, made a copy (now E-Bac Ripoll 99) of this MS in Santiago; although of the music Arnaldus copied only a less full version of the Mass of 25 July (in Ripoll neumes), he did include material from the supplement (Ad honorem regis summi by Aimeric Picaud, defective inSC s.s. because of the missing f.191, Pope Innocent’s letter, the miracles dated 1139 and 1164 but not that dated 1190). It would seem that practically all of SC s.s., with polyphony, was in Santiago by 1173. Its notator, however, was trained in central France, and the painter of the miniatures was French, despite his portrayal of Charlemagne with a Visigothic crown. The style of notation supports Hohler’s view that SC s.s. was copied at or near Vézelay, Aimeric Picaud probably being responsible for the polyphony. P. Wagner: Die Gesänge der Jakobusliturgie zu Santiago de Compostela (Fribourg, 1931) [facs. and edn of music]; W.M. Whitehill, J. Carro García and G. Prado, eds.: Liber Sancti Jacobi: Codex Calixtinus (Santiago de Compostela, 1944) [edn of text of all 5 books, facs. and edn of all music]; A. Hämel: ‘Überlieferung und Bedeutung des Liber Sancti Jacobi und des Pseudo-Turpin’, Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-historischen Klasse der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1950), no.2, pp.1–75; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 238ff; Fuller (1969), 360, 400; C. Hohler: ‘A Note onJacobus’, Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, xxxv (1972), 31–80; J. López-Calo: La música medieval en Galica (La Coruña, 1982), 45–52 [facs. of polyphony]; M.C. Diaz y Diaz: El Códice Calixtino de la Catedral de Santiago: estudio codicológico y de contenido (Santiago de Compostela, 1988); D. Hiley: ‘Two Unnoticed Pieces of Medieval Polyphony’, PMM, i (1992), 167–73; Jacobus: Codex Calixtinus de la Catedral de Santiago de Compostela (Madrid, 1993) [complete facs.]London, British Library, Add.36881 [St-M D]. 27 ff., consisting of 3 quaternions (16 × 10·5 cm) and 3 single leaves of parchment (13 × 10 cm); between the second and third gatherings at least one gathering is missing; red ink pagination 1–54, British Museum pencil foliation 1–27. Notation: ff.1–24 small south French-Catalan square notes on 7 to 9 staves of 4 or 5 dry-point lines (in polyphonic piecesvox organalis usually on 5 lines, vox principalis on 4, separated by a broken or continuous red line) with clefs (G, C or F, sometimes only ♭); Stäblein (1963) found forms of pes and clivis similar to this MS used together in only four other 12th–13th-century sources from Catalonia and southern France; ff.25–7 untidy north French square notes on 4 red lines. Date and provenance: unknown. Contents: ff.1–16: 19 polyphonic pieces (at least 10Benedicamus substitutes), followed by 9 monophonic pieces (the first three are Sanctus tropes, then come 2 prosae, for the BVM and John the Baptist, finally 2 Latin rondeaux, the first of which is also found in I-Fl Plut.29.1, the second incomplete). Ff.17–24 begin in the middle of a polyphonic prosa; there follow 8 other polyphonic pieces, then 6 monophonic pieces (2 without music), the last 4 being Benedicamus substitutes. Ff.25–7: Planctus ante nescia, the lament of the BVM. MGG1(‘Saint-Martial’; B. Stäblein [exx.4, 9; incl. facs. of ff.3v–4]); H. Spanke: ‘Die Londoner St. Martial Conductushandschrift’, Butlletí de la Biblioteca de Catalunya, viii (1928–32), 280–300 [facs. of ff.11v–12r; edn of 29 texts]; H. Anglès: ‘La musica del MS de Londres British Museum Add.36881’,Butlletí de la Biblioteca de Catalunya, viii (1928–32), 301–14 [edn of 11 pieces]; C. Parrish: The Notation of Medieval Music (New York, 1957, 2/1959), pl.XXII [facs. of ff.2rv]; B. Stäblein: ‘Modale Rhythmen im Saint-Martial-Repertoire?’, Festschrift Friedrich Blume, ed. A.A. Abert and W. Pfannkuch (Kassel, 1963), 340–62; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 59ff; B. Gillingham, ed.: Paris, B. N., fonds latin 3549 and London, B.L., Add 36,881 (Ottawa, 1987) [facs.]Cambridge, University Library, Ff.I.17. 8 ff. (19·8 × 13·5 cm), once flyleaves of a 14th-century English MS, since separated; they are 4 bifolios at present kept in 2 sets of 2 and foliated 1–8; a previous pencil foliation 1–4, 298, 297, 300, 299 reveals their order when used as fly-leaves; they are correctly a self-contained quaternion and should be read in the order 2, 1, 5–8, 4, 3. Notation: a cursive notation where no distinction is made between virga and punctum, all single notes being drawn with a horizontal stroke turning down at the right in a thin tail; staves of 4 or 5 lines, first red, later black and brown; vertical strokes to help align voice(s) and text; the potpourri of prosa and other chant incipits and their contrafacta Amborum sacrum spiramen is combined with a Benedicamus Domino whose sustained cantus firmus notes are each notated as a succession of notes of the same pitch; Schumann distinguished 11 text hands; number of music hands not determined. Date and provenance: early 13th century; as fly-leaves, received ‘ex dono’ mark of Roger of Shepshed (near Leicester). Contents: 21 monophonic pieces (9 lack music), 13 polyphonic pieces (all for 2 voices except Verbum Patris humanatur o o for 3). There are severalversus, 1 troped Agnus Dei, 5Benedicamus substitutes (one for St Thomas of Canterbury), 4 introductions to lessons (one for St Nicholas with a French refrain, ed. B. Stäblein, MGG1, ‘Saint-Martial’, ex.6); 5 didactic poems. Concordances include 3 with Aquitanian MSS described above, 3 with I-Fl Plut.29.1, 1 song found in the Rouen shepherds’ play (F-Pn lat.904), and 1 with Norman-Sicilian MSS (E-Mn 289 and Vitrina 20, 4). H.E. Wooldridge: Early English Harmony, i (London, 1897), pls.25–30 [facs. of all polyphony except f.7v]; O. Schumann: ‘Die jüngere Cambridger Liedersammlung’, Studi medievali, new ser., xvi (1943–50), 48–85 [edn of 25 texts]; W. Lipphardt: ‘Einige unbekannte Weisen zu den Carmina Burana aus der zweiten Hälfte des 12. Jahrhunderts’, Festschrift Heinrich Besseler, ed. E. Klemm (Leipzig, 1961), 101–26, esp. pls.5, 6, 14, 15 [facs. of ff.1, 1v, 5, 7]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 485–6; Anderson, pl.3 [facs. of f.2]; B. Gillingham, ed.:Cambridge, University Library, Ff.i.17(1)(Ottawa, 1987) [facs.]

4. Parisian and related sources.

London, British Library, Eg.2615[LoA]. 111 ff. (21·8 × 13·3 cm); British Museum foliation (1894) 1–78, then an unnumbered folio called since Ludwig (1910) 78bis, then 79–110.Structure: mainly quaternions; ff.73–78bis is a 7-leaf gathering (f.75 is the single); a gap in the series of original gathering signatures reveals that a gathering is missing after f.40; last gathering signature f.72v; the gathering ending f.94 ends in the middle of a piece. Everist has shown that the parchment of ff.79–94 was ruled identically to part of D-W 1099 and is therefore from Paris. Scribes: first scribe and notator wrote ff.1–68, 95–110; another scribe and notator ff.79–94; a different notator wrote polyphony for the first scribe (upper voices ofOrientis partibus, ff.43–44v, and ff.69–72v of the polyphonic supplement); further additions in other hands ff.73–8; same coloured initials for both the first section and ff.79–94. Notation: the pen of the first notator is tilted in typical Picardian style (cf F-Psg 117, 13th-century antiphoner from St Michel, Beauvais) so that allpuncta are rhombs; virga has tail to left; thus climacus is 3 rhombs with descending tail to the left of the first (‘Rautenternaria’); rhomboid forms are also used by other hands, but not by the notator of ff.79–94, who, however, does use rhomb-ternaria; staves of 4 or 5 red lines (3 for the lections at end of MS, green for middle voice of Orientis partibus); 10 staves per page to f.69r, 12 thereafter. Date and provenance: the Laudes regiae of the Mass name Pope Gregory IX (1227–41); the Daniel play is announced as having been written in Beauvais (for other evidence of the tradition of an elaborate Circumcision Office at Beauvais, see Hughes, 1966); MS in Beauvais until at least 1775; in 1848 it was in Padua; purchased by British Museum in 1883. Contents: ff.1–68v: Office and Mass for New Year’s Day (Feast of Circumcision, ‘Feast of Fools’), including plainsong for first Vespers, Procession to the Rood, Compline, Matins, Lauds (probably a Procession is missing after this), Mass, Sext, None, second Vespers; there is rich provision of tropes (especially for the responsories) and conductus (e.g. each of the last eight lessons of Matins is preceded by a conductus); polyphony (‘cum organo’) is rubricated 11 times, and a set of antiphons at first Vespers is directed to be begun ‘cum falseto’. Ff.69–78v: settings for 3 voices of 3 pieces mentioned in the foregoing first Vespers and 2 mentioned in the Procession; these are an alleluia verse, with a text for the 2 upper voices; a versus; a troped responsory (prelude and median tropes set for 2 voices, prosula set for 3 voices); another troped responsory (without text); Serena virginum (melismatic tenor and 2 upper voices all in score, words not entered). F.76v also contains a hymn setting for 3 voices, and on ff.77v–78 is another setting of the median trope above, this time for 3 voices; the rest of these added leaves are blank. Ff.79–94: Perotinus’s organum quadruplumViderunt, followed by 11 pieces for 3 voices; these are a responsory, the alleluia verse and versus on ff.69–72v above, 5 conductus, 2 motets where all 3 parts are written in score with text for the upper voices under the tenor (one is Serena virginum), and the troped responsory on ff.74rvabove. Ff.95–108r: the Play of Daniel. Ff.108v–110r: 2 lections. Ludwig (1910), 229; D.G. Hughes: ‘Liturgical Polyphony at Beauvais in the Thirteenth Century’, Speculum, xxxiv (1959), 184–200 [facs. of f.73]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 501ff; D.G. Hughes: ‘The Sources of Christus manens’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 423–34; W. Arlt: Ein Festoffizium des Mittelalters aus Beauvais in seiner liturgischen und musikalischen Bedeutung (Cologne, 1970) [complete edn of Circumcision Office, and 5 polyphonic pieces]; J. Stenzl: Die vierzig Clausulae der Handschrift Paris Bibliothèque Nationale Latin 15139 (Berne, 1970), pls.6 and 7 [facs. of ff.9v and 74v]; Anderson, pl.2 [facs. of f.73v]; M. Everist, ed.:French 13th-Century Polyphony in the British Library: a Facsimile Edition of the Manuscripts Additional 30091 and Egerton 2615 (folios 79–94v) (London, 1988)Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Guelf.628 Helmst. (Heinemann catalogue 677; fig.30) [W1]. 197 ff. (21 × 15 cm); orig. 215 ff. as an older foliation (i–xxix, 30–68, 68bis, 69–214) makes clear (i–ii, vii–viii, 36–7, 51–2, 83–4, 177–84 now missing); modern foliation 1–197. Scribes: different phases of same hand throughout (Brown, 1981), or 3 different scribes (the first writing fascs.1–5, 8–10, 7 as supplement to 2; the second writing fasc.6; the third fasc.11). Notation: square (modal) notation with many English characteristics, especially in fasc.11: brevis pairs as 2 rhombs (see fig.4 ), brevis between 2 longs as a rhomb, ♭ alone as clef (fasc.6 and f.67v [59v]), rhomb-ternaria, notes written as a long wavy line or string of rhombs (ff.146v–147 [137v–138], etc.; see Handschin, pp.116–17 and footnote). Contents: since Ludwig (1910) 11 fascicles are usually counted. Fasc.1 (ff.iii–vi [1–4]): 2 organa quadrupla; 1 clausula for 4 voices. Fasc.2 (ff.ix–xvi [5–12]): 4 organa tripla; 4 conductus for 3 voices (Benedicamus substitutes). Fasc.3 (ff.xvii–xxiv [13–20]): 11 organa dupla for the Office, followed by 2 organa dupla for Office of St Andrew and 1 organum duplum gradual for Assumption of BVM; tropes for 1 Sanctus for 2 voices. Fasc.4 (ff.xxv–xxix, 30–35, 38–48 [21–42]): 32 organa dupla for the Mass. Fasc.5 (ff.49–50, 53–4 [43–6]): 33 clausulas for 2 voices. Fasc.6 (ff.55–62 [47–54]): 70 clausulas for 2 voices, 1 conductus for 2 voices. Fasc.7 (ff.63–8, 68bis, 69 [55–62]): 5organa tripla. Fasc.8 (ff.70–82, 85–94 [63–85]): 18 conductus for 3 voices (for the first the third voice was never entered, the start of the last is missing because of 2 lost folios); 2 organa tripla; 1 conductus for 3 voices, 1 organum triplum; 1 clausula for 3 voices, 3 Sanctus tropes for 3 voices; 2 Agnus tropes for 3 voices. Fasc.9 (ff.95–176 [86–167]): 4 conductus whose first part is for 3 voices, second part for 2; 3 organa dupla (Benedicamussettings); 1 conductus for 2 voices; 1 organum duplum (Benedicamus setting); 28 conductus for 2 voices; tropes for 1 Agnus for 2 voices; 49 conductus for 2 voices; tropes for 1 Agnus for 2 voices. Fasc.10 (ff.185–92 [168–75]): 3 monophonic conductus (first lacks beginning because of missing quaternion); tropes for 6 monophonic Sanctus for week’s cycle of Lady Masses; tropes for 6 monophonic Agnus for the same; 1 explicit (by a certain Walterus) set to music (15th-century addition). Fasc.11 (ff.193–214 [176–97]; all music for Lady Mass for two voices): tropes for 7 Kyries; 1 troped Gloria; 9 alleluias; 1 tract; 14 sequences; 8 offertories and tropes; tropes for 4 Sanctus; tropes for 3 Agnus. Date and provenance: compiled c1240 (different sections at different times) for, and possibly in, St Andrews, Scotland (chapter of cathedral formed by canons of Augustinian priory since 1144), where its presence is attested by a 14th-century explicit(f.64 [56]). Taken from St Andrews in 1553 by Marcus Wagner (with other Scottish MSS including D-W Guelf.499 Helmst. (Heinemann catalogue 538) from Arbroath, whose fly-leaves also contain polyphony) for Flacius Illyricus. Bought from Flacius’s widow by Count Heinrich Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and presented to his newly founded University of Helmstedt (suppressed 1810). MGG2 (‘Notre Dame und Notre-Dame-Handschriften’ [incl. facs. of f.13 (17)]); Ludwig (1910), 7; J.H. Baxter: An Old St. Andrews Music Book(London, 1931/R) [facs.1]; J. Handschin: ‘Conductus-Spicilegien’, AMw, ix (1952), 101–19; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 97–171; Flotzinger, 220; E.H. Roesner: The Manuscript Wolfenbüttel, Herzog-August-Bibliothek, 628 Helmstadiensis: a Study of its Origins and of its Eleventh Fascicle (diss., New York U., 1974); E. Roesner: ‘The Origins of W1’,JAMS, xxix (1976), 337–80; J. Brown, S. Patterson and D. Hiley: ‘Further Obsevations on W1’, Journal of the Plainsong & Mediaeval Music Society, iv (1981), 53–80; M. Everist: ‘From Paris to St. Andrews: the Origins of W1’,JAMS, xliii (1990), 1–42; M. Staehelin, ed.: Die mittelalterliche Musikhandschrift W1: Vollständige Reproduktion des ‘Notre Dame’-Manuskripts der Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel Cod. Guelf. 628 Helmst. (Wiesbaden, 1995) [facs.]Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bibliothek, Guelf.1099 Helmst. (Heinemann catalogue 1206; fig.31) [W2]. 255 ff. (18 × 13 cm); modern foliation 1–218, 218a, 219, 219a, 220–53; f.211 should follow f.215; the 33 gatherings are mainly quaternions, leaves are missing at the beginning and after ff.5, 46 and 133. Scribes: 10 fascicles usually distinguished since Ludwig (1910); according to Everist (1989, p.101), the MS in its present state is the work of 6 or 7 scribes: scribe 1 wrote fasc.1; scribe 2 (perhaps the same as 1) wrote fascs.2, 4 and 5; scribe 3 wrote the first gathering of fasc.3 (ff.31–38v) and fasc.6; scribe 4 wrote the second gathering of fasc.3 (ff.39–46v); scribe 5 wrote fasc.7; scribe 6 wrote fasc.8; scribe 7 wrote fascs.9 and 10. Notation: square (modal); steep angle of the pen for currentes; there are a few mensural ligature forms: to the 10 instances ofligatures cum opposita proprietate cited by L. Dittmer, MD, ix (1955), p.42, n.8, may be added 6 on f.8v; both ascending and descending long-breve binaria may be seen on f.51v, line 7. Date and provenance: probably Parisian, middle of 13th century (Everist, 1989); like D-W 628, this MS passed through the hands of Flacius Illyricus. Contents: fasc.1 (ff.1–5): end of an organum quadruplum; a clausula for 4 voices. Fasc.2 (ff.6–30): 12 organa tripla. Fasc.3 (ff.31–46): 10 conductus for 3 voices. Fasc.4 (ff.47–62): 15 organa duplafor the Office. Fasc.5 (ff.63–91): 35organa dupla, of which 30 are for Mass, 1 is the Easter processional antiphon Crucifixum in carne, and 4 are Benedicamussettings. Fasc.6 (ff.92–122): 12 conductus for 2 voices. Fasc.7 (ff.123–44): ff.123–133v contain 12 motets for 3 voices (the end of the last is missing) with one Latin text for the upper voices, which are notated in score with the tenor at the end; ff.134–138v contain 5 motets for 3 voices (the start of the first is missing) with one French text, notated like the previous group; ff.138v–144v contain 9 conductus for 2 voices (the last without music, space for 2 staves per line of text). Fasc.8 (ff.145–92): ff.145–155vcontain 19 Latin motets (one in 2 sections) for 2 voices, ordered alphabetically by first letter of motetus text; ff.155v–178 contain another alphabetical series of 29 Latin motets for 2 voices, within which are found Perotinus’s monophonic Beata viscera, 2 motets for 3 voices (2 texts, successive notation), and after the second of these, which is based on the Mors melisma, texted versions of the duplum parts of 2 extracts from each of Perotinus’sorgana quadruplaViderunt andSederunt; ff.178–190 contain another alphabetical series of 28 Latin motets for 2 voices, within which is a Latin motet for 3 voices (2 texts, notated successively); ff.190–192v contain 7 Latin motets for 2 voices; between ff.145 and 157 7 French motetus incipits are written in red ink in the margin, referring to Latin counterparts on those pages. Fasc.9 (ff.193–210, 212–15, 211): 22 French motets for 3 voices with 2 texts, notated successively, but including one with a Latin triplum and one with a French texted tenor; for one the triplum was never entered; also 1 French motet for 4 voices with 3 different texts. Fasc.10 (ff.216–18, 218a, 219, 219a, 220–253v): ff.216–222 contain 19 French motets for 2 voices, arranged alphabetically; ff.222–248 contain another alphabetical series of 60 French motets for 2 voices; ff.248v–252 contain 8 French motets for 2 voices, the start of another alphabetical series; ff.252–253v contain 3 French motets for 2 voices, possibly the end of an alphabetical series. MGG2(‘Notre Dame und Notre-Dame-Handschriften’ [incl. facs. of f.16r]); Ludwig (1910), 157; F. Gennrich:Bibliographie der ältesten französischen und lateinischen Motetten, SMM, ii (Darmstadt, 1957); L. Dittmer:Faksimile-Ausgabe der Handschrift Wolfenbüttel 1099 Helmstadiensis (1206)(Brooklyn, NY, 1960) [facs.]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 171–202; G.A. Anderson: The Latin Compositions in Fascicules VII and VIII of the Notre Dame Manuscript Wolfenbüttel Helmstedt 1099 (1206) (Brooklyn, NY, 1968–76) [edn, trans. and commentary]; Everist (1989)

Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Plut.29.1 [F]. 441 ff. (23·2 × 15·7 cm); old foliation i–cclv, beginning after a front leaf bearing a full-page illustration on the verso, which reveals that former ff.49–64, 94, 185–200 and 255–6 are missing; modern system (used in all studies of the MS) continues the original foliation from 356 to 476, ignoring further lacunae after f.398 and f.414; most recent foliation 1–441; unusually large gatherings, mainly of 7–11 bifolios. Scribes: 1 hand throughout, except for added mensural music ff.252v–254v and an added monophonic conductus ff.451rv.Illumination: Johannes Grusch atelier, Paris (Branner), whose work is also found inF-R 277 (Rouen missal, 1231–45),Pn lat.15613 (Paris breviary, c1250),Pn lat.9441 (Paris missal, c1250).Notation: square (modal, except for the mensural additions ff.252v–254v; the added conductus ff.451rv distinguishes unusually clearly between normal and duplex longs). Contents: since Ludwig (1910) 11 fascicles are usually distinguished. Fasc.1 (ff.1–13): 3 organa quadrupla, 3 conductus for 4 voices (actually pairs of conductus for 2 voices set one above the other), 9 clausulas for 3 voices (for the first the top part was never entered). Fasc.2 (ff.14–47): 26organa tripla, 5 clausulas for 3 voices, 3organa tripla (the third incomplete because of missing quaternion). Fasc.3 (ff.65–98): 55 organa dupla for the Office, of which 19 are settings of Benedicamus Domino orDomino. Fasc.4 (ff.99–146): 61organa dupla for the Mass. Fasc.5 (ff.147–84): 462 clausulas for 2 voices. Fasc.6 (ff.201–62): 59 conductus for 3 voices, of which 2 are based on the upper voices of clausulas and have the clausula tenors appended, and an organum triplumBenedicamus with one text for the upper parts; 2 textless mensural pieces, the second incomplete, both found incomplete elsewhere (see G.A. Anderson, JAMS, xxvi, 1973, p.293). Fasc.7 (ff.263–380): 130 conductus for 2 voices. Fasc.8 (ff.381–98): 26 Latin motets for 3 voices in which the top voices share the same text and are written in score, the tenor following at the end. Fasc. 9 (ff.399–414): 43 Latin motets, all for 2 voices except 3 for 3 voices, where the top voices have different texts and are written successively. Fasc.10 (ff.415–62): 83 monophonic Latin conductus. Fasc.11 (ff.463–76): 60 monophonic Latin rondeaux. Date and provenance: most probably written in Paris in the 1240s. The latest datable piece in the main hand isAurelianis civitas (f.439v) which relates to incidents in Orléans in 1236. The added Sol eclypsim patitur(f.451) is a lament for Ferdinand III ‘El Santo’ of León and Castile (d 1252), nephew of Blanche of Castile. The MS later belonged to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici (d 1469); first book (Antiphonarium) now in one of the cases of books on mathematics in his son’s library. MGG1(‘Florenz’, §D; H. Husmann); Ludwig (1910), 57; H. Spanke: ‘Das lateinische Rondeau’, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, liii (1929–30), 113–48; F. Gennrich: Bibliographie der ältesten französischen und lateinischen Motetten, SMM, ii (Darmstadt, 1957); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 610–788; L. Dittmer: Firenze, Biblioteca-Mediceo-Laurenziana, Pluteo 29.1(Brooklyn, NY, 1966–7) [complete facs.]; R.A. Baltzer: ‘Thirteenth-Century Illuminated Miniatures and the Date of the Florence Manuscript’, JAMS, xxv (1972), 1–18; R. Branner: ‘The Johannes Grusch Atelier and the Continental Origins of the William of Devon Painter’,Art Bulletin, liv/2 (1972), 24; G.A. Anderson: ‘The Rhythm of the Monophonic Conductus in the Florence Manuscript as Indicated in Parallel Sources in Mensural Notation’,JAMS, xxxi (1978), 480–89; R.A. Baltzer: Le ‘Magnus Liber Organi’ de Notre-Dame de Paris, v: Les clausules à deux voix du manuscrit de Florence, Biblioteca Medicea-Laurenziana, Pluteus 29.1, fascicule V (Monaco, 1995); E.H. Roesner:Antiphonarium, seu, Magnus liber de gradali et antiphonario: Color Microfiche Edition of the Manuscript Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Pluteus 29.1: Introduction to the ‘Notre-Dame Manuscript’ F, Codices illuminati medii aevi, xlv (Munich, 1996)Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, (gallo-rom.42), and fragments once in the private library of Johannes Wolf, Berlin [MüA]. Leaves or photographs of leaves from four gatherings, plus two small strips and two small pieces of parchment, which survive from a codex or codices of about 15 × 11 cm; some of them formD-Mbs (facs. in Dittmer, 1959), and the rest were in Johannes Wolf’s library, destroyed in World War II; photographs of these leaves exist in Paris (F-Pn Vma 1446; facs. in Dittmer, 1966). Dittmer called the remains of any one gathering a ‘complex’. Complex A: all or parts of each leaf of a quaternion; complex B: all of 2 outer bifolios of a ternion; complex C: remains of 1 bifolio, probably the outer member of a binion; complex D: almost all the outer bifolio of a ternion. Everist (1989, p.138) believes C did not originally belong with the rest. Contents: remains of Latin and French motets, organa dupla, Latin and French songs. Complex A: 21 Latin and 7 French motets for 2 voices. Complex B (all music for 2 voices): 3 versions (1 French, 2 Latin) of the same motet; 2 French textings each of 2 other motets; 4 French motets. Complex C: 3 organa dupla. Complex D: a French lai, a conductus for 3 voices, a monophonic conductus and French song. On the 2 strips: another monophonic conductus and a French song. Date and provenance: probably mid-13th century, Paris. F. Ludwig: ‘Die Quellen der Motetten ältesten Stils’, AMw, v (1923), 184–222, 273–315, esp. 189; L. Dittmer: Eine zentrale Quelle der Notre-Dame Musik/A Central Source of Notre-Dame Polyphony (Brooklyn, NY, 1959) [facs. of extant MS]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 87ff; L.A. Dittmer: ‘The Lost Fragments of a Notre Dame Manuscript in Johannes Wolf’s Library’, Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 122–33 [with facs. of lost MS]Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional, 20486 (formerly Hh 167, and before that Toledo Cathedral 930/33.23) [Ma]. 142 ff. (16·5 × 11·5 cm); leaves are missing after ff.4 and 106; foliation by W. Meyer (1907). Scribes: except for the first 4 folios and the added piece on f.122v, the codex was written by 1 scribe and 1 notator.Notation: square (modal). Date and provenance: middle or 3rd quarter of 13th century, from Spain. Contents: ff.1–4: additions in various hands, some lines of text lacking music; among them are a rhymed offertory for 3 voices and a conductus for 2 voices. Ff.5–24 (all music for 4 voices): begins in the middle of a version of Perotinus’s organum quadruplumSederunt where a text is provided under the duplum; followed by 3 textings of the section on ‘misericordia’; there followViderunt and Sederunt without added texts, and the Mors clausula. Ff.25–65: 22 conductus for 2 voices. Ff.66–106: 20 conductus for 2 voices, 8 Latin motets (5 for 3 voices, 3 for 2 voices, some without tenors). Ff.107–22: 11 conductus for 2 voices; the hocket In seculum for 2 voices is added on f.122v. Ff.123–42: a mixture of conductus and motets, the latter often without tenors, the tenors without names when they are present; the mixed group includes 5 conductus for 2 voices and 2 monophonic conductus, 5 motet duplum parts, and both upper voices of a double-text motet and a single-text motet originally for 3 voices; there follow 13 motets and 2 conductus for 2 voices. Ludwig (1910), 125; H. Husmann: ‘Die Motetten der Madrider Handschrift und deren geschichtliche Stellung’, AMf, ii (1937), 173–84 [edn of 6 motets from last fasc.]; L. Dittmer: Faksimile-Ausgabe der Handschrift Madrid 20486 (Brooklyn, NY, 1957); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 245ff.; J. Pumpe: Die Motetten der Madrider Notre-Dame-Handschrift (Tutzing, 1991)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, lat.15139 [StV]. Originally over 300 ff. of which ff.3–46 are now missing and ff.47–175 elsewhere; ff.255–93 (18 × 10 cm) contain music; 16th-century foliation by Claude de Grandrue of St Victor. Structure (music section): a binion, 2 single leaves, 2 quaternions and a single leaf for music for 2 voices, a binion for music for 3 voices, a ternion for organa dupla, a final ternion for clausulas.Scribes: the music on ff.259–60, 267–8 and 293 is in later hands; so are the motet text incipits entered beside the clausulas, and the composition treatises in the margins (see Ludwig, 1910, for a detailed discussion).Notation: the main notator frequently used rhomb-ternaria; lower element of podatusslightly tilted; rhomb-ternaria also appear in the added prosa on ff.267v–268 in conjunction with ♭ as the only clef; the added responsory and prosula on ff.268rv haveclivis and podatus without tails, usually found thus in north-east French MSS; Stenzl (p.113) and Flotzinger (p.287) argued against the widely held view first advanced by Y. Rokseth (Polyphonies du XIIIe siècle, Paris, iv, 1939, p.70) that unorthodoxies in the modal notation of the clausulas resulted from their being motets stripped of their texts (see also Frobenius and Smith). Date and provenance: middle or third quarter of 13th century, provenance unknown; it has so far proved impossible to link the unusual liturgical and secular repertory of the MS decisively with any one date or institution; in the late 14th century it was at St Quentin, in the early 16th at St Victor, Paris. Contents: ff.255–258v: 2 monophonic conductus, 1 Latin motet for 2 voices. Ff.259–260v: 1 conductus for 3 voices, 1 motet for 2 voices (music incomplete), both additions. Ff.261–277: 10 conductus for 2 voices and, added at the end of the first gathering, a monophonic prosa for St Andrew and responsory for the BVM with prosula; across the foot of the leaves of the first gathering were written composition treatises in French (‘Quiconques veut deschanter’, already begun on f.263, but abandoned) and Latin (‘Quando due note’ and ‘Gaudent brevitate moderni’). Ff.278–281v: 3 conductus and 1 Benedicamus for 3 voices, and 1organum triplum. Ff.282–287v: 10 organa dupla. Ff.288–293v: 40 clausulas, the first 2 for 3 voices, the rest for 2 voices. Ludwig (1910), 139; F. Gennrich: Sankt Viktor Clausulae und ihre Motetten (Darmstadt, 1953, 2/1963) [facs. of ff.288r–293r]; E. Thurston:The Music in the St Victor Manuscript, Paris lat. 15139 (Toronto, 1959) [facs. of all music]; J. Smits van Waesberghe, ed.: The Theory of Music from the Carolingian Era up to 1400, i; a Descriptive Catalogue of MSS, RISM, B/III/1 (1961), 122; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 420ff; E. Thurston: ‘A Comparison of the St. Victor Clausulae with their Motets’,Aspects of Medieval and Renaissance Music: a Birthday Offering to Gustave Reese, ed. J. LaRue and others (New York, 1966/R), 785–802; Flotzinger, 272; R. Falck: ‘New Light on the Polyphonic Conductus Repertory in the St. Victor Manuscript’,JAMS, xxiii (1970), 315–26 [edn ofBenedicamus]; J. Stenzl: Die vierzig Clausulae der Handschrift Paris Bibliothèque Nationale Latin 15139(Saint Victor-Clausulae) (Berne, 1970) [edn of clausulas]; W. Frobenius: ‘Zum genetischen Verhältnis zwischen Notre-Dame-Klauseln und ihre Motetten’,AcM, xliv (1987), 1–39; N.E. Smith: ‘The Earliest Motets: Music and Words’, JRMA, cxiv (1989), 141–63


  • F.Ludwig: Repertorium organorum recentioris et motetorum vetustissmi stili, i: Catalogue raisonné der Quellen, pt.1: Handschriften in Quadrat-Notation (Halle, 1910); repr. with preface by L. Dittmer in Musicological Studies, vii (1964); pt.2: Handschriften in Mensural-Notation, ed. F. Gennrich, SMM, vii (1961) [partial edn]; ed. M. and S. Lütolf, Musicological Studies, xxvi (1978) [complete edn]; ii: Musikalisches Anfangs-Verzeichnis des nach Tenores geordneten Repertorium, ed. F. Gennrich, SMM, viii (1962); repr. with preface by L. Dittmer in Musicological Studies, xvii (1972)
  • F.Ludwig: ‘Die geistliche nichtliturgische, weltliche einstimmige und die mehrstimmige Musik des Mittelalters bis zum Anfang des 15. Jahrhunderts’,AdlerHM
  • H.Spanke: ‘St. Martial-Studien’, Zeitschrift für französische Sprache und Literatur, 54 (1930–31), 282–317, 385–422; lvi (1932–3), 450–78
  • H.Anglès: La música a Catalunya fins al segle XIII(Barcelona, 1935/R)
  • E.Gröninger: Repertoire-Untersuchungen zum mehrstimmigen Notre Dame-Conductus(Regensburg, 1939/R)
  • H.Husmann, ed.: Die drei- und vierstimmigen Notre-Dame-Organa: kritische Gesamtausgabe (Leipzig,1940/R)
  • A.Geering: Die Organa und mehrstimmigen Conductus in den Handschriften des deutschen Sprachgebietes vom 13. bis 16. Jahrhundert (Berne, 1952)
  • H.Husmann: ‘The Origin and Destination of the Magnus liber organi’, MQ, 49 (1963), 311–30
  • H.Husmann: ‘The Enlargement of the Magnus liber organi and the Paris Churches St. Germain l’Auxerrois and Ste. Geneviève-du-Mont’,JAMS, 16 (1963), 176–203
  • E.H. Sanders: ‘Peripheral Polyphony of the 13th Century’,JAMS, 17 (1964), 261–87
  • K. von Fischer: ‘Neue Quellen zur Musik des 13., 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts’, AcM, 36 (1964), 79–97
  • M.Gushee: Romanesque Polyphony: a Study of the Fragmentary Sources(diss., Yale U., 1965)
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: 11th – Early 14th Century, RISM, B/IV/1 (1966)
  • R.Flotzinger: Der Discantussatz im Magnus Liber und seiner Nachfolge (Vienna, 1969)
  • S.A.Fuller: Aquitanian Polyphony of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (diss., U. of California, Berkeley,1969)
  • G.A.Anderson: ‘Notre Dame and Related Conductus: a Catalogue Raisonné’, MMA, 6 (1972), 153–229; vii (1975), 1–81
  • G.Chew: ‘A Magnus Liber Organi Fragment at Aberdeen’,JAMS, 31 (1978), 326–43
  • S.Fuller: ‘The Myth of “Saint Martial” Polyphony: a Study of the Sources’, MD, 33 (1979), 5–26
  • R.Falck: The Notre Dame Conductus: a Study of the Repertory(Henryville, PA, 1981)
  • H.Tischler: The Earliest Motets (to circa 1270): a Complete Comparative Edition (New Haven, CT,1982)
  • M.Everist: ‘A Reconstructed Source for the Thirteenth-Century Conductus’, Gordon Athol Anderson, 1929–1981, in memoriam (Henryville, PA,1984), 97–118
  • J.Grier: Transmission in the Aquitanian Versaria of the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (diss., U. of Toronto,1985)
  • G.A.Anderson: Notre-Dame and Related Conductus: opera omnia, x:Two-Part Conductus in Related Sources(Henryville, PA, 1988)
  • J.Grier: ‘The Stemma of the Aquitanian Versaria’,JAMS, 41 (1988), 250–88
  • H.Tischler: The Parisian Two-Part Organa: the Complete Comparative Edition (Stuyvesant, NY, 1988)
  • H. van der Werf: Integrated Directory of Organa, Clausulae, and Motets of the Thirteenth Century (Rochester, NY,1989)
  • M.Everist: Polyphonic Music in Thirteenth-Century France: Aspects of Sources and Distribution (New York,1989)
  • J.Grier: ‘Some Codicological Observations on the Aquitanian Versaria’, MD, 44 (1990), 5–56
  • T.Karp: The Polyphony of Saint Martial and Santiago de Compostela(Oxford, 1992)
  • H. van der Werf: The Oldest Extant Part Music and the Origin of Western Polyphony(Rochester, NY, 1993)
  • W.Arlt: ‘Stylistic Layers in Eleventh-Century Polyphony’,Music in the Medieval English Liturgy, ed. S. Rankin and D. Hiley (Oxford, 1993), 101–41
  • E.H.Roesner: Le ‘Magnus Liber Organi’ de Notre-Dame de Paris, i: Les quadrupla et tripla de Paris (Monaco,1993)

    For further bibliography see Organum and discant: bibliography .

V. Early motet

  • Ernest H. Sanders and Peter M. Lefferts

1. General.

The most important genre of polyphonic music of the 13th century in France was the Motet, which increasingly overshadowed the older and declining genres of organum, troped organum, conductus and clausula. Most of the major late 13th-century sources of French polyphony, therefore, contain mainly motets.

The chief sources in the early layer of MSS preserving motets (those whose notation has no discrete form for a single semibreve) are: F-CSM 3.J.250;GB-Lbl Eg.2615 (2); D-W 628;I-Fl Plut.29.1; D-Mbs Clm 16444;E-Mn 20486; D-Mbs;W 1099; F-Pn fr.12615; Pn fr.844. (For the last two sources in this group, see §III; for others see §IV.)F-CSM 3.J.250 is a fragment containing six motets, GB-Lbl Eg.2615 (2) preserves two and D-W 628 contains six in their alternative versions as conductus (i.e. without tenor). I-Fl Plut.29.1 preserves 25 conductus motets (where the two top parts have the same text) and one troped organum in its eighth fascicle as well as 40 motets for two voices (tenor and motetus) and three double motets (two upper voices with different texts, and tenor) in the ninth fascicle, while the fragmentaryD-Mbs Clm 16444 transmits 16 motets andE-Mn 20486 contains 32. D-Mbs and the fragments from Johannes Wolf’s private collection, remains of the same large codex, preserve a total of 36 motets. They and D-W 1099 (which has more than 200 motets in fascicles 7–10) are the first sources to contain both Latin and French motets. The Artesian chansonniers F-Pn fr.12615 and fr.844 contain respectively 87 and 41 French motets.

The scribes of the earliest sources preserving conductus motets (e.g. F-CSM 3.J.250 and GB-Lbl Eg.2615 (2)) not only wrote the upper voices ‘in score’, like those of a conductus, but placed the motet text under the tenor, which forms the bottom voice of these three-part scores but whose ligature notation generally does not convey the exact rhythm of the upper voices. This atavistically wasteful and unfunctional notation was soon given up in favour of writing the melismatic tenor (usually in ligatures) at the end of the texted upper voice (or voices, in the case of conductus motets), as in I-Fl Plut.29.1, E-Mn 20486, D-Mbs and W 1099. The voices of double motets were notated successively (triplum, motetus, tenor). As the progenitor of the early motet was the Clausula, a genre which, in turn, had its origin in the chant settings of the Parisian Magnus liber, early motet sources still arranged pieces in the liturgically appropriate order of their tenors (e.g. the eighth fascicle of I-Fl Plut.29.1, andD-Mbs But when the motet gave up its connection with church and liturgy, alphabetical arrangement, by motetus incipit, became usual (D-W 1099).

Six major continental MSS of the later 13th and early 14th centuries are described in detail below:F-Pn; MOf H196;D-BAs Lit.115; E-BUlh ; I-Tr Vari 42; F-Pn fr.146. The more prominent minor sources of polyphony belonging to this group are the Parisian GB-Lbl 30091, containing 14 motets of which three are unica (see RISM, B/IV/1, 1966, pp.516–18 and M. Everist,French 13th-Century Polyphony in the British Library: a Facsimile Edition of the Manuscripts Additional 30091 and Egerton 2615 (Folios 79–94v), London, 1988), D-DS 3471 (‘Wimpfener Fragmente’, c1300), containing 15 motets and six or seven other pieces, mostly fragmentary (see RISM, B/IV/1, 1966, pp.75–9 and Everist, 1989, 282–7) and F-Pn fr.25566 of the 1290s, which contains the works of Periodicals, , including his 16 polyphonic rondeaux and five motets (see RISM, B/IV/1, 1966, pp.395–401 and M. Everist, ‘The Polyphonic Rondeauc1300: Repertory and Context’, EMH, xv (1996), 59–96).

Numerous concordances show motet sources to be considerably interdependent and yet reveal a remarkable geographical dissemination of the motet repertory of the 13th century.

2. Principal individual sources.

Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, (‘La Clayette’) [Cl]. 419 parchment ff. (26·5 × 18·4 cm; written space: 21·2 × 13·6 cm), 22 of which contain music.Foliation: pencil pagination, no later than 18th century (only odd-numbered pages are marked on recto of every folio), and a recent foliation in copying ink pencil; music on pp.729–72 (ff.369–390v). Structure: music fascicle, which apparently survives in its entirety, consists of 3 gatherings of 8, 8 and 6 ff. Scribes: no change of hand in the music section. Notation and layout: 14 red 5-line staves per page, except the first which has 13; notation uses ‘Franconian’ symbols for single longs, breves and semibreves, but still nearly always uses ligatures of the ‘Notre Dame’ type, i.e. cum proprietate et perfectione, no matter what rhythmic patterns they are intended to convey; like the rest of the MS, the music pages are divided into 2 columns; the motet voices are written continuously, beginning with the highest, i.e. in the traditional layout of earlier 13th-century sources (I-Fl Plut.29.1, D-W 1099, etc.).Date (music section): either 1260s or a scribal copy of c1300 preserving the notation of its earlier exemplar.Provenance: Ile de France or vicinity; known to have been owned by the Marquis Claude-Alexis de Noblet of La Clayette (Saône-et-Loire, nr Mâcon), to whose ancestors it may have belonged since the 14th century (Rosenthal, 1953, pp.108, 105). Lost after 1773, until rediscovered by H. Omont (Solente, p.226) or A. Rosenthal (Rosenthal, 1953, p.108) and acquired by the Bibliothèque Nationale in Oct 1952. Contents: the MS, ‘an entire library of l3th-century writings’ (Meyer, 1890, p.2), contains 55 motets in the music section: 1 Latin triple motet, 6 Latin double motets, 7 French triple motets, 26 French double motets, 2 French motets for 2 voices (existing in another source as double motets), 5 macaronic triple motets and 8 macaronic double motets (Latin motetus, French triplum), i.e. 13 four-voice motets, 40 three-voice motets and 2 two-voice motets. One of the Latin 3-voice motets (f.370r) is exceptional, since its tenor (Anima iugi) is not a plainchant cantus firmus, but the lowest voice of the final cauda of a pre-existing conductus (Relegentur ab area), which was detached from the conductus and given a text of its own; the three voices of the motet appear in I-Fl Plut.29.1 as the three stanzas of a non-strophic monophonic conductus. Date of music: first half – mostly second quarter – of the 13th century; a few compositions show Perotinus’s influence; some may date from as late as the 1260s. Contents are comparable in age to the ‘old corpus’ ofF-MOf , with which it shares many concordances, though the notation here appears less advanced. P. Meyer: ‘Notice sur deux anciens manuscrits français’, Notices et extraits des manuscrits, xxxiii (1890), 1; Ludwig (1910); Ludwig (1923), 196; Y. Rokseth: Polyphonies du XIIIe siècle: le manuscrit H196 de la Faculté de médecine de Montpellier (Paris, 1935–9), iv, 72–3; A. Rosenthal: ‘Le manuscrit de La Clayette retrouvé (Bibl. nat.’, AnnM, i (1953), 105–30; S. Solente: ‘Le grand recueil La Clayette à la Bibliothèque nationale’, Scriptorium, vii (1953), 226–34; L. Schrade: ‘Unknown Motets in a Recovered Thirteenth-Century Manuscript’,Speculum, xxx (1955), 393–412; M. Bukofzer: ‘The Unidentified Tenors in the MS La Clayette’, AnnM, iv (1956), 255–8; H. Husmann: ‘Annales musicologiques’, Mf, ix (1956), 202–6; Gennrich, p.xxvi; F. Gennrich, ed.: Ein altfranzösischer Motettenkodex, SMM, vi (1958) [facs.]; L. Dittmer, ed.: Paris 13521 and 11411, Publications of Medieval Musical Manuscripts, iv (Brooklyn, 1959) [facs.];MGG1 (‘La Clayette’, A. Rosenthal); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 436; G.A. Anderson: ‘Motets of the Thirteenth-century Manuscript La Clayette’, MD , xxvii (1973), 11–40, and xxviii (1974), 5–37; G.A. Anderson, ed.: Motets of the Manuscript La Clayette, CMM, lxviii (1975); Everist (1989), 149–53, 265–7; MGG2 (‘La Clayette’, K. Kügle)Montpellier, Bibliothèque Inter-Universitaire, Section Médecine, H196 [Mo]. Originally 402 parchment ff. (19·2 × 13·6 cm, written block 12·8 × 7·7 cm), of which 400 survive, a bifolio with ff.303 and 308 having been lost before gatherings were made.Foliation: 4 series, all of which omit the first 5 folios containing the original table of contents up to f.333, including ff.303 and 308: (1) original ink Roman numerals ff.1–333, including 303 and 308; ff.18 and 19 erroneously numbered 19, 18; (2) ink Arabic numerals 1–48 on ff.350–97, many of which have been cut away; (3) ink Arabic numerals 334–97 continuing and completing original foliation; (4) pencil Arabic numerals 1–333 not allowing for missing ff.303 and 308, hence ending on f.335. Structure: all gatherings are quaternions except the first, a bifolio, the second, a ternion, and ff.239–45 (one leaf cut away before foliation). 8 fascs.: ff.1–22, 23–62, 63–86, 87–110, 111–230, 231–69, 270–349, 350–97, representing an original ‘old corpus’ of fascs.2–6 and 2 major layers of additions, (a) fascs.1 and 7, along with additions to fascs.3 and 5, and (b) fasc.8 along with additions to fasc.7. The additions carefully reproduce critical features of the original format. Scribes: several; precise number of text and music hands not determined (Rokseth); Jacobsthal distinguished 14 text hands, while Wolinski finds 11. Most significantly, all of fascs.2–6, with the exception of later appx to 3 and 5, are the work of one text scribe and notator; fasc.1 has a single notator; the main section of fasc.7 is the work of a single scribe and notator; and fasc.8 is the work of a single scribe and notator. Notation and layout: 6–8 red 5-line staves per page; the notation of the ‘old corpus’ is ‘pre-Franconian’ (generally modal ligatures, rhythmically differentiated single notes, undifferentiated rests), while that of fasc.8 is Franconian and that of fasc.7 nearly so. The layout of the motet voices differs from that in the older sources. The 4 voices of the triple motets (fasc.2): 2 sets of double columns on facing pages. Double motets of the old corpus: triplum on verso, motetus on recto, tenor across bottom of both pages. The upper voices of the double motets of fascs.7 and 8 are written in 2 not necessarily equal columns per page, a system presumably invented because of the uneven text distribution in Petronian and similar motets, though often the greater amount of triplum text also caused the end of that voice to be written across the entire page. Only in fasc.8, however, are the voices (of all but 4 motets) laid out so that all reach the bottom of a page simultaneously. Performance by reading, rather than from memory, here becomes a possibility, as a result of the innovations of Franconian notation. Date: fascs.2–6, 1270s (Rosketh and RISM, c1280); fascs.1 and 7, plus the additions to 3 and 5, very end of 13th century (Branner: late 13th century, Everist: 1280s); fasc.8, very early years of the 14th century (Branner and Everist: c1300). As a controversial alternative to the picture of a manuscript compiled in discrete stages of activity a decade or more apart, Wolinski posits a single campaign of copying fascs.1–7 as an entity in the 1260s or 1270s, with fasc.8 perhaps also as early as the 1270s; not widely accepted, her theory has radical implications for the development of the motet, musical notation and music theory in the second half of the 13th century (Wolinski, 1992, pp.299–301). Provenance: Paris. Nothing is known of its ownership before the 1570s or 1580s (Everist, 1989, pp.115–18; Wolinski, 1992, pp.287–8), when it was in the possession of Estienne Tabourot of Dijon. Contents: There are 336 polyphonic compositions, of which 8 lack music (therefore not included in RISM inventory), 5 are duplications and 3 are contrafacta; several survive incomplete. Mo(F-MOf H196) is the largest medieval motet MS extant; all compositions but those in the first fascicle (nos.1–10) and the first compositions of the fifth and eighth fascicles (nos.64 and 286) are motets. Nos.1 and 286 are conductus settings of a versicle trope, nos.2, 3 and 64 are 2 modal versions of a hocket for 3 voices with a texted quadruplum added to nos.2 and 3, no.4 is a Benedicamus in conductus style, no.5 is a hocket and nos.6–10 are organa, at least 2 of them by Perotinus. Each motet fascicle is dedicated principally to one genre: in the ‘old corpus’ fasc.2: 16 French and 1 Latin triple motets; fasc.3: 11 macaronic motets (Latin motetus, French triplum); fasc.4: 22 Latin double motets; fasc.5: 100 French double motets (plus 1 Provençal, 1 French-Provençal and 1 French-Latin); fasc.6: 75 French motets for 2 voices. The appx to fasc.3: 4 motets for 2 voices (2 Latin, 2 French); the appx to fasc.5: 1 macaronic motet (French-Latin). Fasc.7: 39 double motets (26 French, 7 Latin, 3 Latin-French, 3 French-Latin), at least 2 of them by Petrus de Cruce; appx to fasc.7: (a) 8 French double motets; (b) 1 Latin double motet, 1 Latin motet for 2 voices, 1 French-Latin double motet; fasc.8: 42 double motets (21 French, 16 Latin, 4 Latin-French, 1 French-Latin). Date of music: the whole of the 13th century. G. Jacobsthal: ‘Die Texte der Liederhandschrift von Montpellier H.196’, Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie, iii (1879), 526–56; iv (1880), 35–64, 278–317; O. Koller: ‘Der Liederkodex von Montpellier’,VMw, iv (1888), 1–82; F. Ludwig: ‘Die 50 Beispiele Coussemaker’s aus der Handschrift von Montpellier’,SIMG, v (1903–4), 177–224; P. Aubry: Recherches sur les ‘Tenors’ français (Paris, 1907); P. Aubry and A. Gastoué: Recherches sur les ‘Tenors’ latins (Paris, 1907); Ludwig (1910), 345–408, 421ff; Ludwig (1923), 193ff; Besseler (1926), 137ff; Y. Rokseth:Polyphonies du XIIIe siècle: le manuscrit H196 de la Faculté de médecine de Montpellier (Paris, 1935–9) [facs., edn and commentary]; G. Kuhlmann: Die zweistimmigen französischen Motetten des Kodex Montpellier, ii (Würzburg, 1938) [edn of fasc.6]; J. Handschin: ‘The Summer Canon and its Background, II’, MD , iii (1949), 55–94; v (1951), 65–113; Apel, 284ff, 315ff; L. Dittmer: ‘The Ligatures of the Montpellier Manuscript’, MD , ix (1955), 35–55; Gennrich,–xxxii;MGG1(‘Montpellier-Handschriften’, G. Reaney); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 272–369; F. Mathiassen: The Style of the Early Motet(Copenhagen, 1966); E. Apfel: Anlage und Struktur der Motetten im Codex Montpellier: Annales Universitatis Saraviensis (Heidelberg, 1970); R. Branner: Manuscript Painting in Paris during the Reign of St Louis: a Study of Styles (Berkeley, 1977); H. Tischler, ed.:The Montpellier Codex (Madison, WI, 1978–85), iv; M. Wolinski: The Montpellier Codex: its Compilation, Notation and Implications for the Chronology of the Thirteenth-Century Motet (diss., Brandeis U., 1988); Everist (1989), 110–34; M. Wolinski: ‘The Compilation of the Montpellier Codex’, EMH, xi (1992), 263–301; Roesner (1993), lxxvii–lxxviii; Everist (1994), 8–12; MGG2 (‘Montpellier Handschriften’, D. Hiley)Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Lit.115 (formerly Ed.IV.6) [Ba ]. 80 parchment ff. (26·3 × 18·6 cm; written block 18·7 × 13·6 cm). Foliation: modern pencil.Structure: 10 uniform quaternions.Scribes: same music hand for ff.1–64v, same text hand for ff.1–62v; different later hands for second section. Notation and layout: mostly 10 five-line staves per page; the notation is ‘Aristotelian’ (see Lambertus, Magister); the pages are generally divided into 2 columns for triplum and motetus, with the tenor running across the bottom of the page (see Motet, fig.5).Date: Fourth quarter of the century for copying of first section, early 14th century for the second (Norwood, 1979, 1986, 1990). Provenance: Paris or Ile de France, at least for copying of first section (Norwood, 1979, 1986, 1990). Contents: ff.1–64v, contains 100 double motets, of which 44 are Latin, 47 French and 9 macaronic (Latin motetus, French triplum), on ff.1–62, notated in parts, plus an appx on ff.62v–64v with 1 conductus setting of a versicle trope and 7 hocket clausulas in score. All but 1 of the compositions are for 3 voices; the other (ff.57v–58) has triplum, motetus and 2 tenors. The motets are arranged alphabetically by first letter (only) of the motetus; within each letter division the order is: Latin, macaronic, French. The second section of 2 quaternions, ff.65–80, contains thePractica artis musice by Amerus, ff.65–79; an anonymous treatise on cantus mensurabilis, f.79rv; and 2 further motets, f.80rv. These are all later additions. Date of music: repertory characteristic of period, c1260–90. P. Aubry:Cent motets du XIIIe siècle publiés d’après le manuscrit Ed.IV.6 de Bamberg (Paris, 1908) [facs., edn and commentary for ff.1–64v]; Ludwig (1923), 198, 220;MGG1 (‘Bamberger Handschrift’, H. Husman); Apel, 302ff; Gennrich, p.xxv; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 56ff; G.A. Anderson, ed.: The Compositions of the Bamberg Manuscript, CMM, lxxv (1977); C. Ruini, ed.: Ameri Practica Artis Musicae (1271), CSM, xxv (1977); G.A. Anderson: ‘The Notation of the Bamberg and Las Huelgas Manuscripts’, MD , xxxii (1978), 19–67; P.L.P. Norwood: A Study of the Provenance and French Motets in Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, Lit.115 (diss., U. of Texas, Austin, 1979); RISM, B/III/3 (1986), 13–14; M. Huglo: ‘Le traité deCantus Mensurabilis du manuscrit de Bamberg’, Pax et sapientia: Studies in Text and Music of Liturgical Tropes and Sequences in Memory of Gordon Anderson, ed. R. Jacobsson (Stockholm, 1986), 91–5; P. Norwood: ‘Performance Manuscripts from the Thirteenth Century?’, College Music Symposium, xxvi (1986), 92–6; Everist (1989), 149–53; P.P. Norwood: ‘Evidence Concerning the Provenance of the Bamberg Codex’, JM, viii (1990), 491–504; Roesner (1993), lxxviii–lxxix; MGG2 (‘Bamberg Handschriften’, R. Stephan)Burgos, Monasterio de Las Huelgas [Hu]. 170 parchment ff. (26 × 18 cm; written space varies: 23·5 × 13 cm to 15·3 × 13·2 cm).Foliation: modern ink (1906); 2 successive folios numbered 124. Structure: 19 gatherings; 1–16 (ff.1–148v) all originally quinions, but the fourth (only outer bifolio remaining) and the eighth (innermost bifolio missing) are defective. 17–19 (ff.149–168v) were originally written as 2 more quinions, but at present are bound as a quaternion, a ternion and a half, and a bifolio with 2 single folios, to be read in the order 149–52, 161, 166–7, 160, 162, 165, 153–6, 163, 164, 168; 169 is a fly-leaf.Scribes: 1 hand for the main part of the MS (ff.1–7v, 8v–152v, 157–159 first staff, 161r–v, 166–167v); a later hand entered the isolated part on f.8, and according to Anglès 11 further and later hands wrote the remaining pages from 153 on. Notation and layout: the red 5-line staves are distributed 6 per page for ‘score’ notation and 7–11 (ff.100v–101) for part notation; the notation is Franconian with certain idiosyncratic modifications; each of the shorter double motets is accommodated on 1 page, while the longer ones are notated as in Mo, i.e. triplum on the verso, motetus on the recto, tenor at foot of page. Date: main part c1300 (Dittmer, MGG1, who disproved the date c1325 given by Anglès and by Reaney, RISM); later additions c1325.Provenance: MS was written for, and has remained in, the Cistercian convent of Las Huelgas. Contents: 45 monophonic pieces (20 sequences, 5 conductus, 10Benedicamus tropes) and 141 polyphonic compositions, 1 of which (no.10 in Anglès edn) lacks music (therefore excluded from inventory in RISM). The comprehensive polyphonic repertory consists of conductus (including 1 Credo), Latin motets (for 2 voices, conductus motets and double motets), 1 solmization exercise, Sanctus settings, Kyrie, Gloria, Sanctus and Agnus tropes, solo portions of 3 graduals and 3 alleluias, 1 offertory trope, severalBenedicamus Domino and Benedicamustropes, and sequences. Date of music: mainly later 13th century, but including works composed in the first half of the century (Notre Dame repertory); additions: first quarter of 14th century. H. Anglès: El còdex musical de Las Huelgas(Barcelona, 1931/R) [facs., edn and commentary]; J. Handschin: ‘The Summer Canon and its Background’, MD , iii (1949), 55–94; v (1951), 65–113; Apel; Gennrich, p.xxviii; H. Anglès: La música de las cantigas de Santa María del Rey Alfonso el Sabio, v/iii/1, (Barcelona, 1958), 91–8;MGG1 (‘Las Huelgas’, L.A. Dittmer); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 210ff; M. Lütolf:Die mehrstimmigen Ordinarium Missae-Sätze vom ausgehenden 11. bis zur Wende des 13. zum 14. Jahrhundert, i (Berne, 1970), 262–83; G.A. Anderson: ‘The Notation of the Bamberg and Las Huelgas Manuscripts’, MD , xxxii (1978), 19–67; D. Vega Cernuda: ‘El códice de Las Huelgas: estudio de su técnica polifónica’,RdMc, i (1978), 9–60; G.A. Anderson, ed.:The Las Huelgas Manuscript, CMM, lxxix (1982); Roesner (1993), lxxix–lxxx; MGG2 (‘Las Huelgas’, M. Gómez)Turin, Biblioteca Reale, Vari 421 [Tu]. 125 parchment ff. (23 × 16.2 cm), the last 45 of which contain music. Foliation: apparently once an independent motet collection, then bound into a large codex E.73, the music is now found in a MS that is the last of 4 that came into being in the 18th century when E.73 was split up into MSS 46, 43, 42(2) and 42(1), in that order. The first section of MS 42(1), containing St Jerome’s commentaries on the Bible, is foliated 169–248 as a continuation of M2 42(2). The second section, containing the liber motetorum, has 5 unnumbered folios (usually referred to as A–E), 40 folios with old red ink Roman numerals, 1 unnumbered paper fly-leaf at the front and another at the back.Scribes: no change of hands apparent in music section. Notation and layout: Franconian notation, on 8 red 5-line staves to each page, except for the first 3 pieces (ff.A–E), which are notated on 6 staves. Distribution of parts as in Ba (D-BAs Lit.115) and Mo . Date: c1300. Provenance: abbey of St Jacques, Liège (title on f.1); still there in 1667 as part of MS E.73. Contents: ff.A–E: 3 conductus for 3 voices; f.Ev: original table of contents; ff.1–40: 31 double motets (24 French, 6 macaronic, 1 Latin). Date of music: mostly late 13th century. Ludwig (1923), 205; Besseler (1926), 142; A. Auda: Les ‘motets wallons’ du manuscrit de Turin: Vari 42(Brussels, 1953) [facs., edn. and commentary]; Gennrich, pp.xxxiv–xxxv; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 801–07; P. Norwood: ‘Performance Manuscripts from the Thirteenth Century?’, College Music Symposium, xxvi (1986), 92–6Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, fr.146[Fauv]. 102 parchment ff. (46·2 × 33 cm; written block average 33·5 × 23·8 cm). Foliation: 4 unnumbered leaves at the beginning and 6 at the end, 2 folios lettered A and B, first section of MS numbered I–XLVIII (fig.32); 2 leaves inserted at a slightly later date between ff.28 and 29 numbered in 19th-century hand (28bis and 28ter), the remainder, ff.49–88, in more recent Arabic numerals. Scribes: 1 hand for first section of MS (except ff.28bis and 28ter); another hand for musical portion of second section (ff.57–62v). Date: 1316, perhaps 1316–18 (Roesner, Avril and Regalado, 1990, p.49). Provenance: Paris. Contents: 4 main sections. The first, ff.I–XLV, contains an edition by Chaillou de Pesstain of the roman de Fauvel , for whose music (except that on ff.28bis and 28ter) fly-leaf B is the original index (fly-leaf A contains an unrelated French poem). The second section, ff.XLVI–XLVIII and 49–55v, has ‘Plusiers Diz de mestre Geoffroi de Paris’. The third section, ff.57r–62v, contains monophonic compositions by Jehannot de l'Escurel, including 15 ballades, 11 rondeaux (1 also in a 3-part arrangement), 5 virelais and dits entés. The fourth section, ff.63–88, has a rhymed chronicle covering the period from 1300 to 1316. Date of music: of the Roman de Fauvel early 13th century to 1315–16; of L’Escurel, c1300. Composer: philippe de Vitry ; 2 motets and 1 detached motet triplum are attributable to him. Leech-Wilkinson posits authorship of several motets in the Roman to an as yet anonymous ‘Master of the Royal Motets’. Wolf (1904), 40ff; P. Aubry: Le Roman de Fauvel (Paris, 1907) [facs.]; Wolf (1913–19), i, 278ff; Ludwig (1923), 278; Besseler (1925), 176, and (1926), 187–219; Apel, 325ff, 449; MGG1(‘Fauvel’, F. Gennrich); L. Schrade, ed.: The Roman de Fauvel; The Works of Philippe de Vitry; French Cycles of the Ordinarium Missae, PMFC, i (1956) [34 polyphonic pieces]; Gennrich, pp.xxvi–xxvii; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 163–72; E.H. Sanders: ‘The Early Motets of Philippe de Vitry’,JAMS, xxviii (1975), 24–45; E.H. Roesner: ‘The Making of Chaillou de Pesstain’s edition of the Roman de Fauvel’, L’Europa e la musica del Trecento: Congresso IV: Certaldo 1984[L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, vi (Certaldo, 1992)], 287–313; E.H. Roesner, F. Avril and N. Regalado, eds.: Le Roman de Fauvel in the Edition of Mesire Chaillou de Pesstain(New York, 1990) [facs. and commentary]; H. Tischler and S.N. Rosenberg, eds.: The Monophonic Songs in the Roman de Fauvel(Lincoln, NE, 1991); J.C. Morin: The Genesis of Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, fonds français 146, with Particular Emphasis on the Roman de Fauvel (diss., New York U., 1992); MGG2 (‘Fauvel’, K. Kügle); D. Leech-Wilkinson: ‘The Emergence of ars nova’, JM, xiii (1995), 285–317; P. Helmer, ed.: Le Premier et le Secont livre de Fauvel (Ottawa, 1997); M. Bent and A. Wathey, eds.: Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music, and Image in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS français 146 (Oxford, 1998)


  • J.Wolf: Geschichte der Mensural-Notation von 1250–1460(Leipzig, 1904/R)
  • F.Ludwig: Repertorium organorum recentioris et motetorum vetustissimi stili (Halle, 1910), i: Catalogue raisonné der Quellen, pt.1:Handschriften in Quadrat-Notation(R1964 with preface by L. Dittmer); pt.2: Handschriften in Mensural-Notation, ed. F. Gennrich, SMM, 7 (1961); ii: Musikalisches Anfangs-Verzeichnis, ed. F. Gennrich, SMM, viii (1962) (R1964 with preface by L. Dittmer)
  • F. Ludwig: ‘Die Quellen der Motetten ältesten Stils’, AMw, 5 (1923), 185–222, 273–315 (repr. in SMM, vii, 1961)
  • H.Besseler: ‘Studien zur Musik des Mittelalters, I: Neue Quellen des 14. und beginnenden 15. Jahrhunderts’,AMw, 7 (1925), 167–252; ‘II: Die Motette von Franko von Köln bis Philipp von Vitry’,AMw, viii (1926), 137–258
  • W.Apel: The Notation of Polyphonic Music, 900–1600 (Cambridge, MA, 1942, 5/1961; Ger. trans., rev. 1970)
  • F.Gennrich: Bibliographie der ältesten französischen und lateinischen Motetten, SMM, 2 (1957)
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: 11th – Early 14th Century, RISM, B/IV/1 (1966)
  • M.Everist: Polyphonic Music in Thirteenth-Century France: Aspects of Sources and Distribution (New York,1989)
  • H. Van der Werf: Integrated Directory of Organa, Clausulae, and Motets of the Thirteenth Century (Rochester, NY,1989)
  • E.H.Roesner and M.Huglo, eds.: Le magnus liber organi de Notre-Dame de Paris, i:Les quadrupla et tripla de Paris (Monaco,1993)
  • M.Everist: French Motets in the Thirteenth Century: Music, Poetry and Genre (New York, 1994)

VI. English polyphony, 1270–1400

  • Ernest H. Sanders and Peter M. Lefferts

1. General.

It is an indication of the lamentable state of preservation of medieval English polyphony that, strictly speaking, a report on its MS sources has to be negative; no integral codex written in the British Isles between the Winchester Troper (GB-Ccc 473) and the Old Hall MS (Lbl Add.57950) is extant, aside from the Scottish D-W 677. (Some commonplace books with music entries are intact as such.) Yet how significant a role polyphonic music played in medieval England, at least from the 13th century on, is indicated by the quantity of surviving scraps, fly-leaves, paste-downs, stray leaves, and isolated jottings. Several of the MSS of which only fragmentary leaves remain were sizable codices, some of them numbering over 200 pages (Lefferts, 1986, pp.159–61). While all of them are in more or less tattered and scattered condition, ‘England has in fact more sources of medieval polyphony than any other country’ (G. Reaney, xv, 1961, p.15). Only in settings of vernacular poetry does medieval England seem to have been eclipsed by other countries. There are very few, their occurrence is isolated, and the MSS are therefore not specifically cited below (see Dobson and Harrison, 1979, particularly forGB-Cu 5943, and see Wathey, 1993, forGB-Lbl 41340(H)).

The sources that preserve Latin polyphony may be divided into two groups, containing (1) compositions, most or all of which date from the 13th century, and (2) 14th-century compositions. There are five main categories into which the repertory of the first group can be divided: (a) sequences, tropes, conductus, and rondelli (see Rondellus); (b) motets on a pes (see Pes); (c) chant settings; (d) troped chant settings; and (e) motets on a cantus firmus. In many of the sources specimens of several of these categories are found without strict separation from one another. This applies primarily to the so-called Worcester Fragments (see §2) as well as to lesser sources, such as GB-Ob CCC497 (two scribes), F-Pn fr.25408, GB-Ob Mus.c.60, and US-Cu 654 App. Some of the sources that preserve only one category areGB-Ob Bodley 257, Owc , Ob CCC489, Ob Wood 591 (category a);Ctc 0.2.1 (category e). Of course, in view of the fragmentary condition of the sources there are relatively few concordances (about a dozen); yet they attest the dissemination of much of the repertory, the more so as two compositions (Worcester Fragments nos.53 and 67, ed. in PMFC, xiv, nos.56 and 57) exist in three versions. While little or nothing is known about the points of origin of a number of sources other than the Worcester Fragments, enough information is available to prove that the geographic spread of English polyphony embraced many widely separated centres and areas, including both France (F-MOf H196 nos.59–61, ed. in PMFC, xiv, nos.79, 77, 78) and a Cistercian abbey in Yorkshire (US-Cu 654 App.). No comprehensive discussion of the MSS exists; lists of compositions and sources in Losseff (1994) and Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming).

The repertory of the 14th century falls into three main groups: motets (increasingly based on a cantus firmus, rather than a pes); cantilenas (see Cantilena); and discant settings for three voices of cantus firmi (many of them choral chants). As in the 13th century, many sources mix two or all of the genres. The main fragmentary sources areGB-Lwa 33327; Lbl 24198; Onc 362; Cpc 228; Lbl Sloane 1210;Lbl 62132A; Cgc 727/334; Cgc 543/512; B-Br II266; GB-Ob Hatton 81; DRc C.I.20; Ob e Mus.7;Lpro 23; Lbl Arundel 14; andOb Barlow 55. Onc 362, Ob e Mus.7 and DRc C.I.20 transmit motets almost exclusively (the latter two also including some continental motets of the 14th century),Lwa 33327, Ob Hatton 81 andLbl 24198 entirely so. Despite the fact that the contents of these MSS range from a total of five items (Ob Hatton 81) to a total of only 21 (Onc 362), there is a surprising number of concordances, which relate Ob Hatton 81, Ob e Mus.7 and DRc C.I.20 to one another; another such group consists ofCpc 228., Lbl Sloane 1210,B-Br II266, Lbl 62132A,GB-Cgc 727/334, Cgc 543/512 and several lesser sources. Some of these, as well asOnc 362 and Lwa 33327, are also related to the Worcester Fragments. The sources cited all date from the first half or the middle of the 14th century (Lwa 33327 probably goes back to the last decade of the 13th). Later MSS are even more fragmentary, they continue to transmit mostly motets, discant settings and cantilenas. Among them, the most significant include Occ 144, Ir 50/22/13/15, Lpro E 163/22/1/24, US-NYpm 978 andLbl 40011B; the last, written on paper using white void notation, is now dated about or just before 1400 (Bent, 1987). The most comprehensive listing of sources is Summers, 1990, which is supplemented by Wathey, 1993. Some items of possibly late 14th or early 15th century origin are given in RISM, B/IV/4,Census-Catalogue and Curtis and Wathey, 1994.

While it is awkward to present formal descriptions of such fragmentary remains, a description of the Worcester Fragments as well as accounts of the musical contents of 12 MSS are nevertheless given below, in the hope that a general picture will be discernible. All listed sources contain ten or more polyphonic pieces (Lbl Harl.978 has fewer but its list indicates 164 other compositions), an arbitrary criterion of selection from many points of view, but one which does in fact allow inclusion of MSS which are representative in content.

2. The Worcester Fragments.

The Worcester Fragments consist of over fifty folios from nine or more separate volumes, only three of which are represented by a substantial number of pages. This material survives today in three separate collections of parchment leaves (fly-leaves etc.) not corresponding directly to any one of the medieval volumes: GB-WO Add.68 (olim Worc), Ob Lat.lit.d.20 and Lbl Add.25031. RISM incorporates the third of these into the second, which is likewise given the sigillum Worc, although it is listed and inventoried separately from the first. The reason for this unusual procedure is complex. Recognizing the relatedness of some leaves, between 1925 and 1952 attempts were made at the Bodleian Library to reconstruct one or more MSS of English medieval polyphony by combining certain Bodleian fragments (from three different MSS) with photographic copies of the four folios of Lbl Add.25031 and of most of the fragments collected in WO Add.68. This curious aggregate, designated as Ob Lat.lit.d.20 and containing nearly twice as many photographs as it does originals, forms the basis of Dittmer’s edition (MSD, ii, 1957) and of RISM’s listing; the last 32 of the 109 items of the edition are transcriptions of those polyphonic contents of WO Add.68 (20 leaves) that were not incorporated as photographs into Ob Lat.lit.d.20, and only the fragments containing them are listed underWO Add.68 in RISM.

WO Add.68 contains both monophony and polyphony. The leaves or groups of leaves containing polyphonic compositions are as follows (asterisks indicate photographic copies in Ob Lat.lit.d.20): nos.ix*, x*, xi*, xii, xiii*, xviii, xix, xx, xxviii*, xxix, xxx, xxxi*, xxxii and xxxv* (fig.32; no.xxxv is composed of six leaves that in the 1920s were removed fromOmc 100, and transferred to WO Add.68). Their relationship with the Oxford and London sources is shown by similarities in musical style and genre, palaeographic factors (including certain notational devices), size of leaves, medieval foliation (where present), and the evident original adjacency of certain leaves now preserved in different sources.

At least the first 21 leaves of the ‘factitious’ (RISM) MS Ob 20, as at present constituted, evidently came originally from one volume, though only eight of them are Bodleian originals, while of the remainder (photographs) nine are contained in four different items of WO Add.68 and four are in Lbl Add.25031. Dittmer (MSD, ii, pp.13–14) suggested that the music ofOb Lat.lit.d.20 might have come from as few as two or as many as five different volumes; it is probable that the first volume (ff.1–21 or 22 – about half of them discontinuous and most of them preserving the original foliation) was separate, while ff.25–32 (or 33) plus ff.34–5 and ff.23–4 plus ff.36–9 may originally have been parts of two further volumes. Well over a dozen different hands (including palimpsests) can be distinguished in the Worcester Fragments (see Wibberley, 1976 and Losseff, 1994). For a description of the compositions as well as probable dates of the sources and the music, see Worcester polyphony. Nothing definite is known about provenance, though the preservation in Worcester of so relatively large a number of leaves makes it reasonable for scholars to have assumed that most of the polyphony was written or at least used there. New fragments from the same complex of medieval sources have been found by Summers (now identified as WO Add.68, frag.xxxix/1 and 2).

Worcester, Cathedral Library, Add.68 [Worc]. Fly-leaves and bindings from various MSS in Worcester Cathedral Library, plus 6 leaves formerly Omc 100 (transferred to Worcester in the 1920s). The folio numbers of those fragments included as photocopies in Ob Lat.lit.d.20 (as used by Dittmer and RISM) are given in parentheses: frag. IX: 1 leaf (f.27); X: 2 leaves (ff.1–2); XI: 2 leaves (ff.20–21); XII: 1 leaf; XIII: 4 leaves (ff.36–9); XVIII: 2 leaves; XIX: 6 leaves; XX: 2 leaves; XXVIII: 4 leaves (ff.8–11); XXIX: 4 leaves; XXX: 4 leaves; XXXI: 1 leaf (f.7); XXXII: 1 leaf; XXXIV: 1 strip; XXXIVa–c: 3 strips; XXXV: 6 leaves (formerly Omc 100; ff.26, 29–33). The strips XXXIV and XXXIVa–c were disregarded by Dittmer. Strips xxxix/1 and 2 were recently identified by Summers; for these, see Wathey, 1993Oxford, Bodleian Library, Lat.lit.d.20 [Worc]. Fragments gathered together from various MSS in the Bodleian. Their original shelf-mark and the number of their leaves, followed by their foliation as now interspersed with photocopies (used by Dittmer and RISM), are Auct.F inf.1, 3: 8 leaves (ff.12–19); Hatton 30: 1 leaf (f.22); Bodley 862: 3 leaves (ff.23–5); Bodley 862 (covers): l leaf (f.27a); Bodley 862: 1 leaf (f.28); Bodley 862: 2 leaves (ff.34–5).London, British Library, Add.25031 [Worc]. 3 ff. (17 x 17·5 cm, 23·5 x 18 cm, 23·5 x 18 cm) and 2 strips (now mounted one above the other) in the front of miscellaneous tracts, letters etc., preceded by four modern paper leaves. The first two parchment leaves bear an old ink foliation XIII, XIIII. Modern pencil foliation 1–4. The correct order is as follows (foliation in Ob Lat.lit.d.20 indicated in brackets): f.1rv with the second strip of f.4rvunderneath it [ff.3rv and 6rv, second strip], f.2rv[f.4rv], f.3vr[f.5rv], f.4vr, first strip [f.6rv, first strip]. The original foliation of ff.3 and 4 (xv and xvi) has been cut off. The first of the two strips is erroneously indicated as reverse in RISM, while in Dittmer (MSD, ii, p.18) it is listed as staff 7 of the folio to which it originally belonged.

3. Other individual sources.

London, British Library, Harl.978[LoHa]. 170 ff (19 × 13 cm), of which the first four and last four are fly-leaves, the outside ones paper, the other six parchment; after the first four fly-leaves an l8th-century paper fly-leaf has been inserted. Foliation: 3 systems, none including the eight outer fly-leaves. First series begins with parchment leaves, running 1–3, 5–9, unnumbered folio, 10–35, 58–182. The 18th-century fly-leaf was then added and numbered 1*. Ff.58–182 of the first system then refoliated in modern pencil (British Museum) as 36–160. A final British Museum pencil system refoliated the 18th-century fly-leaf and the parchment leaves as 1–162. Notation: music (ff.2–15) in more than one hand (not yet precisely differentiated: Handschin, p.67) but all roughly contemporaneous; most breves in monphony and polyphony are rhomboid. Date: music c1250 or soon after.Provenance: Reading Abbey (Benedictine); whether it remained there until the dissolution of the abbey, and how the 1st Earl of Oxford acquired it, are unknown. Contents: a gathering of music on ff.2–13v; a second gathering containing solmization exercises on ff.14–15 and a calendar of Reading Abbey (entries for Jan–Feb only); on ff.15v–21v; list of contents of a lost MS containing 164 sacred polyphonic compositions, belonging to W. de Wintonia (see Wintonia, W. de), in a hand nearer the end of the 13th century, on ff.160v–161. The rest of the MS does not relate to the date or contents of the music or list. Music on ff.2–13v: 4 monophonic cantilenas; 3 estampies (untexted) for 2 voices; l conductus for 3 voices, with both Latin and a unique French text, followed by theneuma (in modal rhythm) of which the conductus tenor is an arrangement; 1 monophonic cantilena; the famous ‘Summer Canon’. List on ff.160v–161: the list is headed ‘Ordo libri W. de Wintonia’ and begins with a setting of the Marian Gloria trope Spiritus et almeentitled ‘Responsorium R. de Burgate’ (Ludwig read ‘Responsorium de virgine’) (see Burgate [Burg], R. de). There follow settings of 7 other Marian tropes, including 2 Regnum, 1 responsory, 3 alleluia tropes and 1 alleluia. Next comes a cycle of 37 alleluia settings for important feasts and Lady masses; this list is headed ‘Postea Responsoria W. de Wic̄’, which attribution has been expanded to ‘W. de Wicumbe’ (see Wycombe [Wicumbe, Whichbury, Winchecumbe], W. de). There follow 38 ‘Cunductus’, 13 ‘Moteti cum una litteraet duplici nota’ (presumably conductus motets), 18 ‘Moteti cum duplicilittera’ (double motets), 2 ‘Item moteti cumduplici nota’ (presumably additional conductus motets), 48 ‘Item cum duplici littera’ (additional double motets). Wooldridge and Hughes, i (London, 1897), pls.12–22 [facs.]; F. Ludwig: Repertorium organorum recentioris et motetorum vetustissimi stili (Halle, 1910), 267ff; J. Wolf: ‘Die Tänze des Mittelalters’,AMw, i (1918), 10–42 [edns of 3estampies]; W. Apel: The Notation of Polyphonic Music 900–1600 (Cambridge, MA, 1942, 5/1953), 247 [facs.]; HAM, i (1946), nos.41–2; J. Handschin: ‘The Summer Canon and its Background, I’, MD, iii (1949), 55–94; v (1951), 65–113; B. Schofield: ‘The Provenance and Date of “Sumer is icumen in”’,MR, ix (1949), 81–6; L.A. Dittmer: ‘An English Discantuum Volumen’, MD, viii (1954), 19–58, C. Parrish:The Notation of Medieval Music (New York and London, 1958), pls. xxxii–xxxiii, xliii [facs.]; RISM, B/IV1 (l966), 505–8; H. Besseler and P. Gülke: Schriftbild der mehrstimmigen Musik, Musikgeschichte in Bildern, iii/5 (Leipzig, 1973), 44–7; C. Hohler: ‘Reflections on some Manuscripts Containing 13th-Century Polyphony’,Journal of the Plainsong and Mediaeval Music Society, i (1978), 2–38; PMFC, xiv (1979), nos.4a, 4b, 16, 17, 18, appx.23a, appx.23b; Lefferts (1986), 161–5; T. McGee:Medieval Instrumental Dances (Bloomington, IN, 1989), nos.39–41 [edn of 3 dances]; Loseff (1994), 82–4; Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs]

Oxford, Bodleian Library, Corpus Christi College, 497[OCC497]. 7 ff. (various sizes, some only narrow strips), once fly-leaves of Ob CCC86, now separated; gap of at least one leaf between f.4 and f.5. Notation: 4 sets of 3 red 5-line staves per page, with 4 brown 4- or 5-line staves added in the wide lower margin of ff.3v–4, 5v–6. Non-mensural notation except for the motet additions, which are in 13th-century English mensural with rhomboid breve. Date: third quarter of 13th century, additions last quarter;Provenance: unknown. Contents: 2 Latin-texted Kyries (no cantus firmus), 9 conductus in score, 2 motets in parts; all for 3 voices. 1 item omitted in RISM between no.7 and no.8; RISM no.13 is monophonic. Two pieces have concordances with 13th-century Parisian MSS. L.A. Dittmer: ‘Beiträge zum Studium der Worcester-Fragmente’, Mf, x (1957), 29–39; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 582–6; M. Lütolf: Die mehrstimmigen Ordinarium Missae-Sätze vom ausgehenden 11. bis zur Wende des 13. zum 14. Jahrhundert (Berne, 1970) [edns of 2 pieces]; PMFC, xiv (1979), nos.18, 23–4, 42, 82, appxs. 2–4; Anderson (1979–88), ii, no.F33 and ix, nos.O25–O32; Losseff (1994), 42–9; Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs.]Cambridge, Trinity College, O.2.1 (catalogue: 1105) [CbT]. 262 ff. (22·9 × 16·4 cm), of which the first two and last two are unnumbered paper fly-leaves. Two more front fly-leaves are foliated I–II. Music on ff.I–II, 229–30.Notation: English mensural with rhomboid breve on 12 red 5-line staves per page. The two upper parts have the same text and are written in score; the unlabelled tenor or tenors follow separately. Date of music: third quarter of 13th century. Provenance: main MS from Ely Cathedral priory (Benedictine) c1200. Contents: 9 conductus motets, all but 1 fragmentary, 1 (possibly 2) for 4 voices (2 tenors, of which 1 has a cantus firmus). The last 3 pieces are well known from continental sources. The first composition is erroneously listed as two separate pieces in RISM. J. Handschin: ‘The Summer Canon and its Background, II’, MD, iii (1949), 55–94; v (1951), 65–113; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 482–5 [lists edns of continental pieces made from other MSS]; PMFC, xiv (1979), no.75, appxs. 24–5; Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs]Oxford, Bodleian Library, Mus.c.60 [OM 60]. Miscellany of which only ff.79–85 (various sizes) and f.86 (26·7 × 19·7 cm, cut in half) and f.104rv are medieval and contain music; f.86 comes from a mid-15th century continental MS and will not be further described here. Notation: ff.79–80, 81–85v square notation without semibreves or minims, on the whole reflecting the precepts of Johannes de Garlandia f.104rv uses 13th-century English mensural with rhomboid breve espressing sevond mode. F.80v uses semibreves. Generally 9 red 5-line staves per page.Date: late 13th century, f.81 slightly earlier, f.80v first half of the 14th century. Provenance: unknown (two concordances with the Worcester Fragments). Contents: 13 pieces. Ff.79–85 (RISM nos.3 and 4 are a single item). 2 troped introits, 2 Kyrie tropes (one a fragmentary motet setting, the other in cantilena style without cantus firmus), 1 Gloria (no cantus firmus), 2 Gloria tropes (one a fragmentary motet setting, thother in 4-voice score and attributed by Dittmer and Sanders to R. de Burgate), 1 troped responsory, 1 conductus, 1 pes motet with 2 texted parts and 2 tenors, Fragments of 3 motets. Most of these pieces are incomplete, with voices missing. On f.104rv, 1 fragmentary motet. L.A. Dittmer: ‘An English Discantuum Volumen’, MD, viii (1954), 19–58; L.A. Dittmer: ‘Beiträge zum Studium der Worcester-Fragmente’,Mf, x (1957), 29–39; E.H. Sanders: ‘Cantilena and Discant in 14th-century England’, MD, xix (1965), 7–52 [edn. of 1 piece]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 566–70; M. Lütolf: Die mehrstimmigen Ordinarium Missae-Sätze vom ausgehenden 11. bis zur Wende des 13. zum 14. Jahrhundert(Berne, 1970) [3 facs., edn of 2 pieces]; PMFC, xiv (1979), nos.44, 59, 67, appx. 15; P.M. Lefferts and M. Bent: ‘New Sources of English Thirteenth and Fourteenth-Century Polyphony’, EMH, ii (1982), 338–42 [with facs. and partial edn of f.104rv]; Summers (1983), pls. 161–7 [facs.]; Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs.]Chicago, University Library, 654 App [US-Cu ]. 4 ff. (c26 × 20 cm), cut across the middle and trimmed (from a probable original size of c30 × 20cm) to make 16 fly-leaves around another MS, now kept separately.Notation: late English mensural with rhomboid breve, on 11 or 12 red 5-line staves, one nearly always cut away. Date: c1290.Provenance: Meaux Abbey (Cistercian), near Beverley, east Yorkshire. Contents: 10 compositions for 3 voices. One of the upper voices is missing in each of the three compositions on f.1. The remaining pieces are a Gloria trope with another texted part and a tenor, a motet whose upper voices share the same text, 3 rondelli, and 2 pieces containing rondellus or voice-exchange sections. R.L. Greene: ‘Two Medieval Musical Manuscripts: Egerton 3307 and some University of Chicago Fragments’,JAMS, vii (1954), 1–34; L.A. Dittmer:The Worcester Fragments, MSD, ii (1957), 169 [edn of In excelsis gloria]; L.A. Dittmer: Worcester Add.68, Westminster Abbey 33327, Madrid, Bibl. Nac. 192, Publications of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts, v (New York, 1959), 44 [facs. of part of In excelsis gloria]; L.A. Dittmer: Oxford Latin Liturgical D 20, London Add. Ms. 25031, Chicago, Ms. 654 App., Publications of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts, vi (New York, 1960) [complete facs., edns of all butIn excelsis gloria]; E. Apfel (1959) [edns of 5 pieces]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 813–16; PMFC, xiv (1979), nos.32–6, 73, 76; Wathey (1993), 60–62 [concordance inGB-Lwa frag.3/1]; Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs.]Oxford, New College, 362 [ONC]. Medieval liturgical fragments collected from various bindings, of which one group of 10 ff. (32·1 × 21·5 cm, some reduced by excisions) contains music. It bears an old red ink foliation (lxx–lxxi, lxxvi–lxxvii, lxxxi–lxxxiii, lxxxviii–xc) and a modern pencil foliation (82–91, incorrect, to be read in the order 84–9, 82–3, 90–91). Notation: 11 red 5-line staves per page; Petronian notation except for three added pieces (nos.18–20) on ff.90v, 91 which employ down-tailed semibreves (no.18) and minims (no.19). Score notation for nos.13, 19–20, otherwise parts written separately. Date: c1320 (Harrison). Provenance: unknown. Contents: 21 compositions: 1 motet for 4 voices with 3 texted upper voices and a French tenor; 2 motets for 4 voices with 2 texted upper voices and 2 tenors (one with one French text for the tenors); 1 motet for 3 voices with a French tenor; 8 motets (several fragmentary, some for 4 voices); 2 voice-exchange motets for 3 voices; 1 rondellus for 3 voices; 1 Regnum trope for 4 voices (motet); 1 Gloria trope for 3 voices; 1 antiphon for 3 voices (motet); 1 respond for 4 voices (motet with 2 texted upper voices); 2 discant settings for use before a lection. E. Apfel: (1959) [edns of 10 pieces]; Harrison (1960); RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 588–93; F. Ll. Harrison: ‘Ars Nova in England: a New Source’, MD , xxi (1967), 67–85; T. Göllner: Die mehrstimmigen liturgishen Lesungen (Tutzing, 1969), 132–3, 325–6 [facs. and commentary]; PMFC, xiv (19790, no.42; PMFC, xv (1980), nos.1–10, 17; Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.80–99 [facs.]; PMFC, xvi (1983), nos.32, 41–2, 99, 101–2; Summers (1983), pls. 197–9 [facs.]; Lefferts (1986); Wathey (1993), 6–8 [concordance in GB-AB 22875E]Cambridge, Gonville and Caius College, 543/512 [CGC]. 270 ff (25·5 × 18·3 cm) of which the first four and last four are unnumbered modern paper fly-leaves. Foliation: 1–262, partly old ink, partly modern pencil (the old foliation is three numbers higher). Music on ff.246v–249r and 252v–262. Notation: Petronian, 8–10 four- or five-line staves per page. Monophonic additions in three further hands on f.248, including white mensural notes. The motets are written in parts, the remainder in score.Date: c1330. Provenance: texts on f.249v refer to East Anglia and bishops of Norwich, the last entry in the main hand naming William de Hermyn (1325–36).

Contents: 14 items: 6 motets (one for 4 voices, with 2 tenors, the remainder for 3 voices); 2 rondelli for 4 voices; 5 cantilenas (in the usual double-versicle form of the sequence), 3 for 3 voices, 2 for 2 voices; and 1 isolated motet part.

J. Handschin: ‘The Summer Canon and its Background, II’, MD, v (1951), 65–113 [edn. of 1 piece]; E. Apfel (1959) [edns. of 7 pieces]; M. Bukofzer: ‘Popular and Secular Music in England to 1470’, NOHM, iii (1960/R), 107–28, 165–213; E.H. Sanders: ‘Tonal Aspects of 13th-century English Polyphony’, AcM, xxxvii (1965), 19–34 [edn of 1 piece]; RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 468–71; PMFC, xiv (1979), 57; PMFC, xv (1980), nos.25–8, 33; Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.120–42 [facs.]; PMFC, xvi (1983), 97–8; Summers (1983), pls.16–20 [facs.]; PMFC xvii (1986), nos.19–21, 36–8; Lefferts (1986)London, British Library, Sloane 1210 [Sl]. 144 ff. (21 × 14 cm), numbered 1, 1bis, 2–143. Ff.1, 1bis, 138–43 are fly-leaves with music. Notation: various hands; 9–11 brown or red 4- or 5-line staves per page. Notation styles include those with dots of division, signum rotundum, minims, semibreves with left-hand oblique descending tail.Date: c1330. Provenance: early owners include John Gigur, magister at Tattershall collegiate chapel. Contents: 14 pieces: Kyrie trope for 3 voices, Gloria for 3 voices, Credo for 3 voices, alleluia for 2 voices, hymn for 3 voices (only the Credo and the hymn have been shown to be cantus firmus settings), 3 motets for 3 voices; 6 cantilenas, 3 for 3 voices and 3 for 2. N. Dufourcq, ed.: Larousse de la musique (Paris., 1957), ii, 208 [1 facs.]; HarrisonMMB [edn of 1 piece]; E. Apfel (1959) [4 facs., edns of 2 pieces]; Harrison (1960); E.H. Sanders: ‘Cantilena and Discant in 14th-century England’, MD, xix (1965), 7–52 [edn of 1 piece]; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 229–34; PMFC, xv (1980), nos.12–14; Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.23–38 [facs.]; PMFC, xvi (1983), nos.7, 34, 43, 74, 89; Summers (1983), pls.63–8 [facs.]; PMFC xvii (1986), nos.25, 28, 30, 31, 34–5; Lefferts (1986); Wathey (1993), 97–9, 125 [two concordances, one in facs.]; C. Page: ‘An English Motet of the 14th Century: Two Contemporary Images’,EMc xxv (1997), 7–32 [edn of one piece and facs. of two concordances]London, British Library, Add. MS 62132A (formerly Leeds Central Library, Archives Department, MS Vyner 6120; formerly Studley Royal, Fountains Abbey MS 23. 232 ff. (21·5 × 14·5 cm), the first of which is blank and unnumbered; the rest has modern pencil foliation 1–231. A miscellaneous collection with music at the end on two parchment bifolia from different gatherings, ff.228–31, to be read in the order 230, 229 (or 229, 230, see Bent, 1987), 228, 231. Pages were lost between the bifolia after cantilenas were copied but before responsories were entered.Notation: Ars Nova notation on 12 red 5-line staves per page; in the three added cantus firmus settings the middle voice is notated in red ink on a 4-line staff even though in two of the compositions it is the lowest voice that sings the chant. Semibreves occasionally made majorwith downward tail or swallow tail. Date: first third of the 14th century (Bent, 1987, suggests 3rd quarter). Provenance: Fountains Abbey (Cistercian), north Yorkshire, at least by the mid-15th century. Contents: 6 cantilenas, 1 sequence (in discant), 3 responsories (verses only, in discant) all for 3 voices and in score notation. H.K. Andrews and R.T. Dart: ‘Fourteenth-century Polyphony in a Fountains Abbey MS Book’,ML, xxxix (1958), l–12 [facs. of 3 ff., edn of 1 piece, edns of all texts]; D. Stevens: ‘The Second Fountains Fragment: a Postscript’, ML, xxxix (1958), 148–53; E. Apfel (1959) [edns of 2 pieces]; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 275–9; PMFC, xvi (1983), nos.80, 84, 86; Summers (1983), pls.46–53 [facs.]; PMFC, xvii (1986), nos.22, 34, 41–4; Bent (1987) [facs. and commentary]Oxford, Bodleian Library, e Mus.7 [EMus]. 277 ff. (36·5 × 23·2 cm), numbered i–xii, 1–540 (old pagination, probably 17th century), and I–VI, 1–271 (modern foliation). Ff.I–VI and 266–71 are fly-leaves, of which ff.I–II and 270–71 are paper and blank, and ff.III–VI and 266–9 are parchment and contain music. Notation: front fly-leaves Franconian and Petronian, the rest Ars Nova notation; 12 or 13 red 5-line staves per page.Date: mid-14th century. Provenance: Bury St Edmunds (Benedictine). Contents: 18 pieces. Front leaves hold 11 (item no.1 in RISM is actually two fragmentary compositions): 1 motet with 2 texted upper voices and 2 tenors, 1 antiphon for 4 voices (a voice-exchange motet for 2 tenors and 2 texted upper voices, probably intended as a Benedicamus substitute), 6 motets for 3 voices, 1 untexted composition (?Kyrie) for 3 voices, Regnum trope for 3 voices (motet), 8 motets or fragments (for 3 or 4 voices). Rear leaves hold 7: a fragmentary voice-exchange motet for 4 voices, an untexted discant composition in score (Kyrie) for 3 voices, and 5 motets or framents (3-voice works). Or the latter, 2 have a French text (1 in the the tenor), and 1 other (isorythmic) has a concordance inI-IV 115. J., J.F.R. and C. Stainer, i (1901), pls.x–xv [facs. of 3 pieces], ii (1901) [edn of 1 piece]; M.F. Bukofzer: Studies in Medieval and Renaissance Music (London and New York, 1950), 17–33 [edns of 2 pieces]; Harrison (1960); F.Ll. Harrison: Motets of French Provenance, PMFC, v (1968) RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 257–61; P.M. Lefferts: ‘The Motet in England in the Fourteenth Century’, CMc, no.28 (1979), 55–75; PMFC, xv (1980); Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.46–61 [facs.]; OMFC, xvi (1983), nos.18–24, 32; Summers (1983), pl.157 [facs. of f.267]; Lefferts (1986)Durham, Cathedral Library, C.I. 20. [DRc20] 340 ff. (34 × 22·2 cm). Music on the 4 fly-leaves at the beginning and the four at the end (ff.1–4, 366*–369). Notation: ff.1–4, late Petronian notation; f.4v, 2 pieces in score in French Ars Nova notation; ff.366*–369 French Ars Nova notation. Ff.1–4v, 12 brown 5-line staves per page, ff.366*–369, 13. Date: mid-14th century. Provenance: main MS bought mid-15th century for Durham by prior John Wessyngton (explicit on f.5). Contents: Front leaves: 4 motets for 3 voices including one with a French tenor, 1 motet for 4 voices, 2 isolated motet part; f.4v, 2 chant settings in discant style, for 3 voices (cantus firmus, if any, of the second is unknown so far). Rear leaves: 10 3-voice motets, 6 of French provenance, including two by Philippe de Vitry. F.Ll. Harrison:Motets of French Provenance, PMFC, v (1968) F.Ll. Harrison: ‘Ars Nova in England: a New Source’, MD , xxi (1967), 67–85; PMFC, xv (1908), nos.29–35; Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.149–64 [facs.]; PMFC, xvi (1983), nos.70, 75; Summers (1983), pl.39 [facs. of f.4v]; Lefferts (1986) RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 218–22 [lists edns of continental motets made from other sources]Oxford, Bodleian Library, Barlow 55 [Ob 55]. Miscellany of 13 ff. of various sizes, modern pencil foliation. Music on ff.4–5 (21 × 13·8 cm).Notation: Ars Nova notation, except for last line of f.5, a later addition which is in 15th-century white notation (Si quis amat; concordance in Cu 5943, f.163r). Top two staves cut off, leaving 1 red 5-line staff and 3 sets of 3 red 5-line staves; text in red ink except on f.5v. Date: 14th century.Provenance: unknown. Contents: 8 settings for the Mass Ordinary, in varying states of incompleteness, 1 alleluia, 1 cantilena. All compositions for 3 voices, some in discant style, some in cantilena style. E. Apfel (1959) [3 facs., edns of 2 pieces]; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 248–51; Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pls.40–43 [facs.]; PMFC, xvi (1983), nos.22, 24, 46, 59, 62, 77; Summers (1983), pls.153–65 [facs.]; PMFC, xvii (1986), no.4b


  • H.E.Wooldridge and H.V. Hughes, eds.: Early English Harmony (London,1897–1913/R)
  • J.,J.F.R. andC. Stainer, eds.: Early Bodleian Music, 1–2 (London, 1901)
  • A.Hughes: Medieval Polyphony in the Bodleian Library (Oxford,1951) [see also review by M.F. Bukofzer,JAMS, 5 (1952), 53–6]
  • E.Apfel: Studien zur Satztechnik der mittelalterlichen englischen Musik (Heidelbert, 1959)
  • F.Ll.Harrison: ‘English Church Music in the Fourteenth Century’, NOHM, 3 (1960/R), 82–106
  • G.Reaney: ‘Some Little-Known Sources of Medieval Polyphony in England’, MD, 15 (1961), 15–26
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: 11th – Early 14th Century, RISM, B/IV/1 (1966)
  • M.Bent: ‘New and Little-known Fragments of English Medieval Polyphony’, JAMS, 21 (1968), 137–56
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music (c1320–1400), RISM, B/IV/2 (1969)
  • N.Ker: Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries (Oxford,1969–92)
  • K. von Fischer and M.Lütolf: Handscriften mit mehrstimmiger Musik des 14., 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, RISM, B/IV/4 (1972)
  • M.Bent: ‘The Transmission of English Music 1300–1500: some Aspects of Repertory and Presentation’, Studien zur Tradition in der Musik: Kurt von Fischer zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. H.H. Eggebrecht and M. Lütolf (Munich, 1973), 65–83
  • E.J.Dobson and F.Ll.Harrison, eds.: Medieval English Song (London,1979)
  • Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, RMS, 1 (1979–88)
  • G.A.Anderson, ed.: Notre-Dame and Related Conductus (Henryville, PA,1979–88)
  • E.H.Sanders, ed.: English Music of the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries, PMFC, 14 (1979)
  • F.Ll.Harrison, ed.: Motets of English Provenance, PMFC, 15 (1980)
  • F.Ll.Harrison and R.Wibberley, eds.: Manuscripts of Fourteenth Century English Polyphony: a Selection of Facsimiles, EECM, 26 (1981)
  • I.Fenlon, ed.: Cambridge Music Manuscripts, 900–1700 (Cambridge,1982)
  • W.J.Summers, ed.: English Fourteenth-Century Polyphony: Facsimile Edition of Sources Notated in Score, Münchner Editionen zur Musikgeschichte, 4 (Tutzing,1983)
  • F.Ll.Harrison, E.H.Sanders and P.M.Lefferts, eds.: English Music for Mass and Offices, PMFC, 16–17 (1983–86)
  • P.M.Lefferts: The Motet in England in the Fourteenth Century (Ann Arbor,1986)
  • M. Bent, ed.: The Fountains Fragments(Kilkenny, 1987) [facs.]
  • W.J.Summers: ‘English 14th-Century Polyphonic Music: an Inventory of the Extant Manuscript Editions’,JM, 8 (1990), 173–226
  • A.Wathey, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: in British Isles, 1100–1400 (Munich, 1993) [suppl. 1 to RISM, B/IV/1–2]
  • G. Curtisand A.Wathey: ‘Fifteenth-Century English Liturgical Music: a List of the Surviving Repertory’, RMARC, no.27 (1994), 1–69
  • N.Losseff: The Best Concords: Polyphonic Music in Thirteenth-Century Britain (New York, 1994)
  • W.J.Summers and P.M.Lefferts: English Thirteenth-Century Polyphonic Music: a Facsimile Edition of the Manuscript Sources, EECM (forthcoming)
The Worcester fragments
  • J.K.Floyer and S.G.Hamilton: Catalogue of Manuscripts Preserved in the Chapter Library of Worcester Cathedral (Oxford,1906)
  • A.Hughes, ed.: Worcester Medieval Harmony of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries (Burnham, Bucks., 1928), 21–5, l43–4
  • N.R.Ker: Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: a List of Surviving Books(London, 1941, 2/1964)
  • I. Atkinsand N.R.Ker: Catalogus librorum manuscriptorum bibliothecae Wigorniensis, made in 1622–23 by Parrick Young, Librarian to King James I (Cambridge, 1944)
  • L.A.Dittmer: The Worcester Fragments, MSD, 2 (1957)
  • L.A.Dittmer: ‘The Dating and the Notation of the Worcester Fragments’, MD, 11 (1957), 5–11
  • L.A.Dittmer, ed.: Worcester Add.68, Westminster Abbey 33327, Madrid, Bibl. Nac. 192, Publications of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts, 5 (Brooklyn, NY,1959)
  • L.A.Dittmer, ed.: Oxford, Latin Liturgical D 20, London Add. MS 25031, Chicago MS 654 app., Publications of Mediaeval Musical Manuscripts, 6 (Brooklyn, NY,1960)
  • E.H.Sanders: ‘Duple Rhythm and Alternate Third Mode in the 13th Century’, JAMS, 15 (1962), 249–91
  • E.H.Sanders: Medieval English Polyphony and its Significance for the Continent (diss., Columbia U., 1963), 2/B, n.35
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: 11th – Early 14th Century, RISM, B/IV/1 (1966), 541ff, 595ff
  • D.Stevens: ‘The Worcester Fragments’, MT, 116 (1975), 784–5
  • R.Wibberley: English Polyphonic Music of the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries: a Reconstruction, Transcription and Commentary (diss., U. of Oxford, 1976)
  • PMFC, 14 (1979) [edn of 44 of the 109 numbered items in Dittmer, 1957, and RISM]
  • Harrison and Wibberley (1981), pl.205, 212 [facs.]
  • W.J.Summers: ‘Unknown and Unidentified English Polyphonic Music from the Fourteenth Century’, RMARC, no.19 (1983–5), 57–67
  • N.R. Ker, ed.: Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries, 4 (Oxford, 1992), 682–91
  • Wathey (1993), 93–5 [Add. MS 68, Frag. xxxix/1–2]
  • Losseff (1994), 69–82, 146–56
  • Summers and Lefferts (forthcoming) [facs. of all, with reconstruction of remains of three principal volumes]

VII. French polyphony, 1300–1420

1. General.

  • Ursula Günther

The French repertory of the Ars Nova and Ars Subtilior survives in about 85 sources containing more than 600 polyphonic compositions (this figure includes 35 French works by Italian composers but excludes the 228 unique compositions in the Cyprus MS I-Tn J.II.9). Some 150 mass movements, 11 hymns, 74 motets, 1 hocket, 171 ballades, 102 rondeaux, 89 virelais, 4 chaces, 3 canons, 4 polyphonic lais and 2 chansons have survived complete and are available in modern edition; to these may be added 43 monophonic works by Machaut, and a large number of fragments. Few of the central sources are now complete. However, there is a large number of MSS and fragments from outlying countries – principally Italy, but also from Catalonia and England, and from the north and east border regions of France – and these provide evidence of the wide spread of French culture and music. Most of the sources are now located in France (25), Italy (21) and Spain (18), with some in Belgium, England and Germany; there are a few others in the Netherlands, Switzerland, the USA, Poland and the Czech Republic. Inventories and descriptions of nearly all these sources are in RISM, B/IV/1–2 (with supplement) and B/IV/3–4, and additional information concerning the early 15th century can be found in the Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, ed. C. Hamm and H. Kellman, RMS, i (1979–88). The principal sources were known to Ludwig and Besseler.

Whereas the Italian sources of the period have their contents arranged in order of composers, the French sources are predominantly categorized by forms, although this order often tends to become obscured by miscellaneous additions. The repertory has in part survived anonymously, but 50 French composers and 12 Italian are named in ascriptions. Most of these, however, are represented by only one or two works. The music of the 14th century was notated in separate parts: in the early stages motets and mass movements were often laid out in two columns on a single page, the tenor at the foot spanning the two columns; later they were set out on facing pages. In song compositions the voices were laid out sometimes in columns in older MSS but usually one under the other: cantus, tenor and contratenor; the position of the triplum varied.

The MSS of French origin have between seven and fifteen 5-line staves to a page, depending on size. MSS intended for practical use tended to retain the quarto format of 13th-century sources. Most MSS have nine or ten staves per page with an average size of 30 × 20 cm. For costly illuminated MSS folio format was preferred: the largest are the fragment F-Pn (Trém; formerly F-SERc ), notated in 1376 by a royal scribe, which measures 49 × 32·5 cm, and the Roman de Fauvel of 1316 (in which red notes appear for the first time), measuring 46·2 × 33 cm. With regard to the contents, pieces in F-Pn fr.571 (where the minim is distinguished clearly from the semibreve for the first time) and GB-Lbl Add.41667 (McV), and two fragments in rotulus form inF-Pn Pic.67 and B-Br 19606, are all related to the latest works in F-Pn fr.146, as are also the earliest instrumental compositions from GB-Lbl Add.28550. After B-Tc 476 – the MS containing the Mass of Tournai – there is a break in the surviving MS tradition, which is in part bridged by the five large Machaut MSS (see §2) and the southern French I-IV (see §3) as well as a number of smaller contemporary sources:F-Pn fr.2444, Pim , AS 983,CA 1328 (CaB), Pn, TLm 94, E-Bbc 971 (BarcC), GB-DRc 20, Ob e Mus.7,Cmc Pepys 1594 (Pep), CH-BEsu 218 (Mach K), BEsu 421 (Bern A),Fcu 260, D-Nst 25, NL-Lu 342A, Lu 2515, US-NYpm 396 (Morg) and R 44 (BF). Alongside works of the early Ars Nova these MSS contain a repertory – not yet very complex in rhythm – from the second third of the century.

Much more numerous are sources containing late 14th- and early 15th-century works, more in the style of the Ars Subtilior, together with earlier pieces. Apart from F-APT 16bis (see §3), these sources are rarely wholly French in content or origin. Even the two principal sources, F-CH 564 and I-MOe α.M.5.24 (see §3), contain a handful of works composed in Spain and Italy respectively. Of Italian sources with French sections or added pieces the most important is F-Pn (PR, ‘Codex Reina’) with 80 such works (43 ballades, 29 virelais, 8 rondeaux – see §VIII, 2). Another,Pn it.568 (Pit), has 29 French additional pieces; and I-Fn Panciatichiano 26 (FP) has 26, of which 8 are concordances withF-CH 564 evidently copied from the same intermediary source (see §VIII, 2). Here, as in the instrumental versions in I-FZc 117 (Fa ), the French pieces are generally copied only with text incipits.

A number of French pieces appear in Italian fragments from Bologna (I-Bu 596), Cividale del Friuli (I-CF 98), Grottaferrata (I-GR 16 and 197), Lucca and Perugia (I-La 184;PEc 3065; facs. of both MSS ed. J. Nádas and A. Ziino, 1990), Padua (I-Pu 658, 1115, 1475 and GB-Ob, Parma (I-PAas 75), Pistoia (I-PS 5) and Udine (I-UDc 290). The harp notation – so far unique – of US-Cn 54 appears to be of Italian origin. By contrast US-BEm 744 and Wc M2.1.C6a14 are French. The Spanish sources E-Bbc 853, Boc 2 andG are related in content to F-APT . The extensive fragments from Leiden (NL-Lu 2720) and Utrecht (Uu 37) comprise a predominantly French repertory with an admixture of Netherlands works. The part-copy of F-Sm 222 (see §3) together with the relatedCZ-Pu XI E 9 and the fragments D-Nst 9 contain a mixed repertory of French and German works.

2. The Machaut manuscripts.

  • Gilbert Reaney

Paris, Bibliothèque nationale, fr.1584 [A], 1585 [B], 1586 [C], 9221 [E], 22545–6 [F–G] and US-NYw, without shelf-mark (formerly in the possession of the Marquis of Vogüé) [Vg]. F-Pn fr.1586, with illuminations dating from 1350–56 (Avril, 118–24), is less complete than the other sources, but contains the oldest repertory. (For theories, now generally accepted, regarding the chronology of Machaut’s works based on the differing number of pieces in the various MSS see G. Reaney: ‘Towards a Chronology of Machaut’s Musical Works’, MD , xxi, 1967, p.87.) It comprises 226 parchment folios (30 × 2 cm), with an 18th-century ink foliation; the musical section occurs on ff.148v–225, contains 94 pieces, of which 56 are polyphonic, and falls into 2 sections: the first (ff.148v–186v) has 23 monodic virelais (3 without music), 16 polyphonic ballades and 9 monophonic lais (1 without music); the second section (ff.186v–225), less organized, has another 8 polyphonic ballades and 9 rondeaux, 5 virelais (none polyphonic) and 6 monophonic lais, and 19 motets.New York, Wildenstein Collection, without shelf-mark, possibly dating from about 1370–72 (Avril, 124–6), may well present the next-oldest repertory. It comprises 390 parchment folios (32 × 9 cm; originally 392 folios, copied complete in F-Pn fr.1585), with medieval foliation. It was in the possession of the Count of Foix by the 15th century at the latest (‘J’ay belle dame assouvie’, probably the Foix motto, is on a preliminary leaf in a 15th-century hand). It originally contained the mass and 125 other musical items: 15 lais, 23 motets, 38 ballades, 17 (now only 15) rondeaux, 31 virelais and the hocket. F-Pn fr.1584, 1370–77 (Avril, 126–7), comprises 501 parchment folios (30.6 × 22 cm), 494 with medieval foliation plus seven at the beginning containing the original index and Machaut’s prologue to his works. It contains two more ballades, five more rondeaux and two more virelais than the preceding manuscript,Vg. F-Pn fr.1585 is a paper copy of US-NYw : 395 folios (29 × 21 cm), also dating from 1370–72. (Two folios are missing – the first of lais and penultimate of virelais – and f.321 is misbound as f.309.) F-Pn fr.22545–6, in 2 volumes, is the largest of the Machaut sources and is apparently to be dated in the 1390s; it was at one time at the convent of Discalced Carmelites in Paris. It comprises 200 and 164 parchment folios respectively (35.5 × 26 cm), with a possibly 18th-century foliation (fig.34). It presents Machaut’s entire musical output with the exception of 1 ballade and 2 lais. F-Pn fr.9221, dating from about 1400, belonged originally to John, Duke of Berry, and was in the possession of the dukes of Burgundy from 1420 to 1467 (fig.4 above). It comprises 238 parchment folios (40·6 x 30 cm), with medieval red ink foliation. It contains all Machaut’s works except for 1 motet, 3 lais and 8 virelais, but with many musical and textual variants and in no apparent orderly arrangement; about half of the music was copied from F-Pn fr.1585. Unusually, the music for parts of the Voir dit is copied within the poem. F. Ludwig, ed.: Guillaume de Machaut: Musikalische Werke (Leipzig, 1926–54/R ); PMFC, ii–iii (1956/R ) [both edns have descriptions]; F. Avril: ‘Les manuscrits enluminés de Guillaume de Machaut: essai de chronologie’, Guillaume de Machaut: Reims 1978, 117–33; L. Earp: Guillaume de Machaut: a Guide to Research (New York, 1995) [incl. detailed descriptions of MSS]. For further bibliography see Machaut [Machau, Machault], Guillaume de.

3. Principal individual sources.

  • Ursula Günther

Chantilly, Musée Condé, 564 (formerly 1047) [Ch]. 64 parchment ff. (38·7 × 28·6 cm), preceded by 8 19th-century paper folios containing an essay on the MS (by J.G. Flammermont). Foliation: ff.9–12 (modern), 13–72 (medieval: scribe B). Structure: basic corpus ff.13–72 (5 senions, with original first gathering missing or misplaced as gathering 3), with added leaves ff.9–12 including an index of the basic corpus (9v–10) and 2 pieces by Baude Cordier dedicated to owners of MS (11v–12). Scribes: ff.13–72 scribe A (elegant but incorrect hand, 6-line staff, possibly Italian but with French or Spanish features, obviously unfamiliar with material copied and unable to understand the French texts), ff.9–12 scribe B (French hand, who also added some names of composers in the basic corpus, 5-line staff). Date and provenance: basic corpus late 14th century from southern France (Reaney, Apel, Green), or early 15th-century Italian copy of late 14th-century material or exemplar on 5-line staff (Ludwig, Besseler, Günther), the latest possible date for which is 1393–5 (date of no.38 on Mathieu de Foix, successor of Gaston Fébus, married to the daughter of John I of Aragon. Gacian Reyneau, who served in the royal chapel at Barcelona from 1398 to 1429, is represented by 1 work, a rondeau in the simpler early 15th-century style). The old corpus might have been written for the young prince represented twice on f.37 (MGG1, ii, pl.34, facs. facing 1057), a drawing possibly made on what was originally the first page of the MS: he has an eagle on his helmet and a round shield which excludes the French nobility; but the French dedication pieces by Cordier and the 2 fleurs de lis on f.11v suggest French-speaking owners. Added leaves early 15th century (Reaney, Günther) or not later than 1398, based upon the identification of Baude Cordier with Baude Fresnel, chamber valet to Philip the Bold of Burgundy, who was at Avignon in 1395 but died in 1397 or 1398 (Wright, Greene, Strohm). MS was owned by the Florentine family of Francesco d’Altobianco degli Alberti in 1461 (inscription f.9). It might have been written for his father or his uncle Niccolò, who was banished from Florence in 1401 and died in France. MS remained in private Florentine collections until 1861 and was then brought to Chantilly, where the purple velvet binding was added for the Duke of Aumale, who obtained the MS through the sculptor Bigazzi in Florence. Contents: 112 polyphonic compositions (1 twice): 13 motets (last gathering), 70 ballades, 17 rondeaux, 12 virelais. Date of music: basic corpus c1350–95: Ars Subtilior repertory 1375–95 by papal singers from Avignon and musicians employed by the Duc de Berry and at the Foix and Aragon courts (highly complex pieces with notational intricacies), but the older French repertory post-1350 is also represented; on the added leaves 2 dedicatory pieces by Baude Cordier.Composers: basic corpus 34, including Solage (10 pieces), Philippus de Caserta (7), Trebor (6), Vaillant, Matheus de Sancto Johanne (5), Cuvelier, Jaquemin de Senleches (4), Grimace, Guido, Machaut, Susay (3), Galiot, Magister Franciscus, Hasprois (2), all others (1). Editions: CMM, xxxix (1965) [all motets]; PMFC, v (1968) [all motets]; CMM, liii/1–3 (1970–72) [all chansons of basic corpus]; G. Reaney, ed.: CMM, xi/1 (1955) [pieces by Cordier]; CMM, xi/2 (1959) [songs by Hasprois and Johannes Haucourt]; F. Gennrich: Musikwissenschaftliche Studien-Bibliothek, iii–iv (1963 [16 facs. pages]; PFMC, xvii–xviii (1981–2) [all chansons]; PMFC, xxi (1987) [appx with new 4-voice version of no.100]; Y. Plumley and A. Stone, eds.: facs. of complete MS (in preparation) G. Reaney: ‘The Manuscript Chantilly, Musée Condé 1047’, MD , viii (1954), 59–113; x (1956), 55–9 (‘Postscript’) [inventory and description]; U. Günther: ‘Datierbare Balladen des späten 14. Jahrhunderts’, MD , xv (1961), 39–61; xvi (1962), 151–74; U. Günther: ‘Das Wort-Ton-Problem bei Motetten des späten 14. Jahrhunderts’,Festschrift Heinrich Besseler, ed. E. Klemm (Leipzig, 1961), 163–78; U. Günther: ‘Eine Ballade auf Mathieu de Foix’, MD , xix (1965), 69–81; U. Günther: ‘Zwei Balladen auf Bertrand und Olivier du Guesclin’, MD , xxii (1968), 15–45 [1 facs. with transcr.]; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 128–60 [incl. extensive bibliography to 1960]; N.S. Josephson: ‘Vier Beispiele der Ars Subtilior’, AMw, xxvii (1970), 41–58; G.K. Greene: The Secular Music of Chantilly Manuscript, Musée Condé 564 (olim 1047)(diss., Indiana U., 1971); N.S. Josephson: ‘Rodericus, Angelorum psalat’,MD , xxv (1971), 113–26 [with transcr.]; Hirshberg (1971); J. Bergsagel: ‘Cordier’s Circular Canon’,MT, cxiii (1972), 1175–7; U. Günther: ‘Zitate in französischen Liedsätzen der Ars Nova und Ars Subtilior’, MD , xxvi (1972), 53–68; R. Meylan: ‘Réparation de la roue de Cordier’, MD , xxvi (1972), 69–71: W. Apel: ‘The Development of French Secular Music during the Fourteenth Century’, MD , xxvii (1973), 41–59; C. Wright: Music at the Court of Burgundy 1364–1419 (Henryville, 1979); U. Günther: ‘Sinnbezüge zwischen Text und Musik in Ars Nova und Ars Subtilior’, Musik und Text in der Mehrstimmigkeit des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts: Wolfenbüttel 1980, 229–68; F. Leclercq: ‘Questions à propos d’un fragment récemment découvert d’une chanson du XVIe siècle: une autre version de “Par maintes fois ay owi” de Johannes Vaillant’, ibid., 197–228; A. Tomasello (1983); T. Scully: ‘French Songs in Aragon: the Place of Origin of the Chansonnier Chantilly, Musée Condé 564’,Courtly Literature: Culture and Context: Dalfsen 1986, ed. K. Busby and E. Kooper (Amsterdam, 1990), 509–21; U. Günther: ‘Composers at the Court of the Antipopes in Avignon: Research in the Vatican Archives’,Musicology and Archival Research: Brussels 1993, 328–37; StrohmR; G. Di Bacco: ‘Documenti Vaticani per la storia della musica durante il Grande Scisma (1378–1417), Quaderni storici, no.95 (1997), 362–86Modena, Biblioteca Estense e Universitaria, α.M.5.24 (olim lat.568) [Mod; Mod A]. 52 parchment ff. (28 ×19·8 cm). Foliation: 11–40 (original; used by Pirrotta, Apel and Günther), ff.a, 1–10, 41–50 and z later added accordingly (though gatherings 1 and 5, originally together, may have had a different order: ff.1–5 as 6–10 and 41–5 as 1–5); 1–52 (modern; used by Wolf and von Fischer).Structure: 5 quinions preceded and followed by half a bifolium which has been used only on the inner pages; gatherings 2–4 form the older corpus. Scribes: gatherings 2–4 written by A, gatherings 1, 5 and a palimpsest f.16 written by B. Date and provenance: gatherings 2–4 contain a French repertory from the papal court at Avignon and near Genoa and pieces from Milan, assembled during the council of 1409–10 in Pisa; the style of miniatures suggests that the old corpus was written in Bologna about 1410; gatherings 1 and 5 contain mainly works by Matteo da Perugia and may have been written in Milan before his death (?1418). Contents: 100 pieces: 12 mass movements, 1 hymn, 3 motets, 1 motet-like caccia, 36 ballades, 17 rondeaux, 19 virelais, 2 canons, 1 caccia, 2 madrigals and 6 ballatas.Date of music: mainly 1380–1418 plus well-known earlier pieces. Composers: Matteo da Perugia (30 + 2 single parts, 7 doubtful works + 3 doubtful parts), Antonello da Caserta (8), Antonio Zachara da Teramo (5), Philippus de Caserta (4), Jaquemin de Senleches (4), Machaut (4), Bartolino da Padova (3), Bartolomeo da Bologna (2), Ciconia (2), Conradus de Pistoria (2), Egardus (2), Magister Egidius (2), Johannes de Janua (2), Matheus de Sancto Johanne (2), Andreas Servorum (? Andreas de Florentia), Blasius, Galiot, Grenon, Hasprois and Landini (each with 1 work). Editions: F. Fano, ed.: La cappella musicale del Duomo di Milano: le origini e il primo maestro di cappella, Matteo da Perugia (Milan, 1956) [all mass movts and most songs by Matteo, incl. some doubtful works and facs.]; CMM, xi/2 (1959) [2 songs by Hasprois]; CMM, xxxix (1965) [nos.3, 11, 13]; N.S. Josephson, AMw, xxvii (1970), 41–58, esp. 56–8 [no.30]; CMM, liii (1970–72) [all French and Latin songs]; PMFC, xx (1982) [23 ballades, 1 canon]; PMFC, xxiv (1985) [nos.45–6]; PMFC, xxxi (1987) [17 virelais]; PMFC, xxii (1989) [12 rondeaux] U. Günther: ‘Das Manuskript Modena, Biblioteca Estense, α.M.5, 24 (olim lat. 568 =Mod)’, MD , xxiv (1970), 17–67: Hirshberg (1971); RISM B/IV/4 (1972), 950–81 [incl. bibliography to 1970]; U. Günther: ‘Problems of Dating in Ars Nova and Ars Subtilior’, La musica al tempo del Boccaccio e i suoi rapporti con la letteratura: Siena and Certaldo 1975[L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, iv (Certaldo, 1978)], 289–301; A. Ziino: ‘Magister Antonius dictus Zacharius de Teramo: alcune date e molte ipotesi’,RIM, xiv (1979), 311–48; C. Berger: ‘“Pour Doulz Regard…”: ein neu entdecktes Handschriftenblatt mit französischen Chansons aus dem Anfang des 15. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, li (1994), 51–77; G. Di Bacco and J. Nadás: ‘Verso uno “stile internazionale” della musica nelle cappelle papali e cardinalizie durante il Grande Scisma (1378–1417): il caso di Johannes Ciconia di Liège’, Collectanea I, ed. A. Roth (Vatican City, 1994), 7–74; A. Stone:Writing Rhythm in Late Medieval Italy: Notation and Musical Style in the Manuscript Modena, Biblioteca Estense, α.M.5.24. (diss., Harvard U., 1994)Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, it.568 [Pit; P]: see §VIII, 2, belowParis, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, (‘Codex Reina’) [PR; Rei; R]: see §VIII, 2, belowIvrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, 115 [Iv], 64 parchment ff. (32 × 22·5 cm) without binding (outer leaves almost illegible). Foliation: modern. Structure: 6 gatherings (5, 5, 6, 4, 6, 6 bifolia); main corpus gatherings 1–5, with some folios possibly missing between gatherings 5 and 6. Scribes: main corpus by 2 scribes, ff.1–37 and 37v–51 respectively; a third scribe plus other hands fill in blank spaces and add gathering 6 (Besseler); the Ars Nova notation used on red 5-line staff still contains plicas and uses occasional red notes; semiminims, dragmas and black void notes occur only in 4 late additions.Date and provenance: main corpus started after 1365 (date of no.4: see PMFC, v), with late additions possibly from the 1370s; MS generally considered to have originated in Avignon (because of many concordances withF-APT 16bis), but an origin at the court of Gaston Fébus more likely (nos.2 and 4 are unique dedicatory motets that mention the nickname Fébus (hypothesis of Günther and Asper); different fromAPT : motets precede mass movements, most pieces anon.); MS may have been brought from southern France to Ivrea in the late 14th century, where it was discovered by Borghesio in 1921. According to Kügle, the MS originated at Ivrea itself in the 1390s and might have been written by Jacomet de Ecclesia and Jehan Pellicier. Contents: 81 compositions: 36 motets (mainly ff.1v–27, 53–64), 1 motet-like quodlibet, 25 mass movements (mainly 27v–51), 2 2-voice discants with different texts in each voice, 4 chaces, 6 rondeaux, 5 virelais, 2 2-pt textless pieces.Date of music: 1320–75.Composers: unascribed (with one exception): Philippe de Vitry (probably 9 motets), Machaut (4 motets, 1 rondeau), Magister Heinricus, Bararipton, Depansis, Matheus de Sancto Johanne, Chipre, Orles, Sortes, Loys (all 1). Editions: CMM, xxix (1962) [all mass music except no.35]; PMFC, v (1968) [22 motets]; CMM, xxxix (1965) [3 motets]; CMM, liii/1–3 (1970–72) [10 chansons, 4 chaces]; PMFC, xxiii/a–b (1989–91) [all mass music except Credo of the mass of Barcelona]; see also individual composers H. Besseler, AMw(1925), 167–252, esp. 185–94 [with inventory]; F. Ludwig: ‘Die mehrstimmige Messe des 14. Jahrhunderts’, AMw, vii (1925), 417–35, esp. 425–8; M.J. Johnson: The Thirty-Seven Motets of the Codex Ivrea (diss., Indiana U., 1955); L. Schrade: ‘A Fourteenth Century Parody Mass’, AcM, xxvii (1955), 13–39; R. Jackson: ‘Musical Interrelations between 14th Century Mass Movements’, AcM, xxix (1957), 54–64; MGG1 (‘Codex Ivrea’; G. Reaney); MSD, vii (1962); RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 282ff; U. Günther: ‘Problems of Dating in Ars Nova and Ars Subtilior’, La musica al tempo del Boccaccio e i suoi rapporti con la letteratura: Siena and Certaldo 1975 [L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, iv (Certaldo, 1978)], 289–301; U. Asper: Die Handschriften Ivrea und Apt (diss., U. of Zürich, 1976); A. Tomasello: ‘Scribal Design in the Compilation of Ivrea Ms. 115’, MD , xlii (1988), 73–100; K. Kügle: ‘Codex Ivrea, Bibl.capit.115: a French Source “Made in Italy”’,RdMc, xiii (1990), 527–61; K. Kügle: ‘A Fresh Look at the Liturgical Settings in Manuscript Ivrea, Bibl.cap.115’, IMSCR XV: Madrid 1992[RdMc, xvi (1993)], 2452–75; K. Kügle: The Manuscript Ivrea, Biblioteca capitolare 115: Studies in the Transmission and Composition of Ars Nova Polyphony (Ottawa, 1997)Apt, Basilique Sainte-Anne, Trésor 16bis. 45 ff. (between 27 × 19·3 cm and 29 × 21 cm), the first 37 parchment, the last 8 paper; Foliation: I–X, XI (= ff.25–34, 37) (medieval), 1–45 (19th-century) and remnants of other early systems. Structure: 6 gatherings (of 8, 8, 5, 16, 2 and 6 leaves respectively) dividing into 2 main parts in the original order of gatherings 1–2–4, 3–5–6.Scribes: 8 different hands (Stäblein-Harder). Date: 1400–17 (Stäblein-Harder), gatherings 3 and 6 the earliest, gathering 4 the latest. Contents: 48 pieces (plus one later addition), constituting together with I-IV the principal part of the surviving repertory of the Avignon papal court (1377–1403): 35 Mass Ordinary movements for 2, 3 or 4 voices (10 Kyries, 10 Glorias, 10 Credos, 4 Sanctus, 1 Agnus), 9 of them troped, 4 3-voice motets, and 10 3-voice hymns grouped together at the end of gathering 2. Date of music: early 14th century to early 15th.Composers: ranging in time from Philippe de Vitry (3 motets c1320–30) to Cordier and Tapissier (after 1400), both unascribed, others being Bararipton, Chassa, Chipre, Defronciaco, Depansis, Fleurie, Graneti, Guymont, Loys, Murrin, Orles, Peliso, Perrinet, Sortes, Susay and Tailhandier. Editions: PSFM, i/10 (1936) [complete, with 4 facs., but unreliable]; CMM, xi/1 (1955) [1 Gloria by Cordier, 1 Credo by Tapissier]; PMFC, i (1956) [Vitry motets nos.9, 11, 13, Gloria splendor patris and Credo of the mass of Barcelona]; CMM, xxix (1962), and MSD, vii (1962) [all mass movts except the ‘Tournai’ Credo]; PMFC, xxiii/a–b (1989–91) [all mass movts except those of the mass of Barcelona, all hymns] A. Elling: Die Messen, Hymnen und Motetten der Handschrift von Apt(diss., U. of Göttingen, 1924); H. Besseler,AMw (1925), 167–252, esp. 201–5 [with inventory]; F. Ludwig, AMw, vii (1925), 417–35, esp. 425–8; L. Schrade, AcM, xxvii (1955), 13–39, esp. 37–9; RISM, B/IV/2 (1969), 104–15; A. Tomasello (1983); K. Moll: Structural Determinants in Polyphony for the Mass Ordinary from French and Related Sources (ca.1320–1410) (diss., Stanford U., 1995)Strasbourg, Bibliothèque Municipale, 222 (C.22) [Str]: MS destroyed by fire in 1870 (only a facs. of f.78v survives), but part-copied by Coussemaker in 1866. Original MS: 155 paper ff. (29 × 21 cm). Foliation and structure: ff.1–11 (containing alphabetical index and five music treatises), one unnumbered folio, ff.1–143 (containing music and a treatise on plainchant) – all original foliation. Date and provenance: early 15th century, probably finished by Heinrich Laufenberg; the date 1411 mentioned on f.142 (explicit of treatise) does not relate to the MS, which contained, among its 47 later additions in void notation, works by Du Fay and Binchois. Contents: 207 compositions, 192 polyphonic, 15 monophonic, of which Coussemaker copied all the incipits, and 51 polyphonic pieces entire; 25 have German texts, 88 French, 5 Italian and the remainder Latin; there are 20 contrafacta. Forms: 37 mass movements (26 in full black notation, 11 in black void), 11 early motets, 24 single-texted Latin pieces, 88 chansons (61 full black, 27 void).Date of music: 1310–1450.Composers: ascriptions to Alanus, Anthonius Clericus Apostolicus, Binchois, Bosquet, Cameraco, Carlay, Climen, J. Cornelius, Du Fay, Egidius de Thenis, Grimace (no.105), Henricus de Libero Castro (i.e. Freiburg), Heinrich Laufenberg (who may be identifiable with the preceding), Henricus (Egidius de Pusiex), Henricus Hessman de Argentorato, Lampens, Lantins, Libert, Merques, Nucella, Perrinet, Phylomena, Richart (?Loqueville), Royllart, Zeltenpferd (those to Machaut, Cesaris and Vitry are false); also by concordance Antonius de Civitate Austrie, Borlet, Fontaine, Grenon, Hymbert de Salinis, Jaquemin de Senleches, Landini, Machaut, Passet, Peliso, Pierre de Molins, Tailhandier, Vaillant, Vide, Vitry and Zacara de Teramo. Coussemaker’s study and part-copy of the MS is now Brussels, Bibliothèque du Conservatoire Royal de Musique, 56.286. 152 paper ff. (29 × 23 cm).Foliation and structure: ff.1–80 (only rectos used) include a description of the MS (ff.1–4), list of pieces in order as they appeared in original MS (5–15), alphabetical index (16–25), copy of treatises (26–77), list of pieces copied (78–80); 14 unnumbered folios plus pp.1–116 (MS paper, recto and verso) contain a thematic index on 5-line staves, copies of 52 items (51 pieces) (pp.2–111, of which pp.2–38 and 109–11 are on 5-line staves and 39–108 on 6-line: on p.39 Coussemaker noted ‘La ligne supérieure doit être négligée’ – whether this applies to p.39 only or to all pages with 6-line staff is unclear, though the incipits were copied consistently on 5-line staff). Editions: CoussemakerS, iii, 35–46, 411–13, 413–15 [edns of treatises Liber musicalium, De musica mensurabili and De minimis notulis]; PMFC, i (1956) [1 motet]; CMM, xi, 2 (1959) [Gloria by Bosquet, ‘Patrem’ by Cameraco]; CMM, xxxix (1965), 4–7, 17–22, 57–65 [3 motets]; PMFC, v (1968), 24, 54, 141 [3 motets]; CMM, liii (1970–72) [15 chansons]; A. vander Linden, ed.: Thesaurus musicus (Brussels, 1973); TM, ii (1977); PMFC, xx–xxii (1982–9) [chansons]; see also individual composers C. van den Borren: Le manuscrit musical M.222 C.22 de la Bibliothèque de Strasbourg (XVe siècle) brûlé en 1870, et reconstitué d’après une copie d’Edmond de Coussemaker (Antwerp, 1924) [inventory]; RISM, B/IV/3 (1972), 550–92 [incl. bibliography to 1968]; L. Welker: Musik am Oberrhein im späten Mittelalter: die Handschrift Strasbourg, olim Bibliothèque de la Ville, C.22 (Habilitationsschrift, U. of Basle, 1993)Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, J.II.9 [TuB]. Originally 159 parchment ff. (39 × 28·3 cm, but outer edges and inner margins damaged by fire and water in 1904). Repertory survived intact. Foliation: two foliations; both begin f.2, first in top right corner of recto, ending f.158, second in centre of lower margin, to f.159; illuminated f.1 numbered in pencil. The original front flyleaf, for a long time lost but refound, contains an abstract from the Bull granting Pope John XXIII’s authorization for the Office of St Hylarion, on the request of King Janus II of Cyprus.Structure: 17 gatherings, mostly quinternions, can be reconstructed using catchwords. Music organized in 5 sections: (i) ff.1–28 (newly composed plainchant for the Offices of St Hylarion and St Ann, 6 Mass Ordinaries); (ii) ff.29–57, 58 blank staves (7 Gloria-Credo pairs and 3 other Glorias, all 3-voice); (iii) ff.59–97 (33 Latin and 8 French motets, mostly 3-voice); (iv) ff.98–139v (102 ballades, mostly 3-voice); (v) ff.143–158 (21 virelais, 43 rondeaux, blank staves on ff.158v–159); 3 extra leaves inserted between (iv) and (v) contain a 3-voice cyclic mass. Scribes: 1 or 2 (Hoppin) musical scribes using 2 different custodes and Italian-French script in full black mensural notation with red coloration, 3 text scribes, experts for French or Italian, possibly different scribe for the chant section i and 1 illuminator.Date and Provenance: 1413–20 at the court of the Lusignans in Nicosia, Cyprus; MS possibly travelled with Anne de Lusignan, daughter of King Janus II of Cyprus, in 1433 to Nice and then to Chambéry, where she was married to Ludovic of Savoy. Contents:see Cyprus: medieval polyphony. Editions: CMM, xxi/1–4 (1960–63) [all polyphony]; MSD, xix (1968) [all plainchant]; K. Kügle, I. Data and A. Ziino, eds.: Il codice J.II.9 (Torino, Biblioteca nazionale universitaria) (Lucca, 1999) [facs.] H. Besseler, AMw(1925), 167–252, esp. 209–18 [with inventory]; R.H. Hoppin: ‘The Cypriot-French Repertory of the Manuscript Torino Biblioteca Nazionale, J.II.9’, MD , xi (1957), 79–125; R.H. Hoppin: ‘Reflections on the Origin of the Cyclic Mass’, Liber amicorum Charles van den Borren (Antwerp, 1964), 85–92; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 1041–1105; A. Giaccaria, ed.:Manoscritti danneggiati nell’incendio del 1904: mostra di recuperi e restauri (Turin, 1986); The Cypriot-French Repertory of the Manuscript Torino J.II.9: Paphos 1992 [incl. bibliography, 521–45]. For further bibliography see Cyprus: medieval polyphony.


  • MGG1(‘Ars Nova’, §II, H. Besseler)
  • J.Wolf: Geschichte der Mensural-Notation von 1250–1460, 1 (Leipzig, 1904/R), 153–364; see also review by F. Ludwig, SIMG, vi (1904–5), 597–641
  • H.Besseler: ‘Studien zur Musik des Mittelalters, I: neue Quellen des 14. und beginnenden 15. Jahrhunderts’,AMw, 7 (1925), 167–252; ‘II: die Motette von Franko von Köln bis Philipp von Vitry’,AMw, viii (1926), 137–258
  • F.Ludwig, ed.: Guillaume de Machaut: Musikalische Werke, 2 (Leipzig,1928/R)
  • G.Reaney: ‘New Sources of Ars Nova Music’,MD, 19 (1965), 53–67
  • F.Ll.Harrison: ‘Ars Nova in England: a New Source’,MD, 21 (1967), 67–85
  • G.Reaney, ed.: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music (c1320–1400), RISM, B/IV/2 (1969) [incl. suppl. for B/IV/1]
  • J.Hirshberg: The Music of the Late Fourteenth Century: a Study in Musical Style (diss., U. of Pennsylvania,1971), 7ff
  • K. von Fischer and M.Lütolf, eds.: Handschriften mit mehrstimmiger Musik des 14., 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, B/IV/3–4 (1972)
  • D.Fallows: ‘L'origine du MS.1328 de Cambrai: note au sujet de quelques nouveaux feuillets, et de quelques informations supplémentaires’, RdM, 62 (1976), 275–80
  • A.Tomasello: Music and Ritual at Papal Avignon 1309–1403 (Ann Arbor, 1983)
  • I.Lerch: Fragmente aus Cambrai: ein Beitrag zur Rekonstruktion einer Handschrift mit spätmittelalterlicher Polyphonie (Kassel, 1987)
  • M.Bent: ‘A Note on the Dating of the Trémoïlle Manuscript’, Beyond the Moon: Festschrift Luther Dittmer, ed. B. Gillingham and P. Merkley (Ottawa, 1990), 217–42
  • E.H.Roesner, F.Avril and N.F.Regalado: Le Roman de Fauvel in the Edition of Mesire Chaillou de Pesstain (New York, 1990)
  • A.Wathey: Manuscripts of Polyphonic Music: the British Isles, 1100–1400 (Munich, 1993) [suppl. for RISM B/IV/1–2]
  • L.Earp: Guillaume de Machaut: a Guide to Research (New York,1995)
  • M. Bentand A. Wathey, eds.: Fauvel Studies: Allegory, Chronicle, Music and Image in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, MS français 146 (Oxford,1998)

    For further bibliography see RISM, B/IV/2–4.

VIII. Italian polyphony, c1325–c1420

  • Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

1. General.

The sources of Italian Trecento music, written between approximately the mid-14th century and 1420, fall into two main groups: those from Florence or Tuscany and those from northern Italy (namely Padua and Milan/Pavia). A third group of fragmentary sources has more recently been shown to be linked to the papal curia (a centre that was not geographically fixed, moving after the beginning of the schism in 1378 from Rome to central Italy and later through northern Italy). Altogether they contain over 600 madrigals, cacce and ballatas, a few pieces of dance music, and about 50 liturgical pieces and motets (of which many are only fragments). Of these, the pieces which belong stylistically to the true Trecento repertory span a period of composition from about 1325 to 1420. They are exclusively in Italian sources, apart from a small number of southern German and east-central European ones.

In spite of innumerable concordances, there are almost no immediate relationships among the principal Italian sources in the sense of direct copying. This is made clear by the differing versions in which particularly the older pieces of the repertory survive. The many fragmentary sources are the sole remains of larger MSS. Only in a few cases do the fragments belong to a common original MS: the Paduan sources (GB-Ob,I-Pu 684 and 1475; Pu 1115;Pu 658; Pu 675, 1106, 1225 and 1283), sources from Lucca and Perugia (La 184 and PEc 3065) and the Rossi and Ostiglia fragments (Rvat Rossi 215 andOS ). Identical scribal hands responsible for the copying of different sources are to be found in La 184, US-CLwr and part of F-Pn it.568; as well as in I-Fn F.5.5, another section of F-Pn it.568 and the Ciliberti fragment; and among the Paduan fragments. The intabulations in I-FZc 117 and F-Pn (nos.184–5) form a source group of their own.

2. Principal individual sources.

Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rossi 215 (‘Codex Rossi’) [Rs; R; VR] and Ostiglia,Opera Pia G. Greggiati, Biblioteca Musicale, s.s. (‘Ostiglia fragment’): two fragments belonging to one source. Originally at least 32 ff. (4 quaternions; c23 × 16·8 cm), of which 14 parchment folios survive inRvat (from between ff.8 and 18, and after f.23) together with 10 inserted modern paper folios and modern flyleaves, and 4 parchment folios in I-OS . Foliation:Rvat : i–viii, xviii–xxiii;OS : xxv–xxvi, xxxi–xxxii (all original). Structure: at least 4 distinct fascicles, of which the second is entirely lost; the surviving folios are in a single hand. Date and provenance: mid- to late 14th century (Fischer c1350, Pirrotta c1370), from Padua-Verona region; Rvat possibly came from the library of Cardinal Domenico Capranica (1400–58), belonged in the 19th century to the Italian collector G.F. de Rossi, passed at his death in 1854 to Jesuit libraries in Linz and thence Vienna, and in 1922 to the Vatican. Contents: the fragments together contain 37 pieces (Rvat 29, OS 8): Rvat has 22 madrigals (1 of which is canonic), 1 caccia, 1 rondello, 5 monophonic ballatas; OS 8 madrigals. Date of music: c1325–55. Composers: all pieces are anonymous, but concordances ascribe 2 to Piero and 2 to Giovanni da Cascia (with 1 further ascription to him possible for no.1). Editions: CMM, viii/2 (1960), 15–46 [excluding OS ]; G. Vecchi, ed.:Il canzoniere musicale del codice Vaticano Rossi 215, MLMI, iii/2 (1966) [facs. of the two sources together]; V. Guaitamacchi:Madrigali trecenteschi del frammento ‘Greggiati’ di Ostiglia (Bologna, 1970); PMFC, viii (1972); PMFC, ix (1978); N. Pirrotta, ed.: Il codice Rossi 215 (Lucca, 1992) [facs. with introduction] J. Wolf: ‘Die Rossi-Handschrift 215 der Vaticana und das Trecento-Madrigal’, JbMP 1938, 53–69 [Rvat ]; O. Mischiati: ‘Uno sconosciuto frammento appartenente al codice Vaticano Rossi 215’, RIM , i (1966), 68–76 [OS ]; W.T. Marrocco: ‘The Newly-Discovered Ostiglia Pages of the Vatican Rossi Codex 215: the Earliest Italian Ostinato’, AcM, xxxix (1967), 84–91; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 981–4 [OS ], 1020–27 [Rvat ]; M.P. Long: Musical Tastes in Fourteenth-Century Italy: Notational Styles, Scholarly Traditions, and Historical Circumstances (diss., Princeton U., 1981), 210–12; N. Pirrotta: ‘“Arte” e “non arte” nel frammento Greggiati’, L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, v, ed. A. Ziino (Palermo, 1985), 200–17Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Panciatichiano 26[FP (Fp); FN; Fl ;Panc]. 115 paper ff. (29·5 × 22 cm), with 2 modern flyleaves at front and 3 at back. Foliation: 1–5 (modern: index), i–cx (15th or 16th century). Structure: index (5 folios) followed by 11 gatherings, each of 5 bifolios (a quinion). Scribes: the main corpus is in 4 (Nádas) or 5 (Campagnolo) hands, with additions made both by the main scribes and by later scribes; the Italian notation (especially when in duodenaria or octonaria) has in many cases been Frenchified and changed according to the tastes of the copyists. Date and provenance: main corpus: 1380–90 (Fischer, Campagnolo) or c1400 (Pirrotta, Nádas). The additions fall into 3 (Nádas) or 5 (Fischer) groups: (1) directly after completion of main corpus; (2) shortly after the main corpus; (3) 1400–20; (4) after 1420; (5) 1430–50 (in void notation); the earliest of the Florentine Trecento MSS, it belonged to the Florentine Panciatichi collection founded in the 16th century by V. Borghini and extended by Panciatichi. Contents: 185 pieces: 59 madrigals, 15 cacce, 85 ballatas, 15 French ballades, 9 rondeaux, 2 virelais; the main corpus derives directly from a circle of composers associated with Landini; the contents are as follows: 2-voice ballatas by Landini (gatherings 1–2), 3-voice ballatas by Landini (gatherings 3–4), madrigals and cacce by Landini and earlier composers (gatherings 5–9), mostly 3-voice madrigals by earlier composers (gathering 10), French works (later additions and the whole of gathering 11) of which 5 have concordances with F-CH 564. Date of music: from 1340 to isoStart="1440" role="range">1440–50. Composers: Landini (86), Jacopo da Bologna (22), Giovanni da Cascia (18), Piero (8 or 9), Donato da Cascia (5), Gherardello da Firenze (5), Lorenzo da Firenze (5), Machaut (5) and others. Editions: PMFC, iv (1958), uses I-Fn 26 as primary source; F.A. Gallo, ed.: Il codice musicale Panciatichi 26 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze (Florence, 1981) [facs. with introduction]; see also individual composers Wolf, 244ff; N. Pirrotta: ‘Florenz’, §C, MGG1; L. Schrade: Commentary to PMFC, iv (1958), 13–23; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 835–96;Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, RMS, i/1 (1979), 231–2; Long (1981), 179–90; J. Nádas: ‘The Structure of MS Panciatichi 26 and the Transmission of Trecento Polyphony’,JAMS, xxiv (1981), 393–427; Nádas (1985), 56–117; S. Campagnolo: ‘Il codice Panciatichi 26 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Firenze nella tradizione delle opere di Francesco Landini’, ‘Col dolce suon che da te piove’: studi su Francesco Landini e la musica del suo tempo in memoria di Nino Pirrotta, ed. M.T.R. Barezzani and A. Delfino (Florence, 1999), 77–119London, British Library, Add.29987 [Lo; L;B]. 88 parchment ff. (26 × 19·5 cm) survive of an original MS of no fewer than 185ff.; 6 flyleaves at front and 2 at back.Foliation: 98–185 (original, palimpsest), renumbered 1–85 (17th or 18th century); 2–88 (dating from 1876).Structure: 11 gatherings, each of 8 folios.Scribes: carelessly written MS, with 1 principal hand and several additional hands (2 of which also copied I-Fc D.1175 andFsl 2211; see Long, Nádas); at some stage a separate hand corrupted many musical readings by adding nonsensical rests and modifying the rhythms (see Gozzi). Date and provenance: main corpus variously dated as late 14th to early 15th century (Reaney), very early 15th century (Fischer) and c1425 (Pirrotta); southern Tuscany or Umbria (Fischer) or possibly Florence (Reaney, Di Bacco); the MS may have been mutilated at the beginning of the 16th century; the surviving section bears a coat of arms of the Medici family; it was in the hands of Carlo Tomasini Strozzi in the 17th century, then in a private library in Florence, and reached the British Museum in 1876. Contents: 119 pieces: 35 or 36 madrigals, 45 ballatas, 8 cacce, 15estampies, 7 liturgical works (some monophonic), 3 virelais, and other forms. Date of music: 1340–1400 (except no.118, which is much later). Composers: Landini (29), Niccolò da Perugia (12 or 13), Jacopo da Bologna (7), Bartolino da Padova (5), Giovanni da Cascia (5) and others. Editions: MSD, xiii (1965) [facs., recto and verso sides reversed]; J. ten Bokum: De dansen van het Trecento (Utrecht, 1967) [dances]; see also individual composers Wolf, 268; G. Reaney: ‘The Manuscript London, British Museum, Additional 29987 (Lo)’, MD , xii (1958), 67–91; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 631–53; Long (1981), 171; C.C. Garforth: The Lo Manuscript (diss., Northwestern U., 1983); Nádas (1985), 304; G. Di Bacco: ‘Alcune nuove osservazioni sul codice di Londra (British Library, MS Additional 29987)’, Studi musicali, xx (1991), 181–234; M. Gozzi: ‘Alcune postille sul codice Add. 29987 della British Library’, Studi musicali, xxii (1993), 249–77; G. Carsaniga: ‘An Additional Look at London Additional 29987’, MD , xlviii (1994), 263–97Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France, it.568 [Pit; PN]. 150 parchment ff. (25·7 × 17·5 cm) with modern flyleaf at front and back. Foliation: A–I (modern: original index) + i–cxl (original) + 141 (modern). Structure: 14 gatherings (all quinions), of which gatherings 6 and 8 (principally works of Paolo da Firenze) are of later date and are late insertions.Scribes: at least 3 (Fischer; 8 according to Nádas): A (Fischer; or A, B and E in Nádas: gatherings 1–5, 7, 9–14); B (D in Nádas: gatherings 6 and 8, plus additions and refoliation of the MS; same scribe as I-La 184, ff.70–72, andUS-CLwr ff.Ar–Br, Cv–Dv); C (several hands, according to Nádas: additions to gatherings 1–5, 7, 9–14).Date and provenance: gatherings 1–5, 7, 9–14 date from after 1400 (Fischer, Reaney) or c1405 (Günther), and gatherings 6 and 8 c1410 (Fischer) or 1406–8 (Günther, Nádas); from Florence (perhaps the monastery of S Maria degli Angeli; Nádas, 1989), or Lucca or Pisa (Fischer). The MS belonged originally to the Capponi family, and was perhaps written for them, was in the library of King Charles X of France in the 19th century and passed from there to the Bibliothèque Nationale. Contents: 199 pieces: 45 madrigals, 113 ballatas, 5 cacce, 10 French ballades, 13 rondeaux (includes 1 rondeau refrain), 8 virelais, polyphonic settings of 5 movements from the Ordinary of the Mass (no Kyrie but including Benedicamus). Date of music: from 1340 to c1410.Composers: Landini (61), Paolo da Firenze (32), Jacopo da Bologna (11), Niccolò da Perugia (6), Bartolino da Padova (5), Gherardello da Firenze (5), Donato da Cascia (5) and others (these numbers do not include the 31 ascriptions erased from the MS which concern in particular the work of Paolo: see Günther, and Nádas, 1989). Of the 29 pieces that are probably of French origin, 27 are anonymous and 19 have no text; there are 4 double concordances withF-CH 564; composers include Machaut (3 pieces) and Pierre de Molins (2). Editions: see individual composers Wolf, 250ff; G. Reaney: ‘The Manuscript Paris, BN, fonds italien 568 (Pit)’, MD , xiv (1960), 33–63; N. Pirrotta:Paolo Tenorista in a New Fragment of the Italian Ars Nova (Palm Springs, CA, 1961); U. Günther: ‘Die “anonymen” Kompositionen des Manuskripts Paris, B.N., fonds it.568 (Pit)’, AMw, xxiii (1966), 73–92; U. Günther: ‘Zur Datierung des Madrigals “Godi Firenze” und der Handschrift Paris, B.N., fonds it.568 (Pit)’, AMw, xxiv (1967), 99–119; RISM, B/IV/3 (1972), 436–85;Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, RMS, i/3 (1984), 25–6; Nádas (1985), 216–90; J. Nádas: ‘The Songs of Don Paolo Tenorista: the Manuscript Tradition’, In cantu et in sermone: for Nino Pirrotta, ed. F. Della Seta and F. Piperno (Florence, 1989), 41–64Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France,‘Codex Reina’) [PR ;Rei; R]. 122 paper ff. (27·1 × 21·3 cm), with 4 modern flyleaves at back.Foliation: 2 systems: i–xxviiii [sic], 30–84 (on verso) (original); 1–131 (modern), of which ff.120–24 are lacking, and ff.128–31 are flyleaves.Structure: 9 fascicles (different sizes), with inserted folios (ff.85–8), and leaves representing the beginning of a tenth: fascs.8 and 9 are of a much later date. Scribes: 6 (Fischer) or 8 (Nádas) hands, which divide into four groups as follows: section I, scribes S (Nádas; A in Fischer) and T (fascs.1–3), with 4 new hands U, V, W (D in Fischer) and X (B in Fischer), who worked alongside S (fasc.4 and first half of fasc.5); section II, scribe W (second half of fasc.5); section III, scribes Y (fascs.6–7); section IV, scribe Z (F in Fischer; fascs.8–9, also index). Date and provenance: sections I–III (with distinct layers of copying and additions throughout), c1400–1410, section IV, 1430–40; from north-east Italy (Padua-Venice region); the MS appeared for the first time in the library catalogue of a Sig. Reina in Milan in 1834, was bought by A. Bottée de Toulmon and passed at the latter’s death to the Bibliothèque Nationale. Contents: 220 pieces (I: 105; II: 24; III: 56; IV: 35): 41 madrigals, 63 ballatas (including sicilianas in ballata form), 43 French ballades, 40 rondeaux (includes 8 rondeau refrains), 30 virelais, 2 chansons and 1 caccia; section I (including additions) contains Italian pieces from the 14th century and the early 15th, sections II–III contain 80 French works of the same period (43 ballades, 29 virelais, only 8 rondeaux or rondeau refrains) together with 1 Flemish piece, and 3 Italian pieces of which 2 are in tablature, section IV contains French pieces (almost all rondeaux), together with 1 Italian, of the Du Fay period.Date of music: 1340–1430.Composers: Bartolino da Padova (26 or 27), Jacopo da Bologna (20 or 22), Landini (20), Machaut (7), Du Fay (9) and others. Editions: CMM, xxxvi (1966) [52 French works from sections II and III]; CMM, xxxvii (1966) [35 works in section IV]; CMM, liii/1 (1970) [71 French works from sections I–III]; for editions of Italian works see individual composers Wolf, 260ff; K. von Fischer: ‘The Manuscript Paris, Bibl. Nat., nouv.acq.frç.6771’, MD , xi (1957), 38–78 [see also N. Wilkins inMD , xvii (1963), 57–73, and K. von Fischer’s reply, MD , xvii, 75–7]; U. Günther: ‘Bemerkungen zum älteren französischen Repertoire des Codex Reina (PR)’, AMw, xxiv (1967), 237–52; RISM, B/IV/3 (1972), 485–549;Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, RMS, i/3 (1984), 33–4; i/4 (1988), 464; Nádas (1985), 118–215; J. Nádas: ‘The Reina Codex Revisited’, Essays in Paper Analysis, ed. S. Spector (Washington, DC, 1987), 69–114Lucca, Archivio di Stato, 184 (‘Codex Mancini’) [Mn; Man; Manc; Luc],and Perugia, Biblioteca Comunale Augusta, 3065: these two fragments belong to one source (whereas, contrary to Ghisi, the Pistoia fragment,I-PS 5, does not). Originally at least 102 ff. (c22 × 15 cm), of which 42 parchment folios survive in La (incl. 4 new leaves discovered in 1988 by Nádas and Ziino, and other folios more recently found), and 6 parchment folios in PEc . Foliation: La : (first 20 ff. lost), XX–LXXXV–[C] (original), 1–72 (modern)); PEc : 2 systems, LVIII–LIX, LXXXI–LXXXIV (original), and 1–6 (modern, incorrect).Structure: 7 surviving fascicles (out of an estimated 11). Scribes: the main corpus is in a single hand, the last 4 surviving folios contain 2 further hands, the second of whom (ff.70–72), also worked on F-Pn it.568 (fascs.6 and 8) and on US-CLwr (ff.Ar–Br, Cv–Dv). Date and provenance: Main corpus copied in northern Italy (?Padua) c1400, then probably at Bologna or Pisa, and Florence (or Lucca), c1410, additions to c1430; I-PEc was discovered in Perugia in 1935, La in Lucca by A. Mancini in 1938; the leaves had served as covers to 15th- and 16th-century notarial acts. Contents: the fragments together contain 85 pieces: 57 or 58 ballatas, 11 madrigals, 10 rondeaux, 3 virelais, 1 French ballade, 1 canon. Date of music: 1365–1430. Composers: Bartolino da Padova (12), Zacara da Teramo (12), Ciconia (9), Landini (8), Antonello da Caserta (7), Antonius de Civitate (3) and others; the individual fascicles evidently relate to specific composers: 2 fascicles to Bartolino, one and a half to Zacara da Teramo, one each to Ciconia and Landini, half each to Antonius de Civitate and Antonello da Caserta. Editions: F. Ghisi: ‘Italian Ars Nova Music’, JRBM, i (1946–7), 173–91; J. Nádas and A. Ziino, eds.: The Lucca Codex: Codice Mancini (Lucca, 1990) [facs.] see also individual composers N. Pirrotta and E. Li Gotti: ‘Il Codice di Lucca’,MD , iii (1949), 119–38, iv (1950), 111–52; v (1951), 115–42; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 929–47 [La], 1008–12 [PEc ]; Census-Catalogue of Manuscript Sources of Polyphonic Music, 1400–1550, RMS, i//2 (1982), 125–6; i/3 (1984), 45–6; Nádas (1985), 336–61; J. Nádas and A. Ziino: ‘Two Newly Discovered Leaves from the Lucca Codex’, Studi musicali, xxix (2000)Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria, T.III.2 (‘Codex Boverio’). 15 paper folios (c30 ×30 cm), most of them damaged. Pagination: 1–26 (modern). Structure: 9 gatherings of varying sizes. Scribes: 2 main hands for the texts, possibly 2 for the music. Date and provenance: 1409–18, perhaps from a Franciscan monastery of Pisan-Bolognese obedience (loyal to antipopes Alexander V and John XXIII) in northern Italy; it was subsequently used as cover-strengthening material; it was purchased by the Italian government from a private owner in 1991. Contents: 39 pieces (mostly incomplete), and 5 more added later in the 15th century: 8 ballatas, 1 madrigal, 6 ballades, 3 rondeaux, 2 virelais, 11 Credos, 3 Glorias (2 troped), 1 Kyrie, 1 Sanctus, 2 motets (of which 9 or 10 songs and 13 mass movements areunica). Date of music: c1400. Composers: Antonio Zacara da Teramo (7 or 8), Antonius de Civitate (2), Frater Petrus de Sancto Severio (otherwise unknown), Antonello da Caserta, Philippus de Caserta, Susay (1 each). Editions: A. Ziino, ed.: Il codice T.III.2, Torino, Biblioteca Nazionale Universitaria (Lucca, 1993) [facs. with introduction]; (editions forthcoming inAcM)Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Med.Pal.87 (‘Codex Squarcialupi’) [Sq; Fl ]. 216 parchment ff. (40·5 × 28·5 cm), 2 original parchment flyleaves at the front (independent of the rest of the MS), and 5 modern paper flyleaves (3 at the front, 2 at the back). Foliation: i–cxvi (original). Structure: 20 gatherings of 3 to 10 bifolia each.Scribes: 1 hand for the texts, 3 (Fischer) or 4 (Nádas) very similar hands for the music. Date and provenance: c1410–15 (Bellosi, Nádas), almost certainly from the Florentine monastery of S Maria degli Angeli; it is not certain whether Paolo da Firenze was involved in the preparation of the MS; it was in the possession of Antonio Squarcialupi in the 15th century, passed thereafter via his nephew R. Bonamici to Giuliano de’ Medici (1512–13), from there to the Biblioteca Palatina, and then to the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana. Contents: 353 (or 354) pieces (150 unica), of which 2 appear twice: 115 madrigals, 12 cacce, 227 ballatas. Date of music: 1340–1415.Composers: the pieces are arranged in chronological order by composer: Giovanni da Cascia (12), Jacopo da Bologna (28), Gherardello da Firenze (16), Vincenzo da Rimini (6), Lorenzo da Firenze (17), Donato da Cascia (15), Niccolò da Perugia (36), Bartolino da Padova (37), Landini (146), Egidius and Guilielmo de Francia (5 in all), Zacara da Teramo (7), Andreas de Florentia (29); 16 folios have been left blank to accommodate the music of Paolo da Firenze between Lorenzo and Donato, and 22 folios for that of Jovannes Horganista de Florentia (Giovanni Mazzuoli) at the end. A portrait of each composer appears with the ascription of his works. Editions: J. Wolf, ed.: Der Squarcialupi-Codex Pal.87 der Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana zu Florenz (Lippstadt, 1955) [see corrections by K. von Fischer, Mf , ix (1956), 77–89, and L. Schrade, Notes, xiii (1955–6), 683 only]; F.A. Gallo, ed.:Il codice Squarcialupi (Florence, 1992) [facs. with essays]; see also individual composers Wolf, 228; B. Becherini: ‘Antonio Squarcialupi e il codice Mediceo Palatino 87’, L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento I: Certaldo 1959, 141–96; K. von Fischer: ‘Paolo da Firenze und der Squarcialupi-Kodex (I-Fl 87)’,Quadrivium, ix (1968), 5–24; RISM, B/IV/4 (1972), 755–832, Nádas (1985), 362–458; F.A. Gallo, ed.: Il codice Squarcialupi (Florence, 1992) [incl. J. Nádas: ‘The Squarcialupi Codex: an Edition of Trecento Songs, ca 1410–15’, 19–86; L. Bellosi: ‘Il maestro del codice Squarcialupi’, 146–57; M. Ferro Luraghi: ‘Le miniature’, 159–92; see also reviews by M. Bent, EMH, xv (1996), 251–69; J. Haar, JAMS, xlix (1996), 145–55]Florence, Archivio Capitolare di San Lorenzo, 211 [SL]. 111 parchment folios (21·5 × 28·5), palimpsest; 6 16th-century leaves at the end, 4 flyleaves (2 at the front, 2 at the back). Foliation: 1–88 (16th-century), 89–109 (modern); iii–clxxxviiii (original); therefore at least 80 ff. lost. Structure: no fewer than 19 gatherings (? all quinions), of which at least 4 lacking (2, 6, 7, 13), and many incomplete and barely legible owing to erasures.Scribes: only 1 hand (who also copied ff.82v–85 of GB-Lbl Add.29987). Date and provenance: c1420, Florence. It is uncertain whether the MS belonged originally to the church of S Lorenzo or came there from elsewhere; in the early 16th century the MS was unbound and erased, then reassembled without regard for its original structure and used as a register of the church properties. Its discovery was first announced by Frank D’Accone in 1982. Contents: about 110 pieces detected, of which those by Giovanni Mazzuoli, his son Piero, and Ugolino of Orvieto areunica. Date of music: c1340–1420. Composers: Jacopo da Bologna (fascs.1–3), Giovanni da Cascia, Bartolino da Padova, Donato da Cascia (fascs.3–9), Johannes Organista (Giovanni Mazzuoli; fascs.9–10), Landini (fasc.11 and fascs.12–13, the latter mutilated), Paolo da Firenze (fasc.14); French-texted repertory: Machaut, Grimace, Magister Franciscus, Senleches (fasc.15, almost illegible); caccia section with other works (fasc.16), Petrus Johannis (Piero Mazzuoli, organist at S Lorenzo, 1403–15; fasc.17, barely legible), Ugolino of Orvieto (fasc.18, illegible), motets by Hymbertus de Salinis, Jacopo, Vitry and others (fasc.19)For editions see individual composers. F.A. D’Accone: ‘Una nuova fonte dell’Ars Nova italiana: il codice di San Lorenzo, 2211’, Studi musicali, xiii (1984), 3–31; J. Nádas: ‘Manuscript San Lorenzo 2211: some Further Observation’, L’Europa e la musica del Trecento: Congresso IV: Certaldo 1984[L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento, vi (Certaldo, 1992)], 145–68; Nádas (1985), 459–86

3. Other fragments.

Perugia, private collection of Galliano Ciliberti[Cil]. 2 parchment folios discovered in 1986 by Ciliberti. Scribes: only 1 hand, the same that copied ballatas by Paolo da Firenze and Landini in F-Pn it.568 (ff.89v, 91v, 99–111) and the fragmentI-Fn F.5.5 with 6 ballatas by Landini (on which see M. Fabbri and J. Nádas: ‘A Newly Discovered Trecento Fragment’,EMH, iii, 1983, pp.67–81; and Nádas, 1985, pp.209–305). Ciltransmits 12 ballatas by Paolo da Firenze, of which 4 are unica. Date and provenance: first decade of the 15th century, from Umbria or Rome. B. Brumana and G. Ciliberti: ‘Le ballata di Paolo da Firenze nel frammento “Cil”’,Esercizi: arte, musica, spettacolo, ix (1986), 5–37; B. Brumana and G. Ciliberti: ‘Nuove fonti per lo studio di Paolo da Firenze’, RIM , xxii (1987), 3–33; J. Nádas: ‘The Songs of Don Paolo Tenorista: the Manuscript Tradition’, In cantu et in sermone: for Nino Pirrotta, ed. F. Della Seta and F. Piperno (Florence, 1989), 41–64Padua, Biblioteca Universitaria, 684 and 1475, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Canon.l.pat.229[PadA]; Padua, Biblioteca Universitaria 1115 [PadB]; 658 [PadC];675, 1106, 1225 and 1283 [PadD]; Stresa, Biblioteca Rosminiana, 14; Padua, Biblioteca Universitaria, 656, Padua, Archivio di State, Corp.soppr., S Giustina 553 and 14, collectively known as the Paduan fragments. These fragments have now been shown to belong to the same family of sources copied c1400 at the Benedictine abbey of S Giustina in Padua (some of them even copied by the same scribe, Rolando da Casale). G. Cattin: ‘Ricerche sulla musica a S Giustina di Padova all’inizio del I Quattrocento: il copista Rolando da Casale’, AnM, vii (1964–77), 17–41; A. Hallmark: ‘Some Evidence for French Influence in Northern Italy, c. 1400’, Studies in the Performance of Late Medieaval Music: New York 1981, 193–225; F. Facchin: ‘Una nuova fonte trecentesca nell’Archivio di Stato di Padova’, Contributi per la storia della musica sacra a Padova, ed. G. Cattin and A. Lovato (Padua, 1993), 115–39 Other sources of ascertained northern provenance are: I-CF 63, 73, 98; GR 16 (from Padua), andGR s.s.; PAas 75 (from Milan/Pavia); TRc 1563;TRf 60 (from Padua) M. Bent: ‘New Sacred Polyphonic Fragments of the Early Quattrocento’, Studi musicali, ix (1980), 171–89; M. Gozzi: ‘Un nuovo frammento trentino di polifonia del primo Quattrocento’, Studi musicali, xxi (1992), 237–51 Beyond these, a number of recently-discovered (or reinterpreted) sources can be related to the international repertory sung at the papal chapel in Rome during the Great Schism: I-AT A.5; CT 1–2; the Egidi fragment (formerlyMDAegidi ), FOLas(formerly FOLc ), s.s.; FROas 266–7; GR 197 andUS-HA 002387; PL-Pa 174a;Wn F.I.378 (now lost) and III.8054 (formerly 52); and others. J. Palumbo: ‘The Foligno Fragment: a Reassessment of Three Polyphonic Glorias, ca. 1400’,JAMS, xl (1987), 169–209; G. Gialdroni and A. Ziino: ‘Due nuovi frammenti di musica profana del primo Quattrocento nell’Archivio di Stato di Frosinone’,Studi musicali, xxiv (1995), 185–208; G. Di Bacco and J. Nádas: ‘The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources of Polyphony during the Great Schism’, Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome, ed. R. Sherr (Oxford, 1998), 44–92 Finally, sources now found in central Italy (Marche) throw new light on another possible centre of the cultivation of polyphony; see P. Peretti: ‘Fonte inedite di polifonia mensurale dei secoli XIV e XV degli archivi di stato di Ascoli Pieceno e Macerata’, Quaderni musicali marchigiani, iii (1996), 85–124


  • J.Wolf: Geschichte der Mensural-Notation von 1250–1460(Leipzig, 1904/R), 1, 228–73 [see also review by F. Ludwig, SIMG, vi (1904–5), 597–641]
  • H.Besseler: ‘Studien zur Musik des Mittelalters’,AMw, 7 (1925), 167–252; viii (1926), 137–258
  • S.Clercx: ‘Johannes Ciconia et la chronologie des mss. italiens, Mod.568 et Lucca (Mn)’, L’Ars Nova: Wégimont 1955, 110–36
  • K. von Fischer: Studien zur italienischen Musik des Trecento und frühen Quattrocento (Berne, 1956)
  • N.Pirrotta: ‘Novelty and Renewal in Italy: 1300–1500’,Studien zur Tradition in der Musik: Kurt von Fischer zum 60. Geburtstag, ed. H.H. Eggebrecht and M. Lütolf (Munich,1973), 49–63
  • E.C.Fellin: ‘Le relazioni tra i manoscritti musicali del Trecento’, RIM, 8 (1973), 165–80
  • C.E.Brewer: The Introduction of the ‘Ars Nova’ into East Central Europe: a Study of Late Medieval Polish Sources (diss., New York U.,1984)
  • J.Nádas: The Transmission of Trecento Secular Polyphony: Manuscript Production and Scribal Practices in Italy at the End of the Middle Ages (diss., New York U., 1985), 1–55
  • F.Facchin: ‘Le fonti di polifonia trecentesca italiana alla luce degli ultimi ritrovamenti’, Fonti musicali italiane, 2 (1997), 7–33
  • G. Di Bacco and J.Nádas: ‘The Papal Chapels and Italian Sources during the Great Schism’, Papal Music and Musicians in Late Medieval and Renaissance Rome, ed. R. Sherr (Oxford, 1998), 44–92

IX. Renaissance polyphony

1. Introduction.

  • Charles Hamm and Jerry Call
(i) General.

The printing of polyphonic music did not begin until 1501. Our knowledge of the music of the entire 15th century is dependent on MS sources, and, as prints preserve only a portion of the music in circulation in the 16th century, MSS must be relied on for a substantial amount of that repertory also.

MSS can give more than just the music itself. Since about the middle of the 20th century, musicologists have been devising and refining techniques of MS study that are yielding valuable information on other aspects of musical life during the Renaissance: the identification of various repertories; the ways in which music was disseminated; the liturgical use of polyphony; performing practice; and the social and economic milieu within which various kinds of music were composed and performed. MSS can also provide useful data for biographical studies of composers.

The singing of polyphonic music was practised in a rather limited number of places in the early Renaissance: certain cathedrals and major churches in Italy, England, France and possibly several other countries; courts and court chapels of royalty and the nobility in these same countries; and some monasteries and other religious establishments. Only a few musicians possessed the skills necessary to perform from mensural notation; these musicians were highly regarded and relatively well paid, and competition for their services was keen. They were internationally famous and often worked in several countries during the course of their careers.

By the end of the 15th century, the number of churches and courts boasting musicians who could sing polyphony had increased significantly. This growth was partly geographical, with polyphony now practised in Spain, Poland, Bohemia, Hungary, the Alpine regions and various parts of Germany. It was also partly the result of an increase in the number of establishments which supported choirs. It became even more pronounced in the first decades of the 16th century, reaching a third level of proliferation: a much larger amount of polyphonic music sung at a given church or court.

This is reflected in the number of MSS surviving from various times during the Renaissance. The number of extant sources from the beginning of the 15th century is quite small; it grows gradually during the course of the century and then increases rapidly during the 16th. Several hundred MSS survive from the 15th century; several thousand from the 16th. It is possible, of course, that more of the earlier sources were lost or destroyed. However, everything known about the music of this period suggests that the greater number of 16th-century sources reflects a real and dramatic increase in the amount of polyphony being performed and is not simply due to accidents of preservation favouring later sources.

Most MSS of Renaissance polyphony contain some pieces by the most famous composers of the day, along with works by composers who were known only regionally or locally. Although new MSS continue to be discovered every year, it is rare for them to contain previously unknown pieces by such composers as Du Fay or Josquin. For instance, the Aosta MS (see §2), discovered in the mid-20th century, contains many pieces by Du Fay, but all were previously known from other sources. This suggests that most of the significant repertory by the most famous composers of the Renaissance has been recovered. But most new MS discoveries add pieces by lesser-known composers, some found in no other sources.

(ii) Early 15th-century manuscripts.

For the first decades of the 15th century, most polyphony was copied in black (solid or full) mensural notation. This represents a continuation of the style of notation used in French sources of the previous century; there are also elements of Italian Trecento notation in some sources, particularly those copied in northern Italy. Parchment was the standard material on which copying was done. As the popularity of polyphony spread and more MSS were needed, paper began to be used. Just at this time – the third and fourth decades of the century – white (hollow or void) notation began to replace black notation. There are no important differences between the two types, and the same piece is often found in one MS in black notation and in another in white. The change must have come about partly because solid black note heads tended to bleed through to the other side of the paper, and eventually the corrosive action of the ink caused note heads to drop out.

Three-part writing was the norm during this period. The most common method of laying out these voices in a MS was in choirbook format, with all voices of a composition copied on the two facing pages of an opening. The discantus (superius) voice was copied on the verso (left) side of the opening, with the tenor and contratenor on the recto (right) side. Sometimes one of the lower parts was copied under the discantus on the verso side, and the other occupied the recto side alone. In a four-voice piece, the tenor was usually copied on the verso side under the discantus, with the two remaining voices on the recto.

A full text was almost always copied for the upper voice. Text may or may not be found under the other voices. At times, only incipits of text appear with the lower voices. In some carefully copied MSS, text appears in certain sections of the lower voices and not in others.

Many English sources are copied in pseudo-score: the voices are copied one under the other, in what resembles score notation, although the notes are not aligned exactly (fig.38). This layout is especially common for English pieces which are homorhythmic harmonizations of a chant melody.

The composer attribution, if given, was most often placed at the beginning of the composition, at the top of the verso of the opening above the superius voice. Many MSS were trimmed around the outer margins, after the music had been copied, as part of the process of binding. In many cases, composers’ names have been lost in the process, and pieces originally labelled with the name of the composer have unfortunately come down to us as anonymous works.

Space was often left on an opening after a piece had been copied there, and this space was frequently used for another piece. Such additions were sometimes made by the principal scribe, but more often were put in by later scribes after th