- Stanislav Tuksar,
- Hana Breko Kustura,
- Ennio Stipčević,
- Grozdana Marošević,
- Davor Hrvoj
- and Catherine Baker
Country in south-east Europe. Once the ancient Roman province of Illyricum, it was settled at the beginning of the 7th century by Slavs, who were converted to Western Christianity by the end of the 8th century. Medieval principalities were quickly formed, and a kingdom of Croatia existed from 925 (the dynasty of Trpimirović) to the end of the 11th century. In 1102 Croatia entered into a personal royal union with Hungary, with dynasties of Árpád, Anjou, and those of the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia, and Poland on its throne during the 14th and 15th centuries; in 1527 it became part of the Habsburg Empire by electing Ferdinand King of Croatia. This political, cultural, and social union with Hungary and Austria lasted until 1918. Between 1409 and 1797, however, the Croatian maritime provinces of Istria and Dalmatia were under Venetian control, and from 1526 to 1699 other parts (e.g. the continental province of Slavonia) were conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The region comprising the Republic of Dubrovnik claimed autonomy from 1358 until 1808. During 1918–41 and 1945–91 Croatia consecutively was made part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. There was strong German and Italian influence from 1941 to 1945. Since 1991 the Republic of Croatia has been an independent state, mounting to full membership of European Union in 2013.
I. Art music.
- Stanislav Tuksar
1. Medieval and Renaissance.
The earliest sources are in the form of Gregorian chant. Several hundred codices and fragments with neumatic and choral notation, dating from the 11th century to the 15th, exist in archives and libraries within Croatia (Dubrovnik, Korčula, Split, Trogir, Hvar, S̆ibenik, Zadar, Rab, Zagreb) and beyond (Oxford, the Vatican, Berlin, Budapest). Some originated in domestic scriptoria (Osor, Zadar, Split, Dubrovnik); others were imported from Italy, Austria, France, or Hungary. Numerous illustrations from the 11th century onwards show musical instruments (horn, trumpet, busina, flute, schalmei, organ, viella, lute, organistrum, psaltery, harp, clavichord, drums, etc.) and scenes of music-making along western European iconographical lines. The first performers to be named are the 13th-century ‘kitharists’ Andrija and C̆estivoj, who were in the service of a Croatian noble; the earliest composers may probably be placed in the next century (e.g. Augustin Kaz̆otić, bishop of Zagreb, 1303–22). During this period organs were erected in Split (1347), Zagreb (1359), Dubrovnik (1384), and Zadar (1392). The Rector’s Chapel in Dubrovnik, founded in 1301, was active until the fall of the Republic of Dubrovnik in 1808.
In the 16th century 80% of Croatian territory was lost to the Ottomans and the rest divided between Habsburg and Venetian administrations. Music suffered. Almost all the Croatian composers known to us were active abroad, and their compositions and theoretical writings were published abroad, though some of them probably also wrote and performed at home. The earliest of these composers were Franjo Bosanac (Franciscus Bossinensis) and Andrija Motovunjanin (Andrea Antico da Montona), who composed frottole and ricercari in Venice in the early 16th century and were also engaged in music printing. Their successors included Andrija Petris (Andrea Patritio) from the northern Adriatic island of Cres and Julije Skjatević (Giulio Schiavetti) from S̆ibenik, responsible respectively for madrigals (Venice, 1550) and greghesche, madrigals, and motets (Venice, 1564–5). The Dubrovnik Rector’s Chapel maestri di cappella of French origin Lambert Courtois the Elder and his son Henrik published in 1580 madrigals dedicated to members of the Ragusan noble families of Bunić (Bona), Gundulić (Gondola), and Baziljević (Baseglio).
The works of the above composers constitute the entire known corpus of Croatian Renaissance music: the presumably rich repertory of Dubrovnik, known to have been produced by such composers as Secundo Brugnoli, Gavro Temparic̆ić (Tamparizza), Benedikt Babić (Baba), Emanuel Zlatarić, Nikola Gaudencije (Gaudentius), and Antun Tudrović, seems to have been destroyed in the earthquake of 1667. Of other Renaissance material, the first notated folktunes survive in Petar Hektorović’s Ribanje i ribarsko prigovaranje (‘Fishing and Fishermen’s Debates’, 1568), and music is considered in the writings of Federik Grisogono-Bartolac̆ić and Luigi Bassano from Zadar, Matija Vlac̆ić Ilirik (Mathias Flacius Illyricus) from Labin, Frane Petris (Franciscus Patritius) from Cres, Nikola Vitov Guc̆etić (Niccolò Vito di Gozze) and Miho Monaldi, members of the local Akademija složnijeh (Accademia de concordi) from Dubrovnik, Pavao Skalić (Paulus Scalichius) and Bartol Đurđević (Bartolomaeus Georgievits) from Zagreb, and Faust Vranc̆ić (Faustus Verantius) from S̆ibenik.
Somewhat unexpectedly, the first half of the 17th century was a golden age for Croatian art music. Several hundred compositions in early Baroque style are extant, the most significant composers being the Franciscan Ivan Lukac̆ić of S̆ibenik (Sacrae cantiones, Venice, 1620) and Vincenz Jelić, also a cleric, from Rijeka (Parnassia militia, Arion primus and Arion secundus, Strasbourg, 1622, 1628). In the multicultural provinces of Dalmatia and Istria, some Italian-born or local composers were at work, including Gabriello Puliti, Damianus Nembri from Hvar, and, above all, Tomaso Cecchini, who in addition to collections of masses, motets, and madrigals (published 1612–35) produced the first Baroque instrumental music in Croatia: sonatas, ritornellos, and ballettos. He spent most of his life in Hvar, which appears to have been a strong cultural centre: one of the first theatres in modern Europe, built there in 1612, is still in operation, and the Chapter Library has a violin tablature dated 1625 by Gabriele Pervaneo as well as treatises by Zacconi and Artusi.
The consequences of the country’s division continued to be felt. While the coastal regions displayed features typical of a remote Venetian province, the hinterland was immersed in the Habsburg Counter-Reformation. One result was that until the second half of the 18th century music in northern Croatia consisted of simple pious songs in Croatian dialects, related to both local idioms and international models, and intended to foster Catholic spirituality throughout the population: examples from the 17th century include Atanazije Grgic̆ević-Georgiceo’s Pisni za najpoglavitije … dni godis̆ća (‘Songs for the Most Important … Days of the Year’, 1635), Nikola Krajac̆ević-Sartorius’s Molitvene knjiz̆ice (‘The Prayer Books’, 1640), and the anonymous Pauline songbook (1644). Up to the mid-18th century several church music collections and treatises were printed (three editions of Cithara octochorda, Vienna 1701, 2/1723, Zagreb 3/1757; Brevis cantus gregoriani notitia, Vienna 1701, by Toma Kovačević, now lost), serving the revival of Catholic church music in the Zagreb bishopric after the Ottoman withdrawal. Several manuscript collections (cantuals) of masses and church songs in Croatian and Latin were copied for the needs of two Franciscan provinces (by Filip from Kaposvár, Franjo Vukovarac, Matija Jakobović, Konrad Potočnik, and some others), and are now kept in their north-Croatian and Slavonian monasteries. There is also evidence of music at the new Jesuit colleges in Zagreb, Varaz̆din, Poz̆ega, Rijeka, Dubrovnik, and elsewhere, but the revival of the art among the nobility, gentry, and urban middle class had to await the withdrawal of the Ottomans (1683–1739) and the subsequent economic recovery.
Music theory was apparently of less concern than it had been in the 16th century, but some treatises survive, including the Asserta musicalia (1656) and Novum instrumentum Ad cantus mira facilitate componendos (1658), along with some music manuscripts preserved in Moscow, of the pan-Slavonic visionary Juraj Kriz̆anić (Crisanius) and the Dialogo per imparare con brevità a cantar canto figurato (1619) of Giorgio Alberti of Split. Gjuro Baglivi, the most famous physician of Dubrovnik but active in Rome, published several texts in the 1690s and 1700s, including De anatome, morsu & effectibus tarantulae, treating the therapeutic properties of music, and Krsto Ivanović of Budva, author of the first printed history of Venetian opera (Minerva al tavolino, Venice, 1681), was almost certainly of Croatian origin. Dictionaries from this period, by Jacobus Micaglia (1649–51), Juraj Habdelić (1670), Ivan Belostenec (1670–75; published in 1740), Ardelio Della Bella (1728), and Andrija Jambrešić (1742) include entries in three Croatian dialects for approximately 1300 musical terms.
Among composers working abroad, Ivan Šibenc̆anin (Giovanni Sebenico), probably from Šibenik, studied with Legrenzi, worked at the Chapel Royal of Charles II, and had at least three operas staged in Turin and Venice between 1673 and 1692: L’Atalanta, L’Oppresso sollerato, and Leonida in Sparta (all lost).
Although no opera production is known to have existed in Croatian lands during the Baroque era, their performances started during the 1720s in towns along the Adriatic coast and especially in Dubrovnik, given by Italian itinerary companies. However, stage music continued to be produced and performed in Dubrovnik following the earlier Renaissance tradition. Thus in 1629 it has been noted that a local company of ‘Ispraznijeh’ performed music for staging the Atalanta by Junije Palmotić (Palmotta), in which vocal and instrumental parts were composed by Lambert Courtoys the Younger, a member of the third generation of the French Courtoys family of musicians in Rector’s service. There exists evidence that this type of stage music was composed up to the 1660s for stage works by other Dubrovnik writers such as Ivan Gundulić (Giovanni Gondola), Šiško Gundulić (Sigismondo Gondola), and Bartol Kašić (Cassius), but all have been lost. The impetus for this production might have come from the Ragusan poet Paskoje Primović’s translation into Croatian of O. Rinuccini’s libretto of Euridice in 1617.
During the 18th century the centre of musical life gradually shifted to the northern, interior part of the country, though the coastal regions continued to give birth to remarkable composers. From around 1750 to 1820 Croatian musical culture was marked by two features: the activity of several circles of composers in Split, Dubrovnik, and Varaz̆din, and a keen interest in instrumental music, composed mostly by musicians living abroad. In Split, Benedetto Pellizzari, Julije (Giulio) Bajamonti, Ante Alberti, Ivan Jeličić, Agostino Galasso, and Marco and Giuseppe Lamperini were maestri di cappella and/or organists at the cathedral, and in Varaz̆din Ivan Werner, Leopold Ebner, and occasionally Johann Baptist Vanhal served parish and monastic churches. Among them the most important was Bajamonti, active also in Hvar, the author of the first Croatian oratorio La traslazione di S. Doimo and compiler of the first Croatian music dictionary, left in manuscript. Composers in Dubrovnik, though, were traditionally closer to secular authorities and so produced more instrumental chamber music than was usual at this time in Croatia; those concerned include Tommaso Resti, Angiolo Maria Frezza, Giuseppe Zaboglio, Juraj Kraljić, Angelo Bonifazi, and Juraj Murat. Specially important were several members of the aristocratic Sorkoc̆ević (Sorgo) family: in 1754 Luka, then 20, wrote nine fine symphonies and two ouvertures; his son Antun, the last ambassador of the Republic of Dubrovnik to Paris, composed both vocal (romanza, Tantum ergo, Dixit Dominus) and instrumental music (symphonies, sonatas, string quartet); and Elena di Pozza-Sorgo, otherwise a poet and painter, wrote some early Romantic songs.
Other major figures worked abroad, and included the Split nobleman Stjepan (Stephano) N. detto Spadina, author of sonatas, Ivan Jarnović (Giovanni Giornovichi), of probably Croatian origin, a famous traveller and violin virtuoso whose works include at least 22 violin concertos and much chamber music, and Josip Mihovil (Giuseppe Michele) Stratico, first violinist of the Tartini orchestra in Padua, who left more than 60 violin concertos, 30 symphonies, and about 150 trio sonatas. Towards the end of the 18th century the Croatian aristocracy, now risen again to relative prosperity and joined by foreign nobility settled in the recently reconquered province of Slavonia, enjoyed a last period of glory. This was reflected musically in the presence at the courts of Patac̆ić, Dras̆ković, Erdödy, and Prandau, among others, in Novi Marof, Varaždin, Osijek, Valpovo, and elsewhere, of such musicians as Michael Haydn, Vanhal, and Dittersdorf.
The founder of the neo-Venetian-Dalmatian organ-building school, Petar Nakić (Pietro Nacchini), was of Croatian descent, building both himself and within his workshop up to the 1760s at least some 300 instruments, mostly in northern Italy, but also in Istria and Dalmatia, those recently restored in the Franciscan monastery in Šibenik being among the best on the eastern Adriatic shores.
In this period also interest first arose, inspired by Enlightenment tendencies, in native non-urban music in the Dalmatian hinterland. Thus J. Bajamonti collected several folk songs from neighbouring Bosnia and his fellow ethnographer and traveller, the Italian abbate Alberto Fortis, published in 1774 the Viaggio in Dalmazia with reports on music, poetry, dances, musical instruments, singing, and musical usages of the ‘Morlacchi’ inhabitants in the interior of Dalmatia.
During the period of Classicism operatic performances were intensified in the towns of Rijeka, Zadar, Split, and Dubrovnik, starting also in the 1780s in Zagreb and Varaždin, all by foreign (Italian or Austrian) opera companies. Special theatre buildings used for presenting operas existed in Rijeka from 1765 and in Zadar from 1783, while adapted theatre facilities existed even from earlier times in Dubrovnik, Split, Šibenik, and Hvar. To these can be added the military theatre in Osijek and several small castle theatres of the Slavonian nobility.
Owing to the Allgemeine Schulordnung (General School Regulations) decreed by the Empress Maria Theresa in 1774, in Zagreb a specialized music school within the Normalschule was opened in 1788, with Johann Pleyel, Ignaz’s brother, as its first music teacher. Soon afterwards other music schools of the type followed, notably in Rijeka (1789), Karlovac (1804), Križevci (1813), and Donji Miholjac (1834).
Writings on music declined when compared with previous achievements, dealing mostly with practical aspects of church (Fundamentum cantus gregoriani by Michael Sillobod-Bolšić) or instrumental music (Introduzine armonica by Paolo Serra, now lost), with only pale traces of more modern scholarly approaches (Il medico e la musica by J. Bajamonti and Sono campanarum promoveri potius, quam prohiberi, prolusio by Josip Franjo Domin).
The spirit of the 18th century lasted well into the 19th; after the Zagreb bishop Vrhovac organized performances of monumental sacral works by Haydn and Mozart in the 1810s and early 20s, and after J.N. Hummel’s Zagreb guest-appearance in 1815, solid foundations for concert life and further specialized musical education were laid with the foundation of a Musikverein in Zagreb (1827), and to a lesser extent in Varaz̆din (1827) and in Osijek (1830). In addition, ‘Philharmonic societies’ as civil organizations for promoting music-making were organized in Krk (1830s), Zadar (1858), and Split (1881). The early Romantic era coincided with a national revival, the Illyrian movement (1835–48), though music benefitted less than literature and political thought. Composers of the Illyrian period (Ferdo Wiesner-Livadić, Ivan Padovec, Josip Runjanin, Ferdo Rusan, Franjo Pokorny, Mijo Hajko, Fortunat Pintarić, and others) concentrated on patriotic songs, whose aesthetic value is often inversely proportional to their political commitment and success at the time: these composers strove in their vocal output for music based on folksong, but failed because they had insufficient knowledge of folklore and were technically inadequate. However, some of their instrumental compositions such as guitar variations and phantasies by the guitar virtuoso Padovec, piano miniatures (an early F♯ minor Nocturno from 1822) by Livadić, and organ and piano pieces by the self-taught Franciscan organist Pintarić still remain parts of the concert programmes of today’s Croatian performers. More important than any other Illyrian was Vatroslav Lisinski (1819–54), the tragic figure of Croatian Romanticism, who was harrassed throughout his short life by the pro-Habsburg establishment in Zagreb and had no opportunity to develop his exceptional talent – though he did compose the first Croatian opera (Ljubav i zloba, ‘Love and Malice’, staged 1846), in addition to songs, choral pieces, and piano and orchestral music, for which he was nick-named the ‘father of modern Croatian music’ (Andreis).
During the ensuing creative lull (c1850–70), occasioned by the unfavourable social climate resulting from the post-1848 Habsburg oppression, musical life was restructured. Singing societies were established in Karlovac (Zora, 1858) and Zagreb (Kolo, 1862), and the Zagreb Musikverein came under state support (first Croaticized in 1851 as the Društvo prijatelja glazbe u Hrvatskoj i Slavoniji) in 1861 as the Narodni Zemaljski Glazbeni Zavod. Also, the first Croatian biographical lexicon Slovnik umjetnikah jugoslavenskih [Lexicon of South-Slavic artists] by Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, published in Zagreb in 1858, included among more than 600 biographies some 60 on mostly Croatian musicians, including yet unknown composers, music theorists, printers, organists and other performers, bell-founders, etc.
The late Romantic period was dominated by the composer Ivan Zajc (1832–1914) and the musicologist Franjo Ksaver Kuhac̆ (1834–1911). Trained in Italy, Zajc arrived in Zagreb in 1870 after a successful career as an operetta composer in Vienna to become both the first director of the newly founded Croatian National Opera (1870–89) and director of the Glazbeni Zavod music school (1870–1904). He left a large output in all genres, more than 1100 compositions in all: some 190 songs, more than 500 choruses for different settings, some 50 cantatas, 90 piano pieces, some 30 chamber and 80 orchestral pieces, some 150 church music compositions, etc. But most important were his numerous stage works (19 operas, 26 operettas, incidental music for some 30 stage musics), among which his masterpiece, the opera Nikola Šubić Zrinjski, is an emblem of Croatian patriotism. Other composers of this period – Antun Schwartz, Gjuro Eisenhuth, Ante Stöhr, Vilko Novak, Antun Vancaš, Vatroslav Kolander – were outshone.
Franjo Ksaver Kuhac̆, the founder of Croatian musicology and musical historiography, provided a solid basis both for ethnomusicology in the country and for the national style in art music cultivated by composers in the 1920s and 30s. His scholarly output is respectable both in scope and profile: among some 200 published texts (books and articles) most important are those covering the fields of music history (art and folk music history, instruments), theory and aesthetics of music (acoustics, music terminology, forms, rhythm, and melody), biographies of musicians, and histories of towns, countries, music institutions, and journals. Most influential were his collection in four volumes Južno-slovjenske narodne popievke (Chansons nationales des Slaves du sud) (1878–81), his books on 19th-century music history Vatroslav Lisinski i njegovo doba (‘Vatroslav Lisinski and his time’, 1881) and Ilirski glazbenici (‘Illyrian musicians’, 1893), and his late writings ‘Osebine narodne glasbe, naročito hrvatske’ (‘Characteristics of folk music, especially Croatian’, 1905–9).
5. 20th century.
The 20th century was an extraordinary period of increasing professionalism and creative diversity, with radical turning points in 1916 and 1961. Compensation for the lack of a mature musical nationalism in the 19th century, and a counterbalance to Zajc’s rather bland internationalism, came in the work of a well-trained generation of composers born in the 1870s and 80s, some inclining to late Romanticism and modernism (Blagoje Bersa, Franjo Dugan, Vjekoslav Rosenberg-Ružić, Fran Lhotka, Josip Hatze, Dora Pejac̆ević, Franjo Lučić), some to the use of folklore (Antun Dobronić, Ivan Matetić-Ronjgov, Krsto Odak, Boz̆idar Širola). These two streams persisted until the 1960s, represented by such later composers as Krešimir Baranović, Jakov Gotovac, Rudolf Matz, Zlatko Grgošević, Ivo Tijardović, Ivan Brkanović, Ivan Matetić-Ronjgov, Slavko Zlatić, Ivo Lhotka-Kalinski, and Miroslav Miletić (folklore idioms), and Boz̆idar Kunc and Ivo Parać (international styles). Special cases of combining modernism and neofolklore were Josip Štolcer Slavenski, Boris Papandopulo, and Petar Bergamo. A small group of composers active after the Communist seizing of power in 1945 adhered ideologically and aesthetically to socialist realism (Nikola Hercigonja, Slivije Bombardelli, Ivo Kirigin), while the Marxist-oriented musicologist Pavao Markovac was killed in 1941.
After the first Zagreb Biennale for Contemporary Music (1961) came a period of pluralism and innovations. Some composers never abandoned traditional or extended tonality (Papandopulo, Brkanović, Stjepan Šulek, Bruno Bjelinski, Ivana Lang, Anđelko Klobučar, Pavle Dešpalj, Josip Magdić, Zoran Juranić), others began to evolve (Milo Cipra, Natko Devc̆ić, Branimir Sakac̆, Krešimir Fribec, Adalbert Marković), and still others were immediately associated with the radical avant garde (Milko Kelemen, active in Germany, Ivo Malec, working in France, Stanko Horvat, Ruben Radica, Bogdan Gagić, Dubravko Detoni, Igor Kuljerić, Silvio Foretić, working in Germany, Davorin Kempf), although some of them later adopted compromises with postmodernist trends.
Composers born between the 1940s and 1960s were already educated within the avant-garde atmosphere and introduced a postmodern sensibility; they include Marko Ruz̆djak, Frano Parać, Ivo Josipović, Berislav Šipuš, and Mladen Tarbuk.
The younger generation born after 1970 has freely surfed through all types of postmodernism, some of them also trying themselves in various genres of stage music or electronic music, their compositions being often performed at the Zagreb Biennale. Those who gained recognition on the national (some of them also on the international) level include members of the previous generation, Zlatko Tanodi and Tomislav Uhlik, and then from the later generation Srđan Dedić, Srećko Bradić, Dalibor Bukvić, Krešimir Seletković, Vjekoslav Nježić, Ante Knešaurek, Frano Đurović, and Tomislav Oliver (all active in Zagreb, mostly as teachers of music theory at the Academy of Music), Olja Jelaska active in Split, Sanda Majurec and Sanja Drakulić active in Osijek, and Davor Bobić active in Varaždin.
Outstanding performers have included the singers Milka Trnina, Zinka Milanov, Sena Jurinac, Tomislav Neralić, Vladimir Ruždjak, Ruža Pospiš-Baldani, Dunja Vejzović, and Renata Pokupić; the conductor Lovro von Matac̆ić; the cellists Antonio Janigro (Italian-born) and Valter Dešpalj; the pianists Melita Lorković, Vladimir Krpan, Pavica Gvozdić, and Ivo Pogorelich; the bassoon player Rudolf Klepač; the violinist Zlatko Baloković; the horn player Radovan Vlatković, and others. Among teachers have been Blagoje Bersa and Stjepan Šulek (composition),Václav Huml (violin), Svetislav Stanc̆ić, Ivo Maček, Ladislav Šaban, Darko Lukić, and Ranko Filjak (piano), Rudolf Matz and Valter Dešpalj (violoncello), Marija Borčić (voice), Prerad Detiček (horn). and Darko Petrinjak and István Römer (guitar).
The country has four opera houses (in Zagreb, Split, Osijek, and Rijeka) and one theatre specialized for operetta and musicals in Zagreb, several symphony and chamber orchestras (notably in Zagreb, Dubrovnik, Varaždin, and Rijeka), numerous choirs, etc. Croatia has been said to be a country of festivals. Dozens of them are regularly organized on a yearly basis, especially during summer months in towns and townships along the Adriatic coast, the best being the internationally known Dubrovačke ljetne igre (‘Dubrovnik summer festival’), the Zagreb Biennale of contemporary music, and Varaždinske barokne večeri (‘Varaždin Baroque evenings’). Other locations with recognized festivals are Split, Zadar, Šibenik, Rijeka, Opatija, and Osijek.
Musicological research and publications started already in the 19th century with Franjo Ksaver Kuhač, Vjenceslav Novak, and Vjekoslav Klaić. Croatian musicologists since Kuhac̆ have worked mostly on national historico-musicological issues (Boz̆idar Širola, Josip Andreis, Hubert Pettan, Lovro Z̆upanović, Zoran Hudovsky, Albe Vidaković, Krešimir Kovačević, Ladislav Šaban, Marijan Grgić, Dubravka Franković, Koraljka Kos, Miho Demović, Mirjana Škunca, Eva Sedak, Stanislav Tuksar, Miljenko Grgić, Sanja Majer-Bobetko, Vjera Katalinić, Zdravko Blažeković, Ennio Stipčević, Hana Breko Kustura, and others), and to a lesser extent on systematic-musicological issues (Nikša Gligo, Dalibor Davidović). Some have received international recognition (Dragan Plamenac, Ivo Supic̆ić, Bojan Bujić, Katarina Livljanić). University courses in musicology started in Zagreb with D. Plamenac in the early 1930s and continued with J. Andreis in 1948–70; the modern musicological chair at the Academy of Music of the Zagreb University was organized in 1970. The Croatian Musicological Society was founded in 1992 with Ivo Supičić as its first president. With rich publication activities, mostly in Zagreb, several musicological journals are published, with the International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music and Arti musices as the leading ones.
- F.Ks. Kuhač: Vatroslav Lisinski i njegovo doba [Vatroslav Lisinski and his time] (Zagreb, 1881; Zagreb, 2/1904)
- F.Ks. Kuhac̆: Ilirski glasbenici: prilozi za poviest hrvatskoga preporoda [Illyrian musicians: contributions to the history of the Croatian Renaissance] (Zagreb, 1893/R)
- M. Ogrizović: Hrvatska opera 1870–1920 [Croatian opera, 1870–1920] (Zagreb, 1920)
- A. Goglia: Komorna muzika u Zagrebu [Chamber music in Zagreb], Sv. Cecilija (Zagreb, 1930)
- A. Goglia: Orkestralna muzika u Zagrebu [Orchestral music in Zagreb], Sv. Cecilija (Zagreb, 1935)
- D. Plamenac: ‘Toma Cecchini, kapelnik stolnih crkava u Splitu i Hvaru u prvoj polovini XVII stoljeća: Bio-bibliografska studija’ [Toma Cecchini, maestro di cappella of cathedrals in Split and Hvar in the first half of the 17th century: a bio-bibliographical study], Rad JAZU, no.262 (Zagreb, 1938), 77–125
- B. Širola: Hrvatska umjetnička glazba [Croatian art music] (Zagreb, 1942)
- A. Vidaković: Crkvena glazba u zagrebačkoj stolnoj crkvi u XIX. vijeku [Church music in the Zagreb cathedral in the 19th century] (Zagreb, 1945)
- H. Pettan: Popis skladbi Ivana Zajca [List of compositions by Ivan Zajc] (Zagreb, 1956)
- A. Vidaković: ‘Vinko Jelić (1596.–1636.?) i njegova zbirka duhovnih koncerata i ricercara “Parnassia militia” (1622.)’ [Vinko Jelić (1596–1636)? and his collection of concertos and ricercars ‘Parnassia militia’ (1622)], Vinko Jelić, Parnassia militia (Zagreb, 1957), 7–44
- K. Kovačević: Hrvatski kompozitori i njihova djela [Croatian composers and their works] (Zagreb, 1960)
- L. Šaban: ‘Suvremeni prikaz pogibije Zrinjskog i Frankopana u muzici za čembalo’ [Contemporary presentation of the execution of Zrinski and Frankopan in the music for harpsichord], Zvuk, 61 (1963), 22–37
- M. Velimirović: ‘Giovanni Sebenico: Prispevek k biografiji’ [Giovanni Sebenico: a contribution to biography], Muzikološki zbornik, 1 (1965), 49–58
- A. Vidaković: ‘Asserta musicalia Jurja Križanića i njegovi ostali radovi s područja glazbe’ [Asserta musicalia by Juraj Križanić and his other works on music], Rad JAZU, no.337 (Zagreb, 1965), 41–159
- K. Kovačević: Muzičko stvaralaštvo u Hrvatskoj 1945–1965 [Music works in Croatia, 1945–1965] (Zagreb, 1966)
- Z. Hudovsky: ‘Razvoj muzičke kulture u Zagrebu od XI. do konca XVII. stoljeća’ [The development of musical culture in Zagreb from the 11th century to the end of the 17th], Rad JAZU, no.351 (1969), 5–62 [with Ger. summary]
- H. Pettan: Hrvatska opera. Zajčevi suvremenici I (Eisenhuth, Vilhar-Kalski, V. Bersa) [Croatian opera. Zajc’s contemporaries (Eisenhuth, Vilhar-Kalski, V. Bersa)] (Zagreb, 1969)
- D. Plamenac: ‘Tragom Ivana Lukačića i njegovih suvremenika’ [On the trail of Ivan Lukačić and some of his contemporaries], Rad JAZU, no.351 (Zagreb, 1969), 63–90 [with Eng. summary]
- L. Šaban: ‘Glazbenici u 13. stoljeću u sjevernoj Hrvatskoj’ [Musicians in the 13th century in northern Croatia], Rad JAZU, no.351 (1969), 271–86 [with Ger. summary]
- I. Supičić: ‘Estetski pogledi u novijoj hrvatskoj muzici: Pregled temeljnih gledanja četrnaestorice kompozitora’ [Aesthetic approaches in contemporary Croatian music: a survey of the basic views of 14 composers], Arti musices, 1 (1969), 23–61 [with Eng. summary]
- L. Županović: Vatroslav Lisinski (1819-1854): Život—djelo—značenje [Vatroslav Lisinski (1819-1854): life—work—importance] (Zagreb, 1969) [with Eng. summary]
- Ma. Grgić: ‘Glazbena djelatnost u Hrvatskoj u 11. stoljeću’ [Musical activities in Croatia in the 11th century], Zadarska revija, 19 (1970), 125–32
- K. Kos: ‘The Depiction of Musical Instruments in Mediaeval Istrian Mural Paintings’, Arti musices, 1 (1970), 77–95 [special issue]
- J. Bezić and K. Kos: ‘Prilog problematici folklornog i nacionalnog u opusu Vatroslava Lisinskog’ [A contribution to the problems of folk music elements in the works of Vatroslav Lisinski], Arti musices, 2 (1971), 121–30 [with Eng. summary]
- B. Ivančević: ‘Kajkavske pjesmarice XVII stoljeća’ [Kajkavian song books of the 17th century], Zbornik za narodni život i običaje, 44 (Zagreb, 1971), 247–82
- Z. Kapko: ‘Život i rad Dragutina Turanyija’ [The life and work of Dragutin Turanyi], Arti musices, 2 (1971), 81–110 [with Eng. summary]
- K. Filić: Glazbeni život Varaždina [The musical life of Varaždin] (Varaždin, 1972)
- K. Kos: Musikinstrumente im mittelalterlichen Kroatien (Zagreb, 1972)
- K. Kos: ‘Volkstümliche Züge in der Kirchenmusik Nordkroatiens im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert’, Musica Antiqua Europae Orientalis, iii (Bydgoszcz, 1972), 267–92
- L. Šaban: ‘Glazba u dvorovima Draškovića u 18. stoljeću’ [Music at the courts of Drašković family in the 18th century], Kaj, 12 (1972), 32–9
- L. Šaban: Sto godina opere 1870/71–1970/71 [One hundred years of opera, 1870/71–1970/71] (Zagreb, 1972)
- L. Šaban: ‘Umjetnost i djela graditelja Petra Nakića u Dalmaciji i Istri’ [The art and works of the organ-builder Petar Nakić], Arti musices, 4 (1973), 5–45 [with Eng. summary]
- J. Andreis: Music in Croatia (Zagreb, 1974, enlarged 2/1982)
- P. Selem: ‘Nova hrvatska glazba’ [New Croatian music], Novi zvuk, ed. P. Selem (Zagreb, 1972), 217–41
- K. Kos: ‘Luka Sorkočević i njegov doprinos pretklasičnoj instrumentalnoj muzici’ [Luka Sorkočević and his constribution to the Pre-classical instrumental music], Arti musices, 5 (1974), 67–93 [with Eng. summary]
- I. Bošković: ‘Nepoznati splitski orguljaši XVII i XVIII stoljeća’ [Unknown organists in Split in the 17th and 18th centuries], Arti musices, 6 (1975), 85–98 [with Eng. summary]
- K. Kos: ‘Geschichte, Stand und Perspektiven der Forschungen zur mittelalterlichen Kirchenmusik in Kroatien’, IRASM, 6 (1975), 289–306
- B. Bujić: ‘An Early Croat Translation of Rinuccini’s Euridice’, Muzikološki zbornik, 12 (1976), 16–30
- D. Franković: ‘Uloga ilirske štampe u muzičkom životu Hrvatske od 1835. do 1849’ [The role of the Illyrian press in the musical life of Croatia, 1835–49], Arti musices, 7 (1976), 61–99; 8/1 (1977), 5–54 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- K. Kos: ‘Začeci nove hrvatske muzike: Poticaj za revalorizaciju stvaralaštva zapostavljene generacije hrvatskih skladatelja’ [The beginnings of new Croatian music: an attempt at revalorization of works by a neglected generation of Croatian composers], Arti musices, 7 (1976), 25–39 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- N. Gligo: ‘Estetičke tendencije u razvoju hrvatske nove glazbe’ [Aesthetical tendencies in the development of Croatian new music], Vrijeme glazbe (Zagreb, 1977), 61–79
- F. Bilić: ‘Povijesno značenje arhivskih zbirki Hrvatskog glazbenog zavoda’ [The historical significance of the archival collections of the Croatian Music Institute], Arti musices, 9/1–2 (1978), 107–15 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- K. Kos: ‘Madrigali A. Patricija i J. Skjavetića u svom vremenu. Prilog analizi njihova stila’ [Madrigals of A. Patricia and J. Skjavetic in their time. Contribution to the analysis of their style], Rad JAZU, no.377 (1978), 277–314 [with Ger. summary]
- K. Kos: ‘Razdoblje Vjekoslava Klaića 1890–1920’ [The period of Vjekoslav Klaić, 1890–1920], Arti musices, 9/1–2 (1978), 81–106 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- H. Pettan: ‘Djelovanje Ivana Zajca u Hrvatskom glazbenom zavodu’ [Ivan Zajc’s work in the Croatian Music Institute], Arti musices, 9/1–2 (1978), 53–70 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- L. Šaban: ‘Glazbene mogućnosti Varaždina u 18. i prvoj polovici 19. stoljeća’ [On the musical resources of Varaždin in the 18th and early 19th centuries], Rad JAZU, no.377 (Zagreb, 1978), 129–94 [with Ger. summary]
- S. Tuksar: Hrvatski renesansni teoretičari glazbe [Croatian Renaissance music theorists] (Zagreb, 1978; Eng. trans., 1980)
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Ivan Mane Jarnović, Hrvatski skladatelj [Ivan Mane Jarnović, a Croatian composer] (Zagreb-Osor, 1978–80)
- S. Majer-Bobetko: Estetika glazbe u Hrvatskoj u 19. stoljeću [Aesthetics of music in Croatia in the 19th century] (Zagreb, 1979)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Musique et politique à Dubrovnik à l’époque de Renaissance’, IRASM, 10/1 (1979), 99–111
- J. Belamarić: ‘Metastasijevi stihovi u skladbama iz glazbenog arhiva splitske katedrale’ [Metastasio’s verses in compositions kept in the musical archives of the Split cathedral], Arti musices, 11/2 (1980), 157–201 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- N. Gligo: ‘Vokalnost u opusu Natka Devčića I-II’ [Vocality in Natko Devčić’s opus, I-II], Arti musices, 11/2 (1980), 117–56; 12/1 (1981), 3–36 [with Eng. and Ger. summaries]
- K. Kos: ‘Dora Pejačević – Karl Kraus: Kontakti, poticaji’ [Dora Pejačević – Karl Kraus: Contacts, incentives], Rad JAZU, no.385 (Zagreb, 1980), 161–70 [with Ger. summary]
- L. Šaban: ‘Glazbena kultura u varaždinskoj okolici u 17. i 18. stoljeću’ [Musical culture in the Varaždin surroundings in the 17th and 18th centuries], Glazbena baština naroda i narodnosti Jugoslavije od 16. do 19. stoljeća, i (Zagreb-Varaždin, 1980), 23–50
- L. Županović: Stoljeća hrvatske glazbe [Centuries of Croatian music] (Zagreb, 1980; Eng. trans., 1984–7)
- M. Demović: Glazba i glazbenici u Dubrovačkoj Republici od početka XI. do polovine XVII. stoljeća [Music and musicians in the Republic of Dubrovnik from the beginning of the 11th until the mid-17th century] (Zagreb, 1981)
- I. Golub: Juraj Križanić, glazbeni teoretik 17. stoljeća [Juraj Križanić, a music theorician of the 17th century] (Zagreb, 1981)
- K. Kos, ed.: Muzička akademija u Zagrebu 1921–1981. Spomenica u povodu 60. godišnjice osnutka [The 60th anniversary of the Zagreb Academy of Music, 1921–1981] (Zagreb, 1981) [with Eng. and Ger. summaries]
- V. Fajdetić: Franjo Krežma, hrvatski violinski virtuoz XIX stoljeća u svom i našem vremenu [Franjo Krežma, the Croatian 19th-century violin virtuoso in his and our time] (Osijek, 1982)
- K. Kos: Dora Pejačević: Život i djelo [Dora Pejačević: life and work] (Zagreb, 1982)
- K. Kos: ‘Style and Sociological Background of Croatian Renaissance’, IRASM, 11 (1982), 55–82
- S. Lipovčan, ed.: Josip Hatze: Hrvatski skladatelj [Josip Hatze: a Croatian composer] (Zagreb, 1982)
- L. Šaban: 150 godina Hrvatskog glazbenog zavoda [150 years of the Croatian Music Institute] (Zagreb, 1982) [with Ger. summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘Musico-Theoretical Fragments by Two Medieval Scholars: Herman Dalmatinac and Petar Pavao Vergerije, Sr.’, IRASM, 13/1 (1982), 93–106
- L. Županović, ed.: Zbornik radova sa znanstvenog skupa održanog u povodu 150. obljetnice rođenja Ivana Zajca, 1832–1914 [Proceedings of the scholarly conference held on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Ivan Zajc, 1832–1914] (Zagreb, 1982)
- Ma. Grgić: ‘Pregled glazbenog života u srednjovjekovnom Zadru’ [A survey of musical life in medieval Zadar], Muzičke večeri u Donatu. Zbornik radova (Zagreb-Zadar, 1983), 9–16
- K. Kos: ‘Luka Sorkočević and his Place in Croatian and European Music of the 18th Century’, Luka i Antun Sorkočević. Hrvatski skladatelji (Zagreb-Osor, 1983), 135–48
- H. Pettan: Hrvatska opera: Ivan Zajc II. [Croatian opera: Ivan Zajc II] (Zagreb, 1983)
- D. Plamenac: ‘Hvaranin Damjan Nembri (1584-oko 1648) i njegovi Večernji psalmi’ [Damian Nembri of Hvar (1584–c1648) and his vesper psalms], Arti musices, 14/1 (1983), 5–13 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Luka i Antun Sorkočević: Hrvatski skladatelji [Luka and Antun Sorkočević: Croatian composers] (Zagreb-Osor, 1983)
- J. Bezić, ed.: Zbornik radova sa znanstvenog skupa održanog u povodu 150. obljetnice rođenja Franje Ksavera Kuhača, 1834–1911 [Proceedings of the scholarly conference held on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Franjo Ksaver Kuhač, 1834–1911] (Zagreb, 1984)
- N. Gligo: ‘Suvremeno hrvatsko pjesništvo i njegova glazba (Ivo Malec/Radovan Ivšić, Bogdan Gagić/Slavko Mihalić, Željko Brkanović/Šime Vučetić)’ [Contemporary Croatian poetry and its music], Arti musices, 15/2 (1984), 133–69 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- E. Sedak: Josip Štolcer Slavenski (Zagreb, 1984)
- M. Škunca: ‘Glazba u Slavjanskoj narodnoj čitaonici u Splitu u razdoblju Narodnog preporoda (1860–1882)’ [Music in the Slavic national reading room in Split during the National Revival period (1860–1882)], Arti musices, 15/1 (1984), 37–66 [summaries in Eng., Ger.]
- N. Gligo: Varijacije razvojnog kontinuiteta: skladatelj Natko Devčić [Variations of developmental continuity: composer Natko Devčić] (Zagreb, 1985) [with Ger. summary]
- V. Katalinić: ‘Glazbeni arhiv samostana Male braće u Dubrovniku. Rani rukopisi od početka 18. stoljeća do oko 1820’ [Music archives of the Franciscan monastery in Dubrovnik: early manuscripts from the beginning of the 18th century to c1820], ed. Justin Velnić, Samostan Male braće u Dubrovniku (Zagreb-Dubrovnik, 1985), 623–64 [with Eng. summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘Glazbeni arhiv samostana Male braće u Dubrovniku. Opći pregled fonda i popis ranih tiskovina’ [Music archives of the Franciscan monastery in Dubrovnik: a general survey and the list of early prints], Samostan Male braće u Dubrovniku, ed. Justin Velnić (Zagreb-Dubrovnik, 1985), 665–773 [with Eng. summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘New Musical Sources in Croatia (Yugoslavia)’, AcM, 57/1 (1985), 121–38
- S. Tuksar: ‘Imprimées musicaux Européens anciens et rares dans les archives croates’, Les Croates et la civilisation du livre (Paris, 1986), 67–74
- K. Kos: Dora Pejačević: Leben und Werk (Zagreb, 1987)
- S. Tuksar: ‘On Early Reports about Turkish Music Culture in the Writings of some Late-Renaissance Humanists’, XIV Congresso della Società internazionale di musicologia, iii (Ferrara-Parma, 1987), 17–26
- L. Županović: ‘Mjesto i značenje Ivana Marka Lukačića u hrvatskoj i inozemnoj glazbi njegova vremena i danas’ [Place and importance of Ivan Marko Lukačić in Croatian and foreign music in his time and today], Lukačić: Zbornik radova znanstvenog skupa održanog u povodu 400. obljetnice rođenja Ivana Marka Lukačića (Zagreb, 1987), 134–52
- Z. Blažeković: Katalozi muzikalija u Historijskom arhivu i Muzeju grada Dubrovnika/Catalogues of Music Manuscripts and Prints in the Historical Archives and the Museum of the City of Dubrovnik (Zagreb, 1988)
- D. Franković: ‘O muzici u Slovniku umjetnikah jugoslavenskih Ivana Kukuljevića Sakcinskog’ [On music in the dictionary of Yugoslav artists by Ivan Kukuljevic Sakcinski], Rad JAZU, no.409 (1988), 255–83 (with French summary)
- M. Demović: Glazba i glazbenici u Dubrovačkoj Republici od polovine XVII. do prvog desetljeća XIX. stoljeća [Music and musicians in the Republic of Dubrovnik from the mid-17th century until the first decade of the 19th century] (Zagreb, 1989)
- V. Katalinić: ‘Pregled izvora o glazbenoj kulturi baroknog razdoblja na tlu SR Hrvatske’ [A survey of sources on Baroque musical culture in Croatia], Glazbeni barok u Hrvatskoj, ed. E. Stipčević (Osor, 1989), 20–47
- F.Ks. Kuhač: Korespondencija I/1 and I/2 [Correspondence], ed. L. Šaban (Zagreb, 1989–92)
- E. Stipčević: Glazbeni barok u Hrvatskoj [Musical Baroque in Croatia] (Osor, 1989)
- S. Tuksar: Katalog muzikalija u Muzeju grada Splita/Catalogue of Music Manuscripts and Prints in the City Museum of Split (Zagreb, 1989)
- I. Cavallini: Musica, cultura e spettacolo in Istria tra ‘500 e ‘600 (Florence, 1990)
- Mi. Grgić: ‘O nastanku i razvitku glazbenog arhiva Splitske katedrale’ [On the origins and the growth of the Split cathedral musical archives], Arti musices, 21/2 (1990), 193–218 [with Eng. summary]
- R.F. Gyug: Missale Ragusinum: the Missal of Dubrovnik, Monumenta Liturgica Beneventana, i (Toronto, 1990)
- R.F. Gyug: ‘Tropes and Prosulas in Dalmatian Sources of the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries’, La tradizione dei tropi liturgici, ed. C. Leonardi and E. Menesto (Spoleto, 1990), 409–38
- V. Katalinić and S. Tuksar: ‘Dalmatia in the 16th Century and Music in its Theatre’, Il diletto della scena e dell’armonia. Teatro e musica nelle Venezie dal ‘500 al ‘700, ed. I. Cavallini (Rovigo, 1990), 71–89
- K. Kos: ‘Istok i zapad u vojnoj glazbi na turskoj granici’ [East and West in military music on the Turkish border], Arti musices, 21/2 (1990), 245–71
- N. Dubowy: ‘Un dalmata al servizio della Serenissima. Cristoforo Ivanovich, primo storico del melodrama’, Il teatro musicale del Rinascimento e del Barocco tra Venezia, regione Giulia e Dalmazia: Idee accademiche a confronto (Trieste, 1991), 21–31
- V. Katalinić: Katalog muzikalija u franjevačkom samostanu u Omišu/Catalogue of Music Manuscripts and Prints in the Franciscan Monastery in Omiš (Zagreb, 1991)
- M. Škunca: Glazbeni život Splita od 1860. to 1918 [Musical life in Split from 1860 until 1918] (Split, 1991)
- K. Kos: ‘Napjevi Pavlinskog zbornika’ [Melodies of the Pauline song book], Pavlinski zbornik, ii (Zagreb, 1992), 337–431 (with Ger. summary)
- E. Stipčević: ‘La cultura musicale in Istria e in Dalmazia nel XVI e XVII secolo: Principali caratteristiche storiche, geopolitiche e culturali’, IRASM, 23/2 (1992), 141–52
- E. Stipčević: Hrvatska glazbena kultura 17. stoljeća [Croatian music culture of the 17th century] (Split, 1992)
- S. Tuksar: Hrvatska glazbena terminologija u razdoblju baroka [Croatian music terminology in the Baroque period] (Zagreb, 1992) [with Eng. Summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘Sixteenth-Century Croatian Writers on Music: a Bridge between East and West’, Essays in Honor of Claude V. Palisca (New York, 1992), 129–42
- S. Tuksar: ‘Music Research Libraries, Archives and Collections in Croatia’, IRASM, 23/2 (1992), 119–40
- V. Katalinić: ‘Croatian Musical Culture between 1750 and 1820: a Central-European and/or Mediterranean Issue’, IRASM, 24/1 (1993), 3–12
- S. Tuksar, ed.: The Musical Baroque, Western Slavs, and the Spirit of the European Cultural Communion/Glazbeni barok i zapadni Slaveni u kontekstu europskog kulturnog zajedništva (Zagreb, 1993) [incl. K. Kos: ‘Schützove i Lukačićeve skladbe na latinske tekstove: Usporedbena analiza’ [Schütz’s and Lukačić’s compositions with Latin texts: a comparative analysis], 197–213; I. Cavallini: ‘Istraživanja o intermedijima za dramu Il S. Giovanni, vescovo di Traù Girolama Brusonija (Trogir, 1656–1658)’ [Research on intermedia for the drama Il S. Giovanni, vescovo di Traù by Girolamo Brusoni (Trogir, 1656–8)], 227–34]
- J. Andreis: ‘Prvi muzički časopisi u Hrvatskoj’ [The first musical journals in Croatia], Arti musices, 25/1–2 (1994), 173–200 [with Eng. Summary]
- I. Cavallini: I due volti di Nettuno. Studi sul teatro e musica a Venezia e in Dalmazia dal Cinquecento al Settecento (Lucca, 1994)
- S. Majer-Bobetko: Glazbena kritika na hrvatskom jeziku između dvaju svjetskih ratova [Music criticism in Croatian language between the two World Wars] (Zagreb, 1994)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Djela hrvatskih skladatelja 18. stoljeća u glazbenim zbirkama Kraljevine Švedske’ [Works by Croatian 18th-century composers in Swedish music collections], Arti musices, 25/1–2 (1994), 221–37 [with Eng. summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘The Madrigal: Destiny of a Form in Croatian Musical Culture’, Il madrigale oltre il madrigal; Como, 1994, ed. A. Colzani, A. Luppi, and M. Padoan, 49–58
- V. Katalinić, ed.: Off-Mozart: Glazbena kultura i ‘mali majstori’ srednje Europe 1750.–1820. [Off-Mozart: musical culture and the ‘Kleinmeister’ of Central Europe, 1750–1820] (Zagreb, 1995) [incl. Z. Blažeković and E. Stipčević: ‘Jakob Petrus Haibel (1762–1826) and his newly-discovered Masses from Đakovo (Croatia)’, 67–75; S. Tuksar: ‘Writers on Music in the Croatian Lands in the Period 1750–1820: a Preliminary Review of Personalities, Topics, and Social Milieus’, 167–79]
- Mi. Grgić: ‘Dr. Julije Bajamonti, glazbenik’ [‘Dr. Julije Bajamonti, musician], Splitski polihistor Julije Bajamonti (Split, 1996), 87–117
- Mi. Grgić: Glazbena kultura u splitskoj katedrali 1750.–1940. [Musical culture in the Split cathedral, 1750–1940] (Zagreb, 1996) [with Eng. summary]
- E. Sedak, ed.: Matačić (Zagreb, 1996)
- V. Juričić, ed.: Vodič kroz glazbene knjižnice i zbirke Zagreba/Guide through Music Libraries and Collections in Zagreb (Zagreb, 1997)
- V. Katalinić: ‘Ideja sakupljanja muzikalija 1780.–1835.: jedan od temeljnih aspekata hrvatske glazbene kulture’ [The idea of collecting music, 1780–1835: one of the basic aspects of Croatian music culture], Dani hvarskog kazališta. Hrvatska književnost uoči preporoda (Split, 1997), 589–97
- E. Sedak, ed.: Krsto Odak: Život i djelo [Krsto Odak: life and work] (Zagreb, 1997)
- E. Stipčević: Hrvatska glazba: Povijest hrvatske glazbe do 20. stoljeća [Croatian music: history of Croatian music until the 20th century] (Zagreb, 1997)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Djela njemačkih i austrijskih glazbenika 18. stoljeća sačuvana u Dalmaciji i Dubrovniku: Razlike i sličnosti’ [Music by 18th-century German and Austrian composers preserved in Venetian Dalmatia and Dubrovnik: differences and similarities], Arti musices, 28/1–2 (1997), 35–46 [with Eng. summary]
- A. Mežnarić: ‘Neki aspekti korištenja folklorne građe u hrvatskoj glazbi u drugoj polovici XX. stoljeća’ [Some aspects of the use of folk material in the Croatian music of the second half of the 20th century], Arti musices, 29/2 (1998), 139–208 [with Eng. summary]
- E. Stipčević: Musica incognita: Ivan Lukačić i njegovo doba [Musica incognita: Ivan Lukačić and his time] (Šibenik, 1998)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Eduard Hanslick, Franjo Ksaver Kuhač et alii and the ‘National-International’ Relationship in the Croatian Fin-de-Siècle Musical Culture’, IRASM, 29/2 (1998), 155–64
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Rani Zajc: Rijeka—Milano—Rijeka (1832.–1862.)/Early Zajc: Rijeka—Milano—Rijeka (1832–1862) (Rijeka, 1998)
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Zagreb 1094–1994: Zagreb i hrvatske zemlje kao most između srednjoeuropskih i mediteranskih glazbenih kultura [Zagreb 1094–1994: Zagreb and Croatian lands as a bridge between Central-European and Mediterranean musical cultures] (Zagreb, 1998) [incl. E. Stipčević: ‘L’umanesimo in Croazia, “gli Schiavoni” e gli inizi della stampa musicale in Europa’, 89–96; M. Di Pasquale: ‘Tommaso Cecchini’s “Sonate per gl’istrumenti, bassi, & soprano” from his opus 23 (1628)’, 105–25; V. Katalinić: ‘Ein Sammler aus dem Mittelmeerraum in Mitteleuropa: Nikola Udina/Algarotti (1791–1838) und seine Musiksammlung’, 291–7; S. Majer-Bobetko: ‘Prva hrvatska Povijest glazbe’ [The first Croatian ‘History of Music’], 337–45 [with Eng. summary]; D. Gojowy: ‘Silvio Foretić, ein kroatischer Komponist in Köln’, 359–64; K. Kos: ‘Blagoje Bersa und die Moderne unter besonderer Berücksichtigung seiner Lieder’, 391–405; E. Ostleitner: ‘Frau und Musik im mediterranen Raum dargestellt am Beispiel Luna Alcalay’, 473–85]
- V. Katalinić and Z. Blažeković, eds.: Glazba, riječi i slike. Svečani zbornik za Koraljku Kos (Zagreb, 1999) [incl. S. Tuksar: ‘Late 18th and Early 19th Century Diffusion of the First Viennese School Music in Croatian Lands: Factography and Some Socio-Cultural Aspects’, 195–209; V. Katalinić: ‘The Second Life of Julije Bajamonti (1744–1800): the Fate of Some of Bajamonti’s Compositions in Split, Salzburg and Vienna’, 211–18; R. Flotzinger: ‘Kroatisches in der Wiener Sonnleithner-Sammlung’, 219–33; W.A. Everett: ‘Sources for the Operas of Ivan Zajc in U.S. Libraries’, 273–80; E. Sedak: ‘Prilozi za temu: Začeci nove hrvatske glazbe – ili – opseg i granice hrvatske glazbene Moderne’ [Contributions to the theme: the outsets of Croatian music – or – extent and borders of the Croatian music Moderna], 305–24 [with Eng. summary]]
- R.F. Gyug: ‘From Beneventan to Gregorian Chant in Medieval Dalmatia’, Srednjovjekovne glazbene kulture na istočnoj i zapadnoj obali Jadrana do početka 15. stoljeća, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 2000), 39–53
- V. Juričić: Katalog muzikalija u Benediktinskom samostanu sv. Petra u Cresu/Catalogue of Music Manuscripts and Prints in the Benedictine Nunnery of St Peter in Cres (Zagreb, 2000)
- T.F. Kelly: ‘The Exultet in Dalmatian Manuscripts in Beneventan Script’, Srednjovjekovne glazbene kulture na istočnoj i zapadnoj obali Jadrana do početka 15. stoljeća, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 2000), 23–38
- S. Tuksar: Kratka povijest hrvatske glazbe [Short history of Croatian music] (Zagreb, 2000)
- S. Tuksar: ‘An Outline for a Chronology of the Musical Theatre in Croatia from the 12th to the 18th Century’, Zbornik ob jubileju Jožeta Sivca/Essays Presented to Jože Sivec (Ljubljana, 2000), 151–60
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Srednjovjekovne glazbene kulture Jadrana [Medieval musical cultures of the Adriatic] (Zagreb, 2000)
- A. Vildera: ‘Il breviario di Split (a. 1291) del Museo Correr di Venezia. Sule trace di un storia perduta’, Srednjovjekovne glazbene kulture na istočnoj i zapadnoj obali Jadrana do početka 15. stoljeća, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 2000), 125–78
- I. Paulus: Glazba s ekrana: Hrvatska filmska glazba [Music from the screen: Croatian film music] (Zagreb, 2002)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Le cappelle musicali in Split (Spalato) and Dubrovnik (Ragusa) in the 18th Century: Repertoires, Cultural Missions, and Social Importance’, Barocco padano 1. Atti del IX Convegno internazionale sulla musica sacra nei secoli XVII-XVIII: Brescia 1999, ed. Alberto Colzani, Andrea Luppi, and Maurizio Padoan (Como, 2002), 361–77
- L. Duraković: Pulski glazbeni život u razdoblju fašističke diktature (1926.–1943.) [Musical life in Pula during the Fascist dictatorship, 1926–1943] (Zagreb, 2003)
- S. Tuksar and V. Katalinić, eds.: Mladi Zajc/Young Zajc: Beč/Vienna (1862.–1870.) (Rijeka, 2003)
- V. Katalinić: ‘Nikola Zrinyi (1508–66) as a National Hero in 19th-Century Opera between Vienna, Berlin, Budapest, and Zagreb’, Musica e storia, 12/3 (2004), 611–30
- E. Sedak, ed.: Između moderne i avangarde: Hrvatska glazba 1910.–1960. [Between modern and avant-garde: Croatian music 1910–1960] (Zagreb, 2004)
- S. Tuksar: ‘“Die Geburt der Musik aus dem Geiste des Volkes”: the Construction of the Idea of National Music in Franjo Ksaver Kuhač’s (1834–1911) Historiography: Slavic vs. German vs. Italian’, Musica e storia, 12/3 (2004), 563–89
- S. Tuksar: ‘Music, Academies and Learned Societies in the Croatian Lands from the 16th to the 18th Centuries’, Zbornik 300 let Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensium 1701–2001 (Ljubljana, 2004), 179–93
- S. Tuksar and V. Katalinić, eds.: Glazbene kulture na Jadranu u razdoblju klasicizma [Musical cultures at the Adriatic during the Classicist era] (Zagreb, 2004)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Franciscans and the Musical Heritage of the Ancient Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik)’, Plaude turba paupercula: Franziskaner Geist in Musik, Literatur und Kunst, Konferenzbericht, ed. Ladislav Kačic (Bratislava, 2005), 257–69
- V. Katalinić: Violinski koncerti Ivana Jarnovića: Glazbeni aspekt i društveni kontekst njihova uspjeha u 18. stoljeću [Violin concertos of Ivan Jarnović: musical aspects and social context of their success in the 18th century] (Zagreb, 2006) [with Eng. summary]
- V. Katalinić and S. Majer-Bobetko, eds.: Ivan Padovec (1800–1873) i njegovo doba [Ivan Padovec (1800–1873) and his time] (Zagreb, 2006)
- K. Kos and S. Majer-Bobetko, eds.: Božidar Kunc (1903–1964): Život i djelo [Božidar Kunc (1903–64): life and work] (Zagreb, 2007)
- Z. Blažeković: ‘Implicitna kontekstualnost u glazbenoj historiografiji 19. stoljeća’ [Implicit contextuality in the 19th-century historiography of music], Glazba prijelaza: Svečani zbornik za Evu Sedak, ed. N. Gligo, D. Davidović, and N. Bezić (Zagreb, 2009), 48–54 [with Eng. summary]
- S. Majer-Bobetko, Z. Blažeković, and G. Doliner, eds.: Hrvatska glazbena historiografija u 19. stoljeću [Croatian music historiography in the 19th century] (Zagreb, 2009)
- H. Beban: ‘Dominikanski antifonarij Franjevačkog samostana na otoku Badija kod Korčule: analiza rukopisa’ [The Dominican antiphoner from the Badija Franciscan monastery near Korčula: manuscript analysis], Arti musices, 41/2 (2010), 167–86 [with Eng. summary]
- L. Duraković: Ideologija i glazbeni život: Pula 1945.–1966. [Ideology and musical life: Pula 1945–1966] (Zagreb, 2010)
- S. Tuksar: ‘Zur Musikkultur Dalmatiens zwischen dem 16. und 18. Jahrhundert’, Dalmatien als europäischer Kulturraumaum: Dalmatien als Raum europäischer Kultursynthese: Bonn 2003 und Städtische Kultur in Dalmatien: Die Genese eines europäischen Kulturraums: Bonn 2006), ed. W. Potthoff and others (Split, 2010), 567–81
- S. Tuksar: ‘The Evolution of the Idea of “National” as a Multi-Level Construct within 19th-Century Croatian Musical Culture’, Studia Musicologica, 52/1–4 (Budapest, 2011), 179–88
- N. Bezić: Glazbena topografija Zagreba od 1799. do 2010. [The musical topography of Zagreb from 1799 to 2010] (Zagreb, 2012) [with Eng. summary]
- Z. Blažeković: ‘Glazbeni repertoar u kantualima Konrada Potočnika sastavljenima za sjevernohrvatsku franjevačku Provinciju Svetog Ladislava Kralja’ [The musical repertoire in the choral books of Konrad Potočnik composed for the north-Croatian Franciscan province of St Ladislas the King], Nova nepoznata glazba: Svečani zbornik za Nikšu Gliga, ed. D. Davidović and N. Bezić (Zagreb, 2012), 249–76 [with Eng. summary]
- H. Breko Kustura: Najstarija misna knjiga srednjovjekovne Pule (11. stoljeće) [The oldest book for Mass liturgy from medieval Pula (11th century)] (Zagreb, 2012)
- R. Palić-Jelavić: ‘Ideologemi u operi Nikola Šubić Zrinjski Ivan pl. Zajca’ [The ideologemes in the opera Nikola Šubić Zrinjski by Ivan Zajc], Nova nepoznata glazba: Svečani zbornik za Nikšu Gliga, ed. D. Davidović and N. Bezić (Zagreb, 2012), 329–36 [with Eng. Summary]
- S. Tuksar: ‘Music, Reformation and Catholic Renewal in Early 17th-Century Dalmatia’, Barocco Padano: Atti del XV Convegno internazionale sulla musica italiana nei secoli XVII-XVIII, ed. A. Colzani, A. Luppi, and M. Padoan (Como, 2012), 399–412
- V. Katalinić and S. Tuksar, eds.: Franjo Ksaver Kuhač (1834.–1911.): Glazbena historiografija i identitet [Franjo Ksaver Kuhač (1834–1911): music historiography and identity] (Zagreb, 2013)
- I. Tomić Ferić: Julije Bajamonti (1744.–1800.): Glazbeni rječnik: Transkripcija, prijevod, komentari [Julije Bajamonti (1744–1800): dictionary of music: transcription, translation, comments] (Zagreb, 2013)
- V. Katalinić: Sorkočevići: dubrovački plemići i glazbenici/The Sorkočevićes: Aristocratic Musicians from Dubrovnik (Zagreb, 2014)
II. Church music.
1. Middle Ages.
- Hana Breko Kustura
Croatian medieval sources for church music belong to the group of Western plainchant manuscripts. They testify to church divisions in Croatian territory at that time.
In the southern region of Dalmatia, almost all the musical codices were influenced by Beneventan chant, notation, and script.
The most prominent Beneventan sources are the Zadar (‘Čikin časoslov’) Breviary (11th century), the Osor Evangelistary (11th century), the Kotor Lectionary (12th century), the Missale Ragusinum (13th century), the Trogir Evangelistary (13th century), and the Dubrovnik Beneventan Liturgical Manuscript of St Nicholas (14th century). The Dalmatian centers of Osor, Zadar, Trogir, Split, Dubrovnik, and Kotor continued to practice Beneventan chant until the end of the 13th century. The main reason behind the long-standing use of Beneventan chant in Dalmatia is that in these regions the chant came to symbolize the striving of Dalmatian cities for an independent church as against the territorial aspirations of Venice and Norman Italy.
From the 9th century on, Croats in the shoreline parts of Croatia (i.e. from Istria to Dubrovnik) practised a church singing style transmitted orally called Glagolitic singing (see Glagolitic Mass, Glagolitic chant). This phenomenon is based on the Roman rite practised in the Slavonic language.
The Latin chant sources from northern Croatia represent the manuscripts from the Zagreb diocese. The Zagreb bishopric was established in 1094 by the Hungarian King Ladislaus. The oldest chant manuscripts from Zagreb, dating from the 11th century, were written in German neumatic notation and were imported from Hungary (Agenda pontificalis, Codex MR 165, Benedictionale MR 89, Sacramentary of St Margaretha, MR 126). They bear witness to the Gregorian chant tradition and are stored today in the Zagreb Metropolitan Library. The oldest missal written for Zagreb was copied in 1230. Today it is kept in the Franciscan monastery in Güssing (Gü 1/43). It is known as a ‘Missale zagrabiense’. The notation of this mass book represents the oldest example of the Esztergom type of neumatic notation.
Later sources from the Zagreb bishopric are kept today in the Metropolitan Library of the Archbishopric of Zagreb (MR 133, MR 13, MR 168, MR 170 etc.). They employ the Gothic script and use the Metz-Gothic neumatic notation.
The region of Istria was first under the church jurisdiction of Aquileia. The oldest missal from medieval Pula was written in 1070 in Tegernsee and was used in St Thomas basilica in Pula. The main feature of the Istrian church repertory from the 11th century to the 13th is the influence of the southern German Gregorian repertory.
In the period between the 13th and 15th centuries one finds in the Croatian shoreline area (in Zadar and Stari Grad) two examples of simple polyphony: troped Sanctus and Benedicamus domino chants with tropes in Latin and Croatian.
- A. Vidaković: ‘Tragom naših srednjovjekovnih glazbenih rukopisa’ [Searching the Croatian medieval chant manuscripts], Ljetopis JAZU, (1963), 67, 364–92
- Z. Hudovsky: ‘Razvoj muzičke kulture u Zagrebu od XI. do konca XVII. Stoljeća’ [Development of musical culture in Zagreb from the 11th century to the end of the 17th] JAZU, (1969), 351, 5–61
- J. Bezić: ‘Razvoj glagoljaškog pjevanja na zadarskom području’ [Development of Glagolitic singing in the Zadar region] (Zagreb: 1973)
- S. Stepanov: ‘Glagoljaško pjevanje u Poljicima kod Splita’ [Glagolitic singing in Poljica near Split], Spomenici glagoljaškog pjevanja, i, ed. J. Bezić (Zagreb, 1983)
- R. Gyug: Missale Ragusinum, the Missal of Dubrovnik (Toronto, 1990)
- H. Breko: ‘Mittelalterliche liturgische Gesangbücher der Diözese Zagreb’, Arti musices, 28/1–2 (1997), 3–17
- E. Stipčević: Hrvatska glazba [Croatian Music] (Zagreb, 1997)
- G. Doliner: ‘Glagoljaško pjevanje u Novom Vinodolskom’ (Glagolitic singing in Novi Vinodolski), Spomenici glagoljaškog pjevanja, ii, ed. J. Bezić (Zagreb, 1998)
- K. Livljanić: ‘Entre la Dalmatie et l’Europe Centrale: Y-t-il un Exultet de Zagreb?’, Zagreb and Music 1094–1994, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 1998), 57–68
- K. Livljanić: ‘Music in the Age of Cathedrals and Monasteries, 12th–15th Century’, The Croats, Christianity, Culture, Art, ed. V. Maleković and A. Badurina (Zagreb, 1999), 183–91
- S. Tuksar, ed.: Musical Cultures on the Eastern and Western Adriatic Shore up to 1500: Split 1997 (Zagreb, 2000)
- H. Breko: ‘Among the Beneventan, Italian, South German, and Hungarian Traditions: Research Aspects of Croatian Medieval Plainchant Sources’, Journal of Croatian Studies, 42 (2003), 53–71
- H. Breko: Misal MR 70 zagrebačke Metropolitanske knjižnice [Missal MR 70 of the Zagreb Metropolitan library] (Zagreb, 2003) [with Ger. summary]
- M. Demović: Rasprave i prilozi iz stare hrvatske glazbene prošlosti [Essays and contributions from early Croatian musical history] (Zagreb, 2007)
- H. Breko: ‘Die Musikkultur Dalmatiens im Mittelalter’, Dalmatien als europäischer Kulturraum: Essays Read at the Conference Dalmatien als Raum europäischer Kultursynthese: Bonn 2003, ed. W. Potthoff and others (Split, 2010), 549–58
- H. Beban: ‘The Dominican Antiphoner from the Badija Franciscan Monastery near Korčula: the Question of Provenance’, Cantus planus: Vienna 2011, ed. R. Klugseder (Vienna, 2012), 33–7
- H. Breko Kustura: ‘Examples of Liturgical Polyphony from Dalmatia’, Cantus planus: Vienna 2011, ed. R. Klugseder (Vienna, 2012) 66–72
- H. Breko Kustura: Najstarija misna knjiga srednjovjekovne Pule (11. stoljeće):Notirani glazbeni kodeks iz Samostana franjevaca konventualaca u Šibeniku, tzv. šibenski ‘Liber sequentiarum et sacramentarium’ (Zagreb, 2012) [with Eng. summary]
2. The Renaissance and beyond.
- Ennio Stipčević
In the middle of the 15th century, due to its proximity to Italy, Humanism and the Renaissance generally first appeared in Croatia in the cities along the Croatian coast, while in the north the Croatian-Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus’ court also had a significant influence on humanistic developments in Croatia. The Turkish presence on the Croatian borders resulted in huge migrations. Andrea Antico ‘da Montona’ published several important anthologies of church music in Rome and Venice. During the 16th century several composers of developed church poliphony were present in Dalmatia and in the Republic of Dubrovnik (e.g. J. Skjavetić and L. Courtoys).
At the beginning of the 17th century a new generation of composers appeared in the shoreline cities; they adopted the new Baroque style and adapted it to local needs and more modest performance possibilities (composers including T. Cecchini, I. Lukačić, D. Nembri, and A. Jurjević). Several Baroque composers gained an international reputation, working outside of their home country (F. Usper in Venice, V. Jelić near Strasbourg, G. Sebenico in Venice, and Turin in London).
During the 17th and 18th centuries the processes of reformation and enlightenment affected the Croatian Church. Franciscan and Pauline friars were prominent as preservers of the old, generally well-known church tunes, while the Jesuits introduced monumental musical spectacles in the liturgy. The need for teaching materials in church institutions resulted in several music theory textbooks (by, for example, T. Kovačević and M. Šilobod Bolšić). The coexistence of two opposed levels of church music (‘artistic’ and ‘popular’) continued in the second half of the 18th century. Croatian composers of that time, including J. Bajamonti, L. and A. Sorkočević, J. Raffaelli, and L. Ebner, skilfully wrote in Classic and early Romantic styles, while simultaneously, the more modest ‘Franciscan Baroque’ existed in rural contexts (for example, in works by P. Knežević).
In the 19th century church music in the vernacular language played a significant role in the wake of the nationalist movement (for example, in works by V. Lisinski, F. Pintarić, and I. Zajc). At the beginning of the 20th century the ‘Cecilian movement’ influenced the professionalization of church music. In the second half of the century, despite the communist political system, and particularly after the independence of the Republic of Croatia in 1991, some of the best work of Croatian composers occurred in church music (for example, in music by F. Dugan, B. Papandopulo, A. Klobučar, and B. Šipuš).
- D. Plamenac: ‘Music of the 16th and 17th Centuries in Dalmatia’, IMSCR: New York 1939, 21–51
- H. Breko: ‘Music and Religious Orders in the 17th Century’, Musica e storia, 6/2 (1998), 455–76
- E. Stipčević: ‘Influsi veneziani nelle musiche dei maestri dalmati del Cinque e Seicento’, Musica e storia, 6/1 (1998), 227–36
- Z. Blažeković: ‘Music (Towards the Present Age, 19th–20th Century)’, The Croats: Christianity, Culture, Art (Zagreb, 1999), 385–97
III. Traditional music.
- Grozdana Marošević
Music-making in traditional communities was, and to a certain extent still is, an integral part of everyday working life. Various songs are performed during labour and rest-periods, and also after work (such as harvesting and hoeing) for entertainment. Outdoors, where people are physically separated by distance, short dialogue songs (the samica, rozgalica, vojkavica) establish communication. Separation also contributed to the development of the songs and music of solitary travellers, and shepherds who play their solo instruments, the dvojnice and tambura (see §2 below), passing the time spent with their livestock at pasture.
Music is also performed during leisure time, at public gatherings, for example, such as the kolo or round-dance socials organized on Sundays and saints’ days. Short songs based on ten-syllable couplets (for example the poskočnice) are also sung to express emotions, to convey a particular message, and to comment or criticize. The jocular character of these songs allows expression of what is sanctioned in ordinary conversation. Young people participating at public dance parties have the opportunity to observe and choose future spouses, particularly in the biračko kolo (a round-dance).
Young children absorb their first experience of music from lullabies and songs sung to them by their mothers and grandmothers. As well as calming children before sleep, these songs play a role in enculturation. Older children satisfy their need for play, structured movement, and musical expression by performing brojalice (counting-rhymes), various games with movement, mimicking games, etc.
In the marking of life cycle events, music plays its most important part in wedding customs. In the past, members of the wedding party sang songs that had a ritual function, while during the 20th century they were gradually replaced by musicians. Among customs connected with death are the practice of ringing bells that announce the gender and age of the deceased, and the performance of laments (naricanje). In some regions (Turopolje, Kordun) professional female lamenters were engaged, but it is more usual for laments to be sung by close female relatives. Although not considered music, the performance of laments has poetic and musical elements.
Music-making is an integral part of calendar rituals, performed by organized groups in processions at Christmas and New Year, Carnival, or on saints’ days etc. They go from door to door performing songs expressing good wishes to the households. The tunes and their sometimes strictly set performing styles were believed to have magical powers. For example, Carnival dances with foot-stamping and high leaps were thought to enhance the turnip and flax crops. Socializing and entertainment of the participants in the calendar rituals are additional motives for taking part, and they could also count on considerable material gain. These rituals occasionally survive today as expressions of local cultural identity.
The use of signalling and noise-making instruments – bells, trumpets, rattles, whistles, and drums – is connected with door-to-door rounds. They mark the beginning and end of the rituals, and mark the separate identities of the performers. Previously such instruments had other purposes, such as bellringing and mortar-firing to drive away hail-bearing clouds, while a system of klepala (wooden clappers) at military outposts alerted the community to danger. In northern Croatia heralds can still be found who beat old Austrian military drums to announce news. However, today noise-making instruments are more often used by sports fans and Zagreb high school students on their last day of school.
Elements of traditional secular music are found in Roman Catholic liturgical and paraliturgical singing in Croatia, particularly in Glagolitic singing which has been transmitted by oral tradition (see Glagolitic Mass, Glagolitic chant). Lay singing in church is often led by the more gifted singers, giving them high standing in their communities. On special occasions, such as festivals and celebrations, traditional bellringing (kampananje, trnačenje) takes place.
There is much less historical data available on music-making by the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. From the end of the 17th century there have been wine-drinking societies which come together on St Martin’s Day and on New Year’s Eve. Napitnice (drinking songs) are a typical genre connected with their social gatherings.
Because of the greater role of broadcasting and recorded media in musical culture, people today usually listen to music rather than make it. Spontaneous music-making is much less a part of everyday working life but is practised at private parties, birthday celebrations, weddings, on excursions and other gatherings.
The presentation of music outside of its traditional context arose particularly at the time of the national movements during the 19th century, and it was widespread during the 20th century. From the 1920s, folklore festivals began to emerge. They were first organized by the Seljačka Sloga (Peasant Unity), the cultural branch of the Croatian Peasants Party, the strongest political party during the 1930s. Its platform raised national self-awareness as a form of resistance to centralizing pressures within Yugoslavia, of which Croatia was a part. Folklore festivals largely follow the concept of presenting local folklore tradition without much adaptation. Music is only part of the total programme, in which dance predominates. There are some 70 festivals, the main one held in Zagreb during the summer (since 1966 as the International Folklore Festival). There are around 600 amateur folklore groups, found mainly in rural areas. Urban groups were founded after 1945 and they perform choreographed dances of various Croatian regions. The only professional folkdance and music ensemble is the Lado, established in 1949. Croatian Radio also has its own Tambura Orchestra, established in 1941. Festivals devoted to traditional music and not to dance are a rarity, one being the Dalmatian Klapa Festival held in Omiš since 1967.
Arranged traditional music was performed during the 1960s and 70s, mostly by pop and opera singers; since the 1980s there have been isolated attempts at jazz and rock fusions; while throughout the 1990s many traditional tunes were reinterpreted in styles related to trends in world music.
Recording companies show modest interest in traditional music (about 10% of output, usually in adapted form, with a smaller amount of field recordings). Neo-traditional music is given more attention (about 20% of output). There is a similar degree of representation on TV programmes (about 90 minutes per week on state TV); while it is much higher on radio programmes (some 27½ hours per week on state radio stations).
During the 1960s, the appearance of popular music festivals was accompanied by the rise of regional song festivals in which certain traditional elements were used in popular music styles. Many of these songs have been absorbed into regional repertories primarily due to their texts (dialect and vocabulary) and the use of traditional instruments like the tambura. They are performed by pop singers with orchestral accompaniment, and their popularity is usually limited to a particular region. Amateur groups perform at the Omiš festival and also sing compositions closer to the traditional models.
From the 1960s to the 90s, so-called ‘newly composed folk songs’ produced mostly in the eastern parts of Yugoslavia also had an audience and were produced in Croatia. Although there had been previous resistance to these songs, it became much stronger after the war with Serbia in 1991, when they were identified with the enemy. Since then ‘neo-traditional’ songs with a tambura ensemble accompaniment have been booming in Croatia. Tambura music has been promoted as a symbol of national musical identity. There has also been a strengthening of popular music in regional idioms.
‘Neo-traditional’ music is only part of popular music culture in Croatia, which is dominated by other international and domestic genres.
The profusion and variety of styles existing in traditional music in Croatia are the result of the overlapping of different cultures: central-European (Pannonian and sub-Alpine), Mediterranean, and Balkan.
(i) Eastern Croatia.
In Pannonian areas (Slavonija, Baranja, and Srijem) diatonic two-part singing, with four- to six-note melodic groupings, is found. The upper leading part, delivered by a soloist, ends mostly on the second degree, while the accompanying part, sung by a group, concludes in unison (in the older tradition; ex.1), or a perfect 5th below the upper part (in the newer tradition; ex.2). Sometimes, when the group of singers is larger, the lead voice is obscured by the accompanying voices. Part-singing usually comprises a drone (in older tunes) or remnants of a drone combined with parallel movement (mostly in 3rds). In the 20th century the newer style – na bas singing – has been widespread throughout various Croatian regions, but is most common in eastern parts, where it originated in the late 19th century. Apart from lyrical and ballad songs with longer texts, short songs are also found (based on ten-syllable couplets and known as svatovac, bećarac, and poskočica).
Until the beginning of the 20th century the gajde (bagpipe), a single-reed instrument with double chanter and a drone pipe fixed to a bellows, and the dude (bagpipe with triple chanter, found in western Slavonia) were the main instruments which accompanied dance. They were superseded by tambura ensembles. The tambura, a long-necked lute, was brought to the Balkans by the Turks in the 14th and 15th centuries. Through migrations caused by Ottoman incursions, the tambura was brought to Slavonian areas in the 17th and 18th centuries, where it was gradually adopted. At first it was a solo instrument (samica), but from the mid-19th century tamburas were also brought together in small groups. Today tamburas are widespread throughout Croatia, existing in various shapes, with varying numbers of strings (usually four), and in various tunings. The present standard combination of the tambura ensemble includes: two bisernica (small instruments which play the melody), two brač (for melodic and harmonic parts), a bugarija (of medium size for accompaniment in chords), and the berde (the largest and lowest in pitch for the bass line).
In eastern Croatia many dances, often in the form of a closed circle (kolo or round-dances), are accompanied by singing. Today most of them are also accompanied by tambura ensembles. The most famous kolo dance, known as Šokačko kolo, Slavonsko kolo, or simply the Kolo, has become a symbol of the identity of the people of eastern Croatia. The music and dancing is interrupted by the dancers who sing couplets improvised on the spot.
(ii) Northern Croatia.
The Medimurje and upper Podravina regions have unison tunes with melodies of a wider range, often based on medieval modes (especially the Dorian, ex.3, Aeolian, and Phrygian modes) and anhemitonic pentatonic scales (ex.4). They are frequently in mixed and asymmetrical metres with unequal bar units, or are developed in free (parlando-rubato) rhythm. Lyrical texts (often concerning love) are performed to these tunes. Typical instruments are: the dude or mrčaljka (bagpipes; no longer played), the citura in Podravina or the trontolje in Medimurje (bourdon box zithers), and the cimbal (dulcimer) which came from Hungary and is played as a solo instrument or in mixed bands. Violins are common in instrumental groups, joined by the cimbal and tambura as accompaniment. There are also the bandisti (brass bands) which play at socials and weddings. Tambura bands emerged during the 20th century, particularly among amateur folklore groups.
Dancing in formation of open or closed circles (the kolo dance), accompanied by singing (often ballads) began to disappear at the end of the 19th century when several couple-dances were introduced from the neighbouring north-west, for example the čardaš, polka, valcer, and zibnšrit. There are also solo dances, e.g. the moldovan stick-dance, performed by skilful male dancers.
(iii) North-western and central Croatia.
This comprises Croatian Zagorje, the broad surroundings of Zagreb, and the Žumberak, Pokuplje, Upper Posavina, Moslavina, and Bilogora regions. Diatonic tunes with four- to six-note melodic groupings are common in these regions, sometimes with changeable degrees (e.g. between a major and minor 3rd above the lowest tone; ex.5). Usually melodies conclude on the second ‘degree’ which can also be the ‘tonic’. Apart from unison tunes (mainly in ritual songs), there are two-part songs with unison-endings (an older tradition), or in the interval of the major 3rd and perfect 5th (a newer tradition). Newer repertory includes tunes which tend towards or are already in a major mode (ex.6).
There are various flutes: the žvegla or the frula (duct flute), the dvojnice or dvojke (double duct flute), and others made as souvenirs and toy instruments in the shapes of birds, fish, hammers, or walking-sticks. In the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, dances were accompanied by the dude (a bagpipe with triple chanter) in the Bilogora and Moslavina areas. The guci instrumental groups, consisting of two gusle (violins) and the bajs (a doublebass played with a bow), sometimes together with a cimbal (dulcimer), were found across the whole region. In the first half of the 20th century they were joined and/or replaced by various kinds of tambura, which spread from eastern Croatia (Slavonia).
In dance repertories the drmeš dance is widespread. It is danced in couples or in small circular groups, and has two basic figures: in the first, small steps are made with marked shaking of the entire body; in the second, the circular group whirls at fast tempo. Along with the drmeš, the polka is the most popular dance of these regions.
(iv) Western Croatia.
Consisting of the northern Adriatic areas (the Istrian Peninsula, the Quarner Bay and its islands such as Krk, Cres, Lošinj, and Susak), western Croatia’s traditional music is characterized mainly by chromatic modes with successive (approximate) semitones, or with an (approximate) whole tone alternating with semitones. Two-part singing in pairs (of the same or mixed gender) is performed with movement in parallel (approximate) minor 3rds, with a delayed unison ending, arrived at by contrary motion (ex.7). The inversions of these intervals (approximate major 6ths and octaves) appear when the accompaniment is in the upper part (for example when the leading part is performed by a male singer). The singers often insert vocables at the end of particular words, or between the syllables, for example ‘ma’, ‘nina nena’, ‘trajna naj’ etc. Sometimes the entire refrain is performed in this way, or even the entire tune, which is customary when there is no instrumental accompaniment to the dance. This style of singing is called tarankanje.
Dances are frequently accompanied by two sopila or roženica, large and small double-reed wind instruments, which produce two-part music with similar characteristics to those in singing. On solemn festive occasions, the mantinjada is played on them (ex.8). It is also customary to dance to a šurle accompaniment (single-reed instrument with two separate chanters), to the mih or meh (the same as the diple na mješinu), and in the inland northern part of Istria, to an instrumental group called gunjci (a violin, a clarinet, and a two-string doublebass), and, more recently, to the (h)armonika (a diatonic accordion).
This region is characterized by the tanac and the balun dances. They have several figures performed by the dancers facing in two rows and as couples regularly distributed in a circle, figures in which very small steps are made and those in which the female dancers spin very quickly. Other dances, like the polka and the valcer, are also performed.
(v) Southern Croatia.
(a) The Adriatic hinterland.
The older tradition of the Dalmatian hinterland and the Lika region is characterized by narrow-interval style: tunes are based on chromatic modes of narrow range, with intervals that deviate from the tempered system. In two-part singing drone accompaniments and intervals of the 2nd frequently appear. The parts also finish on the interval of a 2nd (ex.9). Short songs (decasyllabic couplets) are performed in a peculiar style of singing, usually known as ojkanje. It is characterized by performing melismas of varying lengths, sometimes with sharp and prolonged shaking of the voice on the syllables ‘Oj’, ‘hoj’, ‘voj’, ‘ej’, or ‘aj’ (ex.9). Ojkanje is connected with mountain areas and stock-raising cultures, and is practised outdoors. It appears as the solo singing of lone travellers (putniško), or in two-part tunes (vojkavica, treskavica, rera, ganga, rozgalica). Ojkanje is also known in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and similar singing styles exist in the mountain regions of Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey.
Narrative songs (epic and ballad) are performed by individual singers who often direct their gaze at a hand-held book or cap (singing iz kape, iz knjige, ‘from a cap’, ‘from a book’) to aid concentration, as the songs are long and sung from memory. The most famous performers of epic songs are guslari, singers who accompany themselves on the gusle, a bowed, single-string chordophone widespread in the Balkans. They perform all the verses improvising two basic recitative melody-sections. The instrumental melody is similar to the vocal one (ex.10). Guslari were highly respected in their community.
The diple is a widely distributed single-reed instrument with a double chanter, the older type of which produces one-part, and the newer, two-part music. Frequently it is attached to a bellows (then called diple na mješinu or mih). This kind of bagpipe does not have a drone-pipe, and is also found all along the Adriatic coast and on the islands. It is played by shepherds, but also at parties, sometimes to dancing.
Newer musics, especially in the Lika region, are charactized by diatonic tunes in the na bas style. The solo-tambura (the danguba) is also found, the musician using it to accompany his own singing.
The nijemo kolo (the mute kolo dance) without any musical accompaniment is common in dance repertories, the rhythm provided by the dance-steps and the sound of the rattling of the ducats adorning the dancers’ costumes. It is performed in large steps and jumps in various figures which change to the commands of the dance-leader.
(b) The central and southern Adriatic.
This region comprises coastal Dalmatia and its islands. Older traditions (particularly in northern Dalmatia) are marked mainly by diatonic two-part singing with a small range and delayed unison endings (ex.11); endings in 5ths became common around the mid-20th century. In the very south (around Dubrovnik) single-part singing is more common. Songs of more recent traditions have characteristics of the major mode. A gradual descent from the seventh to the third degree is typical for the upper part of these songs. They are performed as two-part (in parallel 3rds) or multi-part harmonic songs (ex.12). The latter is known as klapsko pjevanje (klapa singing) because it is performed by a male group (called a klapa), made up of between four and eight singers. In the mid-19th century it was performed in urban centres, and during the 20th century it was introduced into villages. Wide popularization of klapa singing is linked to the Dalmatian Klapa Festival in Omiš (established in 1967), where every year arrangements of traditional klapa songs, as well as new compositions in the style, are performed. During the last two decades this style of singing became strongly identified with Dalmatian music. Popular songs are sometimes performed in this style.
In villages, dances (usually in couples) are accompanied by the mih or mišnjice, and the Lira or lijera (lirica or lijerica in its diminutive form) in the southern Adriatic region (see illustration). The lira is usually used to accompany the poskočica (also known as the linđo) dance. In towns mandolin ensembles accompany urban dances, such as the šotić, manfrina, kvadrilja, and polka šaltina. On the islands of Korčula and Lastovo the moreška and the moštra (sword dances) are still performed, usually at Carnival time.
Lirica (three-string bowed chordophone)
Alexandr Buchner, Prague
Although the first notations of traditional music date from as early as the 16th century, indirect sources (for example hymnals with examples of contrafactum, descriptions, travel notes, and so on) predominated until the 19th century, when interest grew and traditional music started to be written down. Franjo Ksaver Kuhač (1834–1911) was the founder of Croatian ethnomusicology. He noted down more than 2000 tunes and wrote numerous papers on traditional music. His collection of instruments is kept in the Ethnographic Museum in Zagreb.
Systematic research continued in the 20th century. During the 1920s, the Ethnographic Museum in Zagreb organized phonographic recordings (120 wax rolls kept in the Phonogram-Archiv in Vienna). Notable researchers included Božidar Širola (1889–1956), a composer and musicologist who studied traditional instruments and wrote the first synthesized review of Croatian traditional music; and Vinko Žganec (1890–1976), who noted down more than 15,000 tunes and published them in a number of extensive collections. During the 1950s and 60s, under the auspices of the Institute for Folk Art in Zagreb (established 1948, today the Institute for Ethnology and Folklore Research), Žganec organized research in the individual regions. The focus of interest at that time was the rural music of the earlier traditions and the study of musical structures.
The institute has a specialized library and documentation fund (for manuscripts, photo-, phono-, and video-recordings, and computerized databases). The ethnomusicologists Stjepan Stepanov (1901–84) and Jerko Bezić (b 1929), and the ethnochoreologist Ivan Ivančan (b 1927) have made a great contribution to the institute’s research projects. Under the influence of contextual folklore studies and anthropology, the subject of research has been considerably broadened since the 1970s and has covered many aspects of traditional and contemporary music and dance culture.
Bibliography and other resources
A Collections. B Studies of special regions. C Instruments. D Dances. E Other studies. F Recordings.
- F.K. Kuhač: Južno-slovjenske narodne popievke [Southern Slav folksongs] (Zagreb, 1878–81)
- V. Žganec: Hrvatske pučke popijevke iz Medimurja [Croatian folksongs from Medimurje], i: Svjetovne [Secular]; ii: Crkvene [Religious] (Zagreb, 1924–5) [i. incl. introduction on region and music]
- V. Bersa: Zbirka narodnih popievaka iz Dalmacije [Collection of folksongs from Dalmatia] (Zagreb, 1944)
- V. Žganec: Narodne popijevke Hrvatskog Zagorja: napjevi [Folksongs of Croatian Zagorje: tunes] (Zagreb, 1950)
- V. Žganec and N. Sremec, eds.: ‘Hrvatske narodne pjesme i plesovi’ [Croatian folksongs and dances] (Zagreb, 1951) [incl. V. Žganec: ‘Osnovni stilovi hrvatskih narodnih pjesama’ [The basic styles of Croatian folk melodies], 5–9; with Eng. trans., 228–31]
- N. Karabaić: Muzički folklor hrvatskog primorja i Istre [The musical folklore of the Croatian littoral and Istria] (Rijeka, 1956) [incl. 10 gramophone 78 r.p.m. records]
- V. Žganec: Hrvatske narodne popijevke iz Koprivnice i okoline [Croatian folksongs from Koprivnica and its surroundings] (Zagreb, 1962) [with comments and musical analysis]
- I. Ivančan: Istarski narodni plesovi [Istrian folkdances] (Zagreb, 1963) [with Eng. summary]
- V. Žganec and M. Meršić: Jačkar: hrvatske narodne jačke iz Gradišća [Croatian folksongs from Burgenland (Austria)] (Čakovec, 1964) [with commentary by Žganec]
- S. Stepanov: ‘Narodne pjesme iz Gorjana i Potnjana’ [Folksongs from Gorjani and Potnjani in Slavonia], Zbornik za narodni život i običaje južnih Slavena, 44 (1971), 283–422
- V. Žganec: Uvodna muzikološka studija za zbirku narodne popijevke Hrvatskog zagorja [Introductory musicological study for the collection of folk songs of the Zagorje region] (Zagreb, 1971)
- K. Kljenak and J. Vlahović, eds.: Zbornik dalmatinskih klapskih pjesama [Collection of Dalmation klapa songs], i, (Omiš, 1979) [incl. J. Bezić: ‘The Dalmation klapa songs within the 10 years of the Omiš festival’]; ii, ed. N. Buble (Omiš, 1991); iii, ed. N. Buble (Omiš, 1992)
- B. Kostelac: Narodni plesovi i pjesme Jaskanskog prigorja i polja [Folkdances and songs from the region around Jaska] (Zagreb, 1987) [with Eng. summary]
- G. Knežević: Plešem, plešem drotičko: zbirka dječih igara, pjesama, brojalica i rugalica [I’m dancing, I’m dancing drotičko: a collection of children’s games, songs, counting rhymes, and mocking ditties] (Zagreb, 1988)
- I. Matetić Ronjgov: Zaspal Pave: zbirka notnih zapisa natodnih pjesama Istre i hrvatskog primorja [A collection of the notations of folksongs of Istria and the Croatian littoral], ed. D. Prašelj (Rijeka, 1990)
- G. Knežević: Naše kolo veliko: hrvatski dječji folklor, gradivo iz 19. i 20. stoljeća [Our large kolo dance: Croatian children’s folklore: material from the 19th and 20th century] (Zagreb, 1993)
- M. Hadžihusejnović-Valašek and J. Vinkešević, eds.: Pjesmom na Vezove: zbirka hrvatskih folklornih napjeva i plesova iz Slavonije i Baranje [A collection of Croatian folksongs and dances from Slavonia and Baranja] (Dakovo, 1994)
- Z. Lovrenčević: Folklorna glazba Bilogore [Folk music of the Bilogora region (central Croatia)] (Zagreb, 1995)
- S. Stepanov: ‘Muzički folklor Konavala’ [Folk music of Konavli], Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku, 10–11 (1966), 461–549
- J. Bezić: ‘Muzički folklor Sinjske krajine’ [Musical folklore of the Sinj area (Dalmatian hinterland)], Narodna umjetnost, 5–6 (1967–8), 175–275
- J. Njikoš: Slavonijo, zemljo plemenita, Narodni običaji, pjesme, kola i poskočicet [Folk customs, songs, kolo round dances, and dance songs from Slavonia] (Osijek, 1970)
- J. Bezić: ‘Raznolik glazbeni svijet šire okolice Donje Stubice’ [Varieties of musical life in the vicinity of lower Stubica (Croatian Zagorje)], Narodna umjetnost, 10 (1973), 309–77 [with Ger. summary]
- D. Rihtman-Šotrić: ‘Narodna tradicionalna muzika otoka Brača’ [The traditional folk music of the island of Brač], Narodna umjetnost, 11–12 (1974–5), 235–99
- J. Bezić: ‘Folklorna glazba otoka Zlarina’ [Folk music of the island of Zlarin (Dalmatia)], Narodna umjetnost, 18 (1981), 27–148
- J. Bezić: ‘Die Frau als Trägerin der Volkmusik in Medimurje (Murinsel, Murakoez)’, Die Frau in der Bauernkultur Pannoniens: Vinkovci 1980, ed. D. Rihtman-Auguštin and V. Domaćinović (Zagreb, 1982), 97–108
- N. Buble: Vokalna folklorna glazba Trogira i Donjih Kaštela od 1875. do 1975 [Vocal folk music of Trogir and Donji Kašteli between 1875 and 1975 (Dalmatia)], i (Omiš, 1985); ii (Omiš, 1987); iii: ‘Tekstovi pjesama vokalne folklorne glazbe Trogira I Donjih Kaštela od 1875. do 1975.’ [Texts of the vocal folk music of Trogir and Donki Kašteli between 1875 and 1975], in !akvska rič, 18/2 (1990), 51–108 [texts of the songs]
- E. Dunin Ivancich: ‘Lindjo in the Context of Village Life in the Dubrovnik Area of Yugoslavia’, A Spectrum of World Dance: Dance Research Annual, 16 (1987), 1–4
- N. Buble: Glazbena kultura stanovnika trogirske općine [Musical culture of the people living in the Trogir community (Dalmatia)] (Trogir, 1988)
- J. Bezić: ‘Folklorna glazba otoka Šolte’ [Folk music of the island of Šolta (Dalmatia)], Narodna umjetnost, 28 (1991), 9–48
- R. Bonifačić: ‘“Mi ćemo zak′antat glason od slavića”: koncepcije izvodača o tradicijskom pjevanju u Puntu na otoku Krku’ [‘We will sing with the voice of a nightingale’: views about folk singing held by performers on the island of Krk], Narodna umjetnost, 28 (1991), 49–86
- N. Ceribašić: ‘Svadbene obredne i običajne pjesme u Rakitovici (Slavonska Podravina)’ [Ritual and customary wedding songs in Rakitovica (Slavonian Podravina)], Narodna umjetnost, 28 (1991), 87–142
- N. Ceribašić: ‘Norma i individuacija u deseteračkim napjevima s područja Slavonije’ [The norm and individuation in decasyllablic tunes from the region of Slavonia], Narodna umjetnost, 31 (1994), 145–282
- J. Bezić: ‘Folklorna glazba otoka Hvara’ [Folk music of the island of Hvar], Otok Hvar, ed. M.A. Mihovilović (Zagreb, 1995), 351–61
- V. Milin-Ćurin: ‘The Popular Song in the Folklore Expression of the Inhabitants of the Island of Murter’, Narodna umjetnost, 32 (1995), 219–35
- G. Marošević: Glazbena kultura Karlovačkog pokuplja [Musical culture of the Karlovačko Pokuolje region] (Zagreb, 1997)
- F.K. Kuhač: ‘Prilog za povjest glasbe južnoslovjenske: kulturno-historijska studija’ [A contribution to the history of South Slavs’ music: a cultural-historical study: description of folk instruments], Rad Jugoslavenska akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, 38 (1877), 1–78
- P. Brömse: Flöten, Schalmeien und Sackpfeifen Südslawiens (Brno, 1937)
- B. Širola: ‘Sviraljke s udarnim jezičkom’ [Single-reed wind instruments], Djela Jugoslavenska akademije znanosti i umjetnosti, 32 (Zagreb, 1937)
- S. Stepanov: ‘Pjevano oponašanje svirke lijerice na južnom Jadranu’ [The vocal imitation of the lijerica in the south Adriatic], Narodno stvaralaštvo: folklor, 1/2 (1962) 115–21
- A. Stojanović: ‘Jadranska lira’ [The Adriatic lyre], Narodna umjetnost, 4 (1966), 59–84
- J. Bezić and W.W. Kolar: A Survey of Folk Musical Instruments in Yugoslavia: Idiophones (Pittsburgh, 1975)
- A. Kobola: Tradicijska narodna glazbala Jugoslavije [Traditional folk musical instruments of Yugoslavia] (Zagreb, 1975)
- J. Bezić and W.W. Kolar: A Survey of Folk Musical Instruments in Yugoslavia, Membranophones (Pittsburgh, 1978)
- R. March: ‘Folklore, Traditional Expressive Behaviour and the Tamburitza Tradition’, Narodna umjetnost, 18 (1981), 107–114 [special issue: ‘Folklore and Oral Communication’]
- K. Galin: ‘Folklorna glazbala pokladnih veselja’ [Folk music instruments in carnival celebrations], Narodna umjetnost, 25 (1988), 175–204 [with Eng. summary]
- R. Bonifačić: ‘Changing of Symbols: the Folk Instrument Tamburica as a Political and Cultural Phenomenon’, Collegium Antropologicum, 19/1 (1995), 65–77
- S. Leopold: Tambura u Hrvata [The tambura among the Croats] (Zagreb, 1995)
- D. Marušić: ‘Piskaj sona sopi’: Svijet istarskih glazbala: universo degli strumenti musicali istriani [‘Piskaj sona sopi’: the world of Istrian instruments] (Pula, 1995)
- I. Ivančan: ‘Konavoski narodni plesovi’ [Folkdances of Konavli (near Dubrovnik)], Anali Historijskog instituta JAZU u Dubrovniku, 10–11 (1966), 363–418
- Ivančan: ‘Narodni plesovi Sinja i okolice’ [Folkdances of Sinj and its surroundings], Narodna umjetnost, 5–6 (1967–8), 277–301
- I. Ivančan: ‘Narodni plesovi Gupčevu kraju’ [Folkdances in the Gubec region], Narodna umjetnost, 10 (1973), 259–307 [with Eng. summary]
- I. Ivančan: ‘Ples i plesni običaji vezani uz morešku’ [Dance and dance customs connected to the moreška (sword dance)], Moreška: korčulanska viteška igra, ed. V. Foretić and A. Lešaja (Korčula: Radničko kulturno-umjetničko društvo Moreška, 1974), 93–159
- I. Ivančan: ‘Narodni pleovi otoka Brača’ [Folkdances from the island of Brač (Dalmatia)], Narodna umjetnost, 11–12 (1974–5), 317–63
- I. Ivančan: ‘Index von Tanzmotiven von Kolo-Tänzen in Slawonien und Baranya’, Analyse und Klassifikation von Volkstänzen: Zaborów 1976, 56–81
- S. Sremac: ‘O hrvatskom tancu, drmešu, cardašu i porijeklu drmeša’ [On the Croatian tanac, drmeš and čardaš dances, and the origin of the drmeš dance], Narodna umjetnost, 20 (1983), 57–74
- I. Ivančan: ‘Folk Dance among the Croats’, Narodna umjetnost, Special Issue No. 2 (1988), 69–107
- S. Sremac: ‘Dance in Contemporary Carnival Customs in Croatia’, Contributions to the Study of Contemporary Folklore in Croatia, ed. Z. Rajković (Zagreb, 1988), 99–125
- G. Marošević: ‘Towards Classification of Croatian Songs which are Performed with Dance’, Musicologica slovaca, 16 (1990), 181–92
- T. Zebec: ‘The Carnival Dance Event in Croatia as a Rite of Passage’, Narodna umjetnost, 32 (1995), 201–17
- T. Zebec: ‘The Dance Event as a Political Ritual: the Kolo Round Dance Slavonia at War’, Collegium Antropologicum, 19/1 (1995), 79–89
- I. Ivančan: Narodni plesni običaji u Hrvata [Folkdance customs among the Croats] (Zagreb, 1996) [incl. Eng. summary pp. 313–70]
- B. Širola and M. Gavazzi: ‘Muzikološki rad Etnografskog muzeja u Zagebu od osnutka do konca g. 1929.’ [Musicological work of the Ethnographical Museum in Zagreb from its establishment to the end of 1929], Narodna starina, 10/25 (1931), 1–76 [incl. methods of notation, list of phonogram collection, list of folk instruments, transcriptions, and data about ritual songs]
- B. Širola: ‘Smotre hrvatske seljačke kulture s osobitim obzirom na njihovo značenje za napredak hrvatske muzikologije’ [Festivals of Croatian village culture in particular relation to their significance for the advancement of Croatian musicology], Zbornik za narodni život i običaje južnih Slavena, 32/2 (1940), 1–44
- J. Bezić: ‘Hrvatska muzika: narodna’ [Croatian music: folk music], Muzička enciklopedija, 2 (Zagreb, enlarged 2/1974), 168–75 [incl. bibliography]
- J. Bezić: ‘The Tonal Framework of Folk Music in Yugoslavia’, The Folk Arts of Yugoslavia, ed. W.W. Kolar (Pittsburgh, 1976), 193–208
- J. Bezić: ‘Dalmatinska folklorna gradska pjesma kao predmet etnomuzikološog istraživanja’ [Dalmatian urban folksongs as a subject of ethnomusicological research], Narodna umjetnost, 14 (1977), 23–54
- Z. Rajković: ‘Današnji dječji folklor: istraživanje u Zagrebu’ [Contemporary children’s folklore: a Zagreb study], Narodna umjetnost, 15 (1978), 37–96
- J. Bezić: ‘Spontani i organizirani glazbeni život na selu u Hrvatskoj’ [Spontaneous and organised musical life in the villages of Croatia], Zbornik radova u povodu 75. godišnjice rodenja Pavla Markovca [Essays to mark the occasion of the 75th birthday of Pavla Markova], ed. I. Supičić (Zagreb, 1979), 89–97
- N. Buble: ‘Klapa izmedu kaleta i festivala’ [The klapa between alleys and festivals], Zbornik 1. kongresa jugoslovanskih etnologov in folkloristov, ed. J. Bogataj and M. Terseglav (Ljubljana, 1983), 769–74
- J. Bezić: ‘The Historical Dimension of Urban Folk Songs in Croatia, Yugoslavia’, Ethnomusicology and the Historical Dimension: London 1986, 89–95
- J. Bezić: ‘Contemporary Trends in the Folk Music of Yugoslavia’, Contributions to the Study of Contemporary Folklore in Croatia, ed. Z. Rajković (Zagreb, 1988), 49–74
- G. Marošević: ‘Folk Music in Croatia in the Period from 1981 to 1985’, Contributions to the Study of Contemporary Folklore in Croatia, ed. Z. Rajković (Zagreb, 1988), 75–98
- J. Bezić: ‘New Manners in Relations between Traditional Music and Tourism in Croatia, Yugoslavia’, Musik und Tourismus: Schladming 1989, 35–9
- M. Povrzanović: ‘Dalmation Klapa Singing: Changes of Context’, Folklore and Historical Process, ed. D. Rihtman-Auguštin and M. Povrzanović (Zagreb, 1989), 159–70
- J. Bezić: ‘Ungleiche Zählzeiten in rhythmisch gebundenen Liedern und sinnlich fassbare Teile der freirhythmischen Lieder in Kroatien’, Musicologica slovaca, 16 (1990), 81–6
- J. Bezić: ‘Urban Folk Songs in Croatia, 1880–1980’, Zbornik Matice srpske za scenske umetnosti i muziku, 6–7 (1990), 223–32
- R. Bonifačić: ‘A Contribution to the Research of Bi-Musicality Based on the Examples of Singers from Punat on the Island of Krk’, Folklor i njegova umetnička transpozicija III (Belgrade, 1991), 35–46, 47–63
- G. Marošević: ‘Culture as a Determinant of Folk-Singing Style: Group and Solo Singing in the Karlovačko Pokuplje Region’, IRASM, 23 (1992), 207–21
- G. Marošević: ‘Prilog proučavanju putujućih glabenika u Hrvatskoj’ [A contribution to the study of travelling musicians in Croatia], Music, Ideas and Society: Essays in Honour of Ivan Supičić, ed. S. Tuksar (Zagreb, 1993), 199–213
- S. Pettan: ‘Etnomuzikolog u Hrvatskoj, etnomuzikolog i rat’ [The ethnomusicologist in Croatia, the ethnomusicologist and war], Arti Musices, 24 (1993), 153–68
- N. Ceribašić: ‘Gender Roles during the War: Representations in Croatian and Serbian Popular Music 1991–2’, Collegium Antropologicum, 19/1 (1995), 91–101
- G. Marošević: ‘The Influence of Folkloristic on Ethnomusicology in Croatia’, Narodna umjetnost, 32 (1995), 39–54
- G. Marošević: ‘Travelling Musicians in Croatia and their Role in the Creation of Popular Musical Culture’, Historical Studies on Folk and Traditional Music: Copenhagen 1995, 117–26
- J. Bezić: ‘Approaches to the People’s Music-Life in Dalmatia (Croatia) in the Past and Present’, Narodna umjetnost, 33 (1996), 75–88
- R. Bonifačić: ‘Tarankanje: a Disappearing Musical Tradition’, Narodna umjetnost, 33 (1996), 149–70
B: Studies of special regions
E: Other studies
‘Z cvetnjaka Horvatske’: Medimurske narodne pjesme [Folksongs from Medimurje], Jugoton LSY 63089; CAY784 (1979)
Narodne pjesme i plesovi iz Banije, 1–3 [Folksongs and dances from the Banija region (central Croatia)], Jugoton ULP 2050, ULP 2286, ULP 2464 (1981, 1988, 1989)
‘Lepo naše Medimurje’ [Folksongs from Medimurje], Jugoton LSY 63153 (1983)
‘Zletela tužna grlca’: Narodne pjesme i svirka Poreštine [Folk music from the Poreč area (Istria)], Jugoton LSY 61902 (1984)
‘Oj divojko, jabuko rumena’: Narodne pjesme i svirka Rovinjštine [Folk music of the Rovinj area (Istria)], Jugoton LSY 62025 (1985)
Antologija dalmatinskih klapskih pjesama [Anthology of Dalmation klapa songs], Croatia Records 2CD D5068600 (1995)
‘Beli Zagreb grad’: tradicionalne pjesme i svirka Zagreba i okolice [Traditional music from Zagreb and its surroundings], Croatia Records CD 5058038 (1995)
Hrvatske dječje folklorne pjesme: hrvatski dječji folklorni ansambl ‘Ententin’ [Childrens’ folksongs], 1–2, ETHNO 01/567-100 (1995)
Narodne pjesme i plesovi otoka Krka [Folksongs and dances from the island of Krk] Melody MCD 007; MC 137 (1995)
Croatian Traditional Music, Euroradio/Ocora/Radio France/Hrvatski radio (1997)
IV. Jazz music.
- Davor Hrvoj
In the mid-1920s the famous Croatian filmmaker Oktavijan Miletić (b Zagreb, October 1, 1902; d Zagreb, August 17, 1987) brought the first saxophone to Zagreb from Vienna and formed the Jazz Ensemble Syncopaters. Soon after, other ensembles began playing jazz in Zagreb, with seven big bands appearing on the scene by World War II. At that time the Croatian capital had become the most important jazz center in Yugoslavia. It was in Zagreb, in 1938, that The Swing Trio recorded the first jazz record in Croatia.
During World War II the authorities suppressed the activities of jazz musicians, with the excuse that it was a ‘black music’, which aroused the lowest passions. This suppression extended through the post-war period, in which all that was American or pro-Western was blacklisted. Members of orchestras and small bands were often harassed and their work was banned; in response they often cut ties with the jazz community and cut their hair to conform. The activity of jazz musicians in this period took place in secret and under the pretext that it was a music other than jazz that was being performed. However, in due course jazz came to be accepted as an entirely legitimate form of musical expression in Croatia.
An important role in the development of jazz was played by the Croatian Radiotelevision Jazz Orchestra, which began as the Radio Zagreb Dance Orchestra in the 1946–7 season. Established by trumpet player and composer Zlatko Černjul (b Zagreb, January 8, 1924; d Zagreb, November 9, 1988), the Croatian Radiotelevision Jazz Orchestra is one of the world’s oldest continuously-active jazz orchestras. It achieved international success during the 1960s, primarily due to the compositional work of its members. The best Croatian jazz musicians played for the Croatian Radiotelevision Jazz Orchestra, some of whom also formed leading small ensembles. For many years it was led by drummer, composer, and arranger Silvije Glojnarić (b Ladislavec, near Zlatar Bistrica, December 2, 1936), and then by saxophonist and pedagogue Saša Nestorović (b Zagreb, August 27, 1964) from 2009. In addition to jazz standards the orchestra’s repertoire has included works and arrangements by Croatian musicians.
Bassist, composer, and arranger Miljenko Prohaska (b Zagreb, September 17, 1925) has been important for the Croatian Radiotelevision Jazz Orchestra and Croatian jazz generally. A longtime leader of the Orchestra, Prohaska was also a member of the most important group in Croatian jazz, the Zagreb Jazz Quartet. He wrote the song ‘Intima’, played by world-renowned musicians. It was under the inspiration of this song that British writer and jazz critic Leonard Feather wrote his set of lyrics called ‘Intime’.
The most famous musician in the history of Croatian jazz is Boško Petrović (b Bjelovar, February 18, 1935; d Zagreb, January 10, 2011), a vibraphonist, composer, producer, jazz educator, promoter, organizer of jazz concerts and festivals, record label owner, and head of a jazz club. In 1959 he founded the Zagreb Jazz Quartet. The quartet – in which he played with pianist Davor Kajfeš (b October 6, 1934); bassist Krešimir Remeta (b Brod Moravice near Skrad, January 14, 1932) and later bassist Miljenko Prohaska; and drummer Ivan (Ivica) Gereg (b Osijek April 26, 1936; d Zagreb May 19, 2010) and later drummer Silvije Glojnarić – performed throughout the world, released numerous records, and cooperated with famous musicians such as Joe Turner, Buck Clayton, and John Lewis. Petrović received numerous awards and honours, led international groups, and worked with leading Croatian musicians such as guitarist Damir Dičić (b Zagreb, July 23, 1938; d Zagreb, October 18, 2005), pianist Neven Frangeš (b Zagreb, December 8, 1951), and with world-famous jazz musicians such as Art Farmer, Stan Getz, Clark Terry, and Gerry Mulligan. His trio, with bassist Mario Mavrin (b Zagreb, January 18, 1949), and Slovenian guitarist Primož Grašič (b Kranj, June 30, 1968) was the most active jazz band in Croatia in the first decade of the 21st century. Petrović included elements of folk music in his works, as in his composition, ‘With Pain I was Born’.
In line with global trends, current Croatian jazz musicians have continued to expand the boundaries of conventional jazz, notably in forms of ‘ethno-jazz’, where the foundation of the musical style is Croatian traditional music.
- A. Bubanović: ‘Kronika zagrebačkog jazza’, Cantus, 122 (2003), 49–50; 124 (2003), 74–5; 126 (2004), 78–9
- M. Križić: ‘Jazz glazba u Hrvatskoj’, WAM: webzin o audiju i muzici, 18 (2003), 66–9; 19 (2004), 64–6; 20 (2004), 64–8; 21 (2004), 64–8
V. Popular music.
- Catherine Baker
Several factors have shaped the conditions for creating popular music in Croatia since its independence from Yugoslavia. The prevailing ‘state-building’ ideology of Croatian public culture in the 1990s held that media and the arts should promote a national cultural identity as separate as possible from Yugoslavia and ‘the Balkans’, encouraging various interest groups to each propose their own versions of Croatian cultural identity through popular music (from adaptations of ‘Eurodance’ pop music to forms of ‘newly-composed folk music’ based on Slavonian ‘tamburica’ music or Dalmatian light music traditions) – which often had more in common with their Yugoslav, Bosnian, and Serbian counterparts than ideology would have expected them to. After the death of Croatia’s first president in 1999 and a change of government in 2000, state cultural policy changed, the network of political patronage around music festivals and state television/radio airplay fragmented, and Croatian musicians and composers commonly complained that the government did not give national media production enough support. Certain musicians who dedicated themselves to populist and patriotic themes remediating the memory of the Croatian war of independence found strong support from right-wing politicians and the Church. Musicians on the alternative scene in punk, rock, metal, and hip hop, meanwhile, suffered from a lack of rehearsal and performance spaces exacerbated by the effects of the European and global financial crisis after 2008. Overtly politicized music apart, by the mid-2010s pragmatism and financial necessity had won out over nationalist ideology for most of the Croatian music industry, and the post-Yugoslav cultural area – as restructured by multinational media conglomerates and corporate sponsorship of music – was still its main external area of activity.
usa, §ii, 1(iii)(k): Traditional music: European American: South Slavic