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Martin Ruhnke

revised by Dale Allen Scott

(b Colditz, Saxony, c1590; d Zeitz, Sept 4, 1636). German music theorist and teacher. From 1609 he attended the Thomasschule, Leipzig, under Sethus Calvisius. About 1613 he became Kantor at Rochlitz, near his birthplace, and in 1618 at Zeitz. He is known by a school textbook, Musica nova, Newe Singekunst, so wol nach der alten Solmisation, als newen Bobisation und Bebisation (Leipzig, 1626/R). It begins with traditional elementary rules, but as early as the first theoretical part, solmization is contrasted with the new seven-step systems of bocedization (described by Calvisius) and bebization (after Hitzler), through which the difficulties of mutation could be avoided. The treatment of organ tabulation is also unusual for a school textbook. As the second, practical part Gengenbach published a self-contained collection of practice examples graded from the simple to the difficult. In the third part, which became a pattern for numerous appendixes in later school treatises, he explained Greek, Latin and Italian musical terms; he relied here on the third volume of Michael Praetorius's ...


Friedrich Baser


(b Pforzheim, April 23, 1891; d Stuttgart, Oct 17, 1969). German musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied under Philipp Wolfrum at Heidelberg (1909–11) and under Riemann at Leipzig (1911–13), where he took the doctorate in 1913 with a dissertation on musical form. In 1914 he studied composition with Bodanzki in Mannheim, and after war service he taught at the Röhmeyer Conservatory, Pforzheim (1919–23). He was lecturer in music theory at Gurlitt’s musicology institute at Freiburg University (1923–5), deputy director of the Academy for Speech and Music, Münster (1925–7), director of the music department of the Folkwang-Schule at Essen (1927–35) and director of the Folkwangschulen for Speech, Dance and Music (1935–43). His final post was as director of the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Stuttgart (1943–5, 1952–6), where he taught composition. His works include several large-scale choral pieces, folksong cantatas, string quartets, violin sonatas, songs and choruses. His writings, mostly designed for teaching purposes, have had a more lasting influence and show, in his dissertation as in his final book, a penetrating understanding of form. His practical gifts, which he was able to develop in Münster, are reflected in his textbooks on harmony and orchestration....


Mary Berry

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255 he entered the order of friars minor. Guy de Foulques (later Pope Clement IV), then Archbishop of Narbonne, wrote about 1265 asking him to outline a syllabus for the reform of learning – a sign of the high esteem in which Bacon and his teaching were held. Bacon responded by composing the three summaries known as the Opus maius, the Opus minor and the Opus tertium, submitting them to the pope in 1268. Clement died, however, that same year, before he had had time to study or implement them. During the next decade Bacon produced further writings on mathematics, science and language, including Greek and Hebrew grammars and a ...


Jocelyn Mackey

(b Schwäbisch Hall, bap. Sept 15, 1572; d Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Oct 31, 1634). German composer, organist, instrumentalist, teacher and poet.

Widmann came of a well-educated family. The Lateinschule at Schwäbisch Hall provided a good musical training in the 1580s under Johannes Crusius, and young Widmann ‘sang a good discant’ there and learnt to play the organ, harpsichord, lute, zither, viol, flute and trombone. On 28 April 1589 he entered the University of Tübingen and passed his bachelor’s examinations in 1590; at the university, students could study plainsong, notation and polyphony. Widmann is next heard of as an organist at Eisenerz, Styria, in 1595, and from 1596 until 1598 he held a similar position at Graz. He was a Lutheran, but since the Peace of Augsburg (1555) Protestantism had spread in Austria, and during the 1570s it was even tolerated. In 1598, however, on the orders of Duke Ferdinand, Lutheran ministers were given two weeks to leave. Moreover, in the same year Widmann almost lost his position because of trouble with women: two young women accused him of breach of promise, while he professed to wish to marry a third (he married Margarethe Ehetreiber on 12 June). Because of the action against Lutherans he returned in late ...


(b Schwiebus, Silesia [now Siebodzin, Poland], Aug 11, 1613; d Tübingen, July 16, 1698). German composer, poet, writer, teacher and educationist. His earliest musical training included singing in the local church choir and probably instruction from an uncle, Georg Lindner, a composer with a local reputation. While he was still a boy his family was forced by war to move to Frankfurt an der Oder. Here he attended the Pädagogium and in 1629 entered the university. In 1631 he went to the University of Königsberg but soon left and became a music tutor at the estate of Georg Reimer at Schtejki, north-east of Memel (now Klaipe̊da). In 1633 he returned to Königsberg, where he resumed his university studies and tutored the sons of patrician families. He received a broad education and was skilled in several languages, including Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Polish. He thus was qualified to be appointed, in ...


Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...


Johannes Günther Kraner

(b Freiberg, Saxony, bap. March 28, 1603; d Schandau, Saxony, bur. Oct 2, 1656). German composer and teacher. He studied at the Gymnasium at Freiberg under Christoph Demantius, his ‘truly diligent mentor’, as he later called him. He matriculated at the University of Leipzig in the summer term of 1614, but since there is no record of his taking an oath it seems that he did not study there after all. Probably between 1621 and 1623 he went to Augsburg, where he is said to have studied and taken up employment. In 1625 he became a teacher at the Protestant Gymnasium of St Anna. On 7 September 1629, as a consequence of the Edict of Restitution of 6 March 1629, he was dismissed, together with all the other teachers, for embracing the Protestant faith. By 1631 he was back in Freiberg, where, when the post became vacant on ...


Tat′yana S. Kyuregyan

(b Ryazan′, Aug 14, 1932; d Moscow, April 24, 2003). Russian musicologist and music teacher. He studied with I.V. Sposobin (1948–54) at the Moscow Conservatory, where he also completed his postgraduate studies in 1960 with S.S. Bogatïryov after three years of military service (1955–8). He began teaching music theory at the conservatory in 1960 and was appointed senior lecturer in 1972 and professor in 1983; during this time he also taught at other music schools in Moscow. His students, who include prominent musicologists such as Saponov and Cherednichenko and composers such as Smirnov and Firsova, have acknowledged his influence. He published over 600 items on a broad range of themes and was internationally recognized as an outstanding scholar; his awards included the International Bartók Medal in 1981 and the State Prize of Russia in 1990 and he was made an Honoured Representative of the Arts of the Russian Federation (...


Benito V. Rivera and Martin Ruhnke

(b Lüneburg, 1564; d Rostock, March 5, 1629). German theorist, composer and teacher. He was one of the leading German theorists of his time and one of the most influential, especially for his work on rhetorical figures in music.

Burmeister studied music at the Johannisschule, Lüneburg, under the Kantors Christoph Praetorius and Euricius Dedekind and the vice-Rektor Lucas Lossius, who particularly impressed him with his textbooks on rhetoric and dialectic. In 1586 he matriculated at Rostock University, where his academic teachers included, among other widely educated humanists, the mathematician and professor of medicine Henricus Brucaeus. He took his master’s degree in 1593. From Easter 1589 he was on the staff of the Rostock town school and was Kantor, first of the Nikolaikirche, then, from the autumn of that year, of the principal church, the Marienkirche; from 1593 until his death he was regular teacher (collega classicus)....


(b Gatterstädt, nr Querfurt, July 16, 1766; d Altenburg, Aug 27, 1840). German bass and teacher. He attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig from 1779, and as a pupil of the choirmaster J.F. Doles he soon became the chorus prefect. In 1789 he met Mozart, who gave an organ concert there, but he declined Mozart's offer to take him to Vienna, as he was receiving a royal bursary to study theology at the University of Leipzig. He took his final examination in Dresden in 1791 and became a private tutor. On Doles's recommendation, he became Kantor at the Nikolaikirche in Luckau, Lower Lusatia, in 1793; two years later, however, he moved to Görlitz, where he was active for almost two decades as a Kantor and schoolteacher. In 1814 he succeeded J.G. Krebs as Kantor of Altenburg.

Thoroughly schooled in music, Döring appeared with success as a bass, a violinist, a pianist and an organist. He was also highly regarded as a conductor and singing teacher. His sacred music was admired by his contemporaries for its melodic qualities, but it was largely unpublished and almost none has survived. His desire to provide a good general musical education is evident in his attempt to make the melodies in his chorale books easier to read by means of a system of letter notation similar to German organ tablature....


Anthony Newcomb

(b Vallerano, c1560; d Rome, 21 or May 26, 1618). Italian maestro di cappella teacher and composer, brother of Giovanni Maria Nanino. Like his elder brother, he was a boy soprano at Vallerano Cathedral (near Viterbo). From 1591 to 1608 he was maestro di cappella at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, a post previously held by his brother. Before his appointment at S Luigi and after the appearance of his first book of madrigals in 1588, he was maestro di cappella first at the Confraternita della SS Trinità dei Pellegrini from May 1585 to October 1586 and then at S Maria de’ Monti. After leaving S Luigi in 1608, he was maestro di cappella at S Lorenzo in Damaso, the small church in the Palazzo della Cancelleria, the residence of Cardinal Montalto, who was one of the richest and most cultured patrons of the early Baroque in Rome. It is now clear that Nanino supervised a great deal of music, both sacred and secular, for Cardinal Montalto from ...


Josef Häusler

(b Eferding, Upper Austria, Nov 30, 1895; d Stuttgart, Dec 22, 1977). Austrian composer and teacher. He received his early musical education at the Augustinian monastery of St Florian near Linz and at the Benedictine Gymnasium at Kremsmünster. For a short time before World War I he taught at a primary school, and he returned to teaching after his military service. From 1920 to 1923 he studied composition with Joseph Marx at the Vienna Academy of Music; he then worked in Wels (1924–34) as a primary school teacher, organist and choirmaster, while continuing his study of composition alone. In 1934 he was appointed to the staff of the Leipzig Landeskonservatorium (later Hochschule für Musik), where he was made director in 1942. He was director and composition teacher at the Salzburg Mozarteum from 1945 to 1947; following this he was professor of composition at the Stuttgart Hochschule für Musik (...


Victor H. Mattfeld

(b Eisfeld an der Werre, Suhl, 1488; d Wittenberg, Aug 6, 1548). German publisher. Working in Wittenberg, removed from the main centres of music publication, he became one of the most important music publishers, particularly for the Reformation church. He studied at the University of Wittenberg (1512–14), and then worked for four years in the publishing house of Johann Rhau-Grunenberg (presumably his uncle). In 1518 he left Wittenberg to become Kantor of the Thomasschule and Thomaskirche in Leipzig, a position he held until at least 1 May 1520. On 18 September 1518 he also joined the faculty of the University of Leipzig, lecturing in music theory.

Rhau may have been associated with the circle of theologians surrounding Luther in Wittenberg; as a resident of that city at the time of the nailing of the 95 theses, he was certainly aware of Luther’s position. In June 1519...


Gregory S. Dubinsky


(b Vienna, Dec 5, 1901; d Vienna, Jan 27, 1969). Austrian composer and teacher . He had little formal musical training, but participated in Schoenberg’s class at the Schwarzwald School for three months in 1918–19 and was for four months a private student of Alban Berg’s. From 1920 to 1922 he studied the piano, harmony and counterpoint with Franz Schmidt at the Akademie für Music und Darstellende Kunst in Vienna. For nearly three decades afterwards, he earned his living principally as a pianist in bars and cinemas, and with leading small bands.

His first concert works, Symphony in D and Praeludium, Passacaglia und Fuge, are rooted in the Austrian symphonic tradition of the early twentieth century. He drew on his knowledge of popular music in his subsequent works: the Sinfonia ritmica (Musik in Jazz) for jazz band and orchestra, Rather Fast for jazz band and the Sonata ritmica for jazz band. His ...


Hugh J. McLean

(b Paddingbüttel, Dorum, Land Wursten, cSept 1654; d Hamburg, Feb 9, 1740). German composer, organist and teacher. He was the son of another Vincent Lübeck (b ?Glückstadt; d Flensburg, 1654), who had worked as an organist in Glückstadt and, from 1647, at the Marienkirche, Flensburg, where he was succeeded in 1654 by Caspar Förckelrath. Förckelrath married the widow and was the younger Vincent’s first teacher; according to Syré (1999), Vincent may also have studied with Andreas Kneller, with whose keyboard music his own shows parallels. Towards the end of 1674 Lübeck became organist of St Cosmae et Damiani, Stade, near Hamburg, marrying, as was a custom, his predecessor’s daughter, Susanne Becker. The fine organ that Arp Schnitger completed there in 1679 was no doubt a factor that persuaded him to remain until 1702. His brilliant reputation then won him the appointment of organist of the Nikolaikirche, Hamburg, which he held until his death. It too had a Schnitger organ, a four-manual instrument of 67 stops, one of the largest in the world, that was considered the best in a prosperous musical city. In his postscript to F.E. Niedt’s ...


W. Richard Shindle

(b Valenciennes, 1548–50; d Naples, Sept 1614). Flemish composer, organist and teacher, resident in Italy. He was a leading composer of the Neapolitan school in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

Macque’s birthplace is given on his marriage contract and on the title-page of his volume of motets of 1596. As a boy he sang in the choir of the imperial chapel at Vienna. A memorandum of 7 December 1563 recommended that he be placed in the Jesuit college at Vienna because his voice had broken: this establishes his approximate date of birth. After he left the college he studied with Philippe de Monte and by 1574 he had moved to Rome under the patronage of Monsignor Serafino Oliviero Razzali, Judge of the Sacra Romana Rota. From 1 October 1580 to 21 September 1581 he was organist of S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. During this period Macque established relationships with members of the Caetani family. It was probably through the influence of Cardinal Enrico Caetani that four of his polychoral motets appear in a manuscript prepared under the auspices of Annibale Zoilo for the Lenten music at the SS Trinità dei Pellegrini in the early 1580s. Together with G.M. Nanino, Marenzio, Giovannelli and others, he was a member of the Compagnia dei Musici di Roma when it won papal sanction in ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Lorenz Welker

(b Amsterdam, Feb 25, 1930). German musicologist. He received practical musical training at Heidelberg University from 1950 and studied musicology with Georgiades, philosophy with H.-G. Gadamer and K. Jaspers and ecclesiastical history; he also studied musicology with Handschin in Basle (1952–3). He took the doctorate at Heidelberg in 1960 with a dissertation on the early masses of Du Fay. From 1960 to 1963 he carried out research on medieval music at the Heidelberg and Bavarian Academies of Sciences, and from 1962 he also lectured at Munich University, where he completed his Habilitation in musicology in 1970 with studies on Berlioz; he taught there from that year as a lecturer in musicology and was appointed professor in 1977. He retired in 1995. His research, which is concerned with source material (palaeography as well as analysis), covers music of the late Middle Ages, the Viennese Classics, the 19th and early 20th centuries, and musical-textual relationships....


Klaus Fischer

(b Perugia, c1580; d Rome, May 6, 1638). Italian composer, singer and teacher. He was a pupil of G.B. Nanino at the choir school at S Luigi dei Francesi, Rome, from June 1592 to 31 October 1594. On 1 May 1600 he was engaged as a bass there. From February 1603 to 6 December 1609 he was maestro di cappella of S Maria Maggiore, Rome; after a severe illness in January 1606 he could no longer fulfil his obligations and in order to recover his health was granted leave of absence from Rome from May to September that year. From 1610 he worked at Benevento Cathedral and from 1614 was director of music to Cardinal Arrigoni in Rome. From 1 August 1616 to 31 July 1620 he was maestro di cappella of S Luigi dei Francesi. On 13 June 1620 he was chosen as successor to Francesco Soriano, who had retired as ...


Werner Breig and Pieter Dirksen

(b Wöhrden, Holstein, c1595; d Hamburg, Sept 26, 1663). German composer, organist and teacher. A founder of the north German organ school, he was one of the leading organ composers of the 17th century, notable above all for his chorale-based works.

Scheidemann's father, David Scheidemann, organist at Wöhrden from 1594, moved to a similar post at St Katharinen, Hamburg, by 1604, when, like Hieronymus Praetorius, Jacob Praetorius (ii) and Joachim Decker, he contributed some pieces to the Hamburg Melodeyen Gesangbuch. From November 1611 to November 1614 Heinrich Scheidemann studied at Amsterdam with Sweelinck who dedicated to him, when he left, a canon ‘Ter eeren des vromen Jonghmans Henderich Scheijtman, van Hamborgh’ (facs. in J.P. Sweelinck: Werken, ix, Leipzig, 1901, no.14, p.77). The next surviving contemporary notice of him records him as occupying his father's former position as organist at St Katharinen, Hamburg, in 1629; according to Gerber he took up the post in ...


William E. Hettrick

(b Gaualgesheim, nr Mainz, 1568–73; d Augsburg, between 9 June and Sept 7, 1635). German composer, organist and teacher. Three documents from his own time give his age variously as 40 in 1610, 42 in 1615 and 50 in 1619, thus placing his birthdate between 1568 and 1573. He stated in 1609 that he had devoted himself to music from his earliest years. His first published composition appeared in Victorinus's Thesaurus litaniarum (RISM 1596²). By this time he may already have entered the service in Augsburg of Marcus Fugger, whose patronage he praised in the dedication of his first book of Modi sacri (1600); this collection includes a work written for Fugger's wedding in 1598. In 1602 he was appointed to positions in Augsburg that had previously been held by Hans Leo Hassler: organist at the church of St Moritz (on 27 March) and city organist and head of the Stadtpfeifer (on 11 June). Stating that he had recently recovered from a serious illness, he dedicated his ...