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Article

Edward Dannreuther

revised by Elisabeth Schmiedel

(b Berlin, Oct 3, 1828; d Berlin, Feb 23, 1897). German composer and conductor. He was the son of Adolph Bargiel, a Berlin music teacher, and his wife Mariane (née Tromlitz) Wieck, who had divorced Friedrich Wieck in 1824 and was the mother of Clara Wieck (Schumann). He learnt the piano, violin and harmony from his father, and was a chorister and solo alto of what was later the cathedral choir. From 1846 to 1850 he studied, on the advice of his brother-in-law Schumann, at the Leipzig Conservatory, where his teachers included Moscheles and Plaidy (piano), David and Joachim (violin), Hauptmann, Richter, Rietz and Gade (theory and composition). Returning to Berlin he developed a reputation as a teacher and composer, and in 1859 became teacher of theory at the Cologne Conservatory. He was Kapellmeister and director of the institute of the Maatschappij tot Bevordering der Toonkunst at Rotterdam from ...

Article

(b Langensalza, Sept 24, 1773; d Leipzig, Jan 30, 1827). German conductor and composer. He attended the Thomasschule in Leipzig and from 1787 appeared as a soprano in the Gewandhaus concerts. In 1793 he began studying theology at Leipzig University, but soon changed to music and became a pupil of the court organist Engel and of J.G. Schicht. In 1800 he was appointed conductor with Franz Seconda’s theatre company in Leipzig, for which he also composed stage music. In 1810 he became director of the second Leipzig Singakademie and of the Gewandhaus concerts, where at first he conducted only secular vocal music; in 1816 he took over from Schicht as director of sacred works there as well. His post at the Singakademie connected him with the university, and in 1818 he was appointed music director there.

Schulz was most highly regarded as a singing tutor to amateurs. His few works include a number of quite popular lieder and partsongs, published by G.W. Finck in the ...

Article

Othmar Wessely

(b Vienna, Dec 25, 1831; d Vienna, Oct 28, 1877). Austrian conductor and composer. At the age of 12 he became a choirboy in the Cistercian monastery in Heiligenkreuz, where he studied the piano with Ferdinand Borschitzky. During the summers of 1845 and 1846 he went to Vienna for instruction in composition with Ludwig Rotter. He then took up philosophy and law at the University of Vienna (1847) but did not complete these studies. He earned a living as a private tutor in Münchendorf, Lower Austria, in 1848–9 and began his musical career in 1852 as choirmaster at the Piaristenkirche in Vienna. From 1856 to 1866 he was choirmaster of the Männergesangverein in Vienna, and from 1858 he also taught at the conservatory and directed the choral society of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. He conducted the concerts of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde from 1859 to 1870...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Lublin, 1791; d Lwów, Nov 30, 1859). Polish violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. He began his musical studies with his father, Michał, conductor of the cathedral orchestra at Lublin. From his father's correspondence it is known that he was to begin studies at the Warsaw Conservatory in 1816, but according to other sources he studied in Vienna. From 1814, for about four years, he was conductor of the theatre orchestra in Lwów. Critical acclaim of his virtuosity came in 1818 and 1819 through a series of concerts at the Schuppanzigh winter gardens in Lwów, and in the following few years he gave concerts in Kraków, Warsaw and Kiev. In 1831 he gave a concert tour in Austria (his first concert in Vienna was on 19 April 1831) and Italy; in Venice (according to reviews in the press) his playing was favourably compared to that of Paganini. Early in ...

Article

Gaetano  

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

[Majer, Kajetan]

(b Warsaw, 1st half of the 18th century; d Warsaw, c1792). Polish composer and conductor, probably of German origin. He came to Warsaw from Dresden in 1758 and presumably had already worked at the court of King August III of Saxony (then King of Poland). Known as an accomplished violinist, in 1764 he created an orchestra for the coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski. From 1765 he worked as a violinist at the newly established National Theatre, holding the post of orchestral director from 1776 (or 1779) until his death. At the same time he was responsible for concerts at the Royal Castle, where he employed the musicians and ran various kinds of ensembles. In 1772 he organized 17 concerts, with a similar number the following year, billed as ‘therapeutic concerts’ for the king who was then ill. He brought to the theatre various orchestras maintained by Polish princes such as W. Potocki (with which orchestra Gaetano performed on the harpsichord in ...

Article

John Bergsagel

(Severin)

(b Christiania [now Oslo], Sept 30, 1840; d Copenhagen, June 14, 1911). Norwegian violinist, composer and conductor.

His father was a military musician who gave him instruction in a variety of instruments. At the age of nine he began to play in local dance orchestras and at 11 to compose dances and marches, two of which were later published. He joined the army and soon transferred to the regimental band, where he became solo clarinettist. The violin was his principal instrument, however; he took lessons from F. Ursin and played in the orchestra of the Norwegian Theatre, of which Ibsen was director from 1857. His first experience of the symphonic repertory was as a first violinist in the series of subscription concerts arranged by Halfdan Kjerulf and J.G. Conradi in 1857–9, when Beethoven’s music made a deep impression on him. He then became a pupil of Carl Arnold, whose instruction he always valued highly, though it seems to have consisted mainly of a thorough study of Beethoven’s and Mozart’s violin sonatas. In ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b Stuttgart, Nov 27, 1804; d London, June 5, 1885). British composer and conductor of German Jewish birth. His father, a banker, placed him under Ludwig Abeille for musical instruction; at the age of 15 he went to Weimar as a pupil of Hummel, who introduced him to Beethoven. His father, anxious for him to study with Weber, took him to Dresden in February 1821, and Hummel persuaded Weber to take Benedict as his first pupil. Weber soon treated him as a member of his family, and gave him 12 lessons a month. Benedict accompanied Weber to Berlin in June 1821 for the première of Der Freischütz, and had the first of many meetings with Mendelssohn. He also went to Vienna in September 1823 for the first performance of Euryanthe (25 October), and was present at Weber’s famous meeting with Beethoven at Baden on 5 October. When Weber left Vienna on 5 November Benedict stayed behind to keep an eye on the subsequent performances....

Article

Arend Koole

revised by Paul van Reijen

(b Amsterdam, bap. Oct 29, 1741; d Amsterdam, May 13, 1801). Dutch violinist, organist, conductor, composer and librettist. His father Reynier Ruloffs was a bassoonist; his brother Jan Pieter was a violinist at the Moses- en Aäronkerk and a timpanist in the Amsterdam Stadsschouwburg orchestra, in which Bartholomeus became a violinist in 1757. In the 1760s Ruloffs was active as a violinist at the Moses- en Aäronkerk and in 1766 he was appointed organist at the Nieuwezijdskapel. The Amsterdam theatre burnt down in 1772, and the following year Ruloffs succeeded Hendrik Chalon as conductor of the orchestra. On 15 September 1774 the rebuilt theatre was inaugurated with music by Ruloffs. In 1783 Ruloffs became organist at the Westerkerk, and in 1791 conductor of the Felix Meritis symphony concerts. In 1791 he was also appointed organist at the Nieuwe Kerk, but he left in 1793 to become organist at the Oude Kerk, where he remained until his death. In the same year he married the singer Ernestina Louisa Anderegg. He was removed from his conducting duties at the theatre in ...

Article

Andrea Lanza

(b Udine, July 28, 1813; d Milan, Dec 31, 1877). Italian composer, conductor and singing teacher. He studied mathematics, intending to become an astronomer, but gave it up to study music at the Padua Conservatory. In 1834 while he was still a student his first opera, La fidanzata di Lammermoor, was performed in Padua with some success; it was followed in 1836 by Don Chisciotte in Milan. According to Fétis, he then visited Paris, where performances of Beethoven, the French operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy’s La Juive made a deep impression on him; this is reflected in his next operas, Esmeralda (1838) and I corsari (1840). Some critics had considered his earlier works too modern, and the more conservative ones now accused him of writing noisy, difficult music lacking in melody. Public reaction was mixed: Esmeralda was widely performed but not always well received, while ...

Article

Jeffry Mark

revised by Gaynor G. Jones

(b Bamberg, 1763; d Wallerstein, nr Nördlingen, March 29, 1825). German conductor and composer. He studied singing with Fracasini and the violin with Bäuerle at Bamberg. After his voice broke, he studied the horn with Punto, who took him on concert tours in Germany, France and Austria. From 1781 to 1782 they stayed in Paris, where Amon studied composition with Sacchini. During his subsequent travels, Amon met J.A. Hiller, Reichardt, Hoffmeister, Haydn and Mozart. He continued to tour with Punto until 1789, when he accepted the post of musical director at Heilbronn. Poor health forced him to give up playing the horn, and he concentrated on improving his violin, viola and piano technique. In 1817 he became Kapellmeister to the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein, in whose service he remained for the rest of his life.

Amon was an expert conductor and a versatile musician, a good performer on the horn, and later on the violin, viola and piano; he also taught singing and a variety of instruments. His many compositions include duos, trios, quartets, quintets, symphonies, marches, solo sonatas for various instruments and sonatas and variations for piano. He also wrote concertos, two Singspiels, two masses, cantatas, songs and a requiem which was performed at his funeral. Many of his works are unpublished. His eldest son Ernest wrote a set of variations for flute and orchestra....

Article

Dieter Härtwig

(b Dresden, July 25, 1772; d Breslau [now Wrocław], May 5, 1840). German composer and conductor. He learnt singing, the oboe and the violin at home and studied basso continuo and composition with the Kantor of the Kreuzschule, Christian Ehregott Weinlig. In 1788 he became musical director of the Voigt drama company and in 1790 of the Döbbelin opera company. From 1791 to 1806 he held the same position in Joseph Seconda’s company, which toured Dresden, Leipzig, Brunswick and Ballenstedt. He married the singer Sophie de Merell in 1794. Following the successful première of his opera Wladimir, Fürst von Nowgorod, commissioned for the Theater an der Wien by its director Prince Esterházy, Bierey became Kapellmeister and musical director of the Breslau Stadttheater in January 1808 and remained there for 20 years, much to the advantage of the city’s musical and operatic life. He founded a choral society in ...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

(b Reichenau [now Bogatynia], nr Zittau, Sept 29, 1753; d Leipzig, Feb 16, 1823). German conductor, keyboard player and composer. He was brought up by his uncle at Zittau, where he was first taught to play keyboard instruments by the organist Johann Trier. From 1776, when he went to Leipzig University to study law, he played in the concerts at the inn ‘Zu den drei Schwänen’ (the ‘Grosses Concert’) under the direction of Hiller. Abandoning the law, he also played under Hiller in the Musikübende Gesellschaft and from 1781 played the violin in the Gewandhaus concerts. In 1785 he succeeded Hiller as musical director of the Gewandhaus concerts and subsequently of the Neukirche. He founded the Leipzig Singakademie in 1802, directed it until 1807 and became the university’s musical director in 1808. In 1810 he succeeded August Müller as Kantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, where he attained a high standard of performance. His wife, the Italian singer Costanza Valdesturla, sang at the Gewandhaus concerts for many years before her death in ...

Article

Gunter Hempel

(b Northeim, Dec 13, 1767; d Weimar, Dec 3, 1817). German conductor, flautist, keyboard player and composer. He was first taught the keyboard and organ by his father, the organist Matthäus Müller, and later took lessons in harmony and composition with J.C.F. Bach in Bückeburg. In 1786 he began to study law at Göttingen, where he attracted attention as a flautist in the informal concerts at the home of the Officer of Justice, Püttner. He then made concert tours in northern Germany and lived for a time in Brunswick. In 1788 he married the pianist Elisabeth Catherina Rabert in Magdeburg, and in the following year succeeded her father as organist at the Ulrichskirche there. From 1792 he conducted the Masonic concerts and the private concerts of the nobility. During the 1792–3 season he appeared in Berlin, where he made the acquaintance of several important people. On J.F. Reichardt’s recommendation he became organist at the Nikolaikirche, Leipzig, in ...

Article

(Josef Alois) [Anton]

(b Jaroměř, Nov 1, 1761; d Prague, Jan 16, 1817). Czech composer, choirmaster and theatre conductor. He was the son of an organist and cantor at Jaroměř. In Prague, where he married on 3 March 1783, he was appointed violinist at the church of St Voytěch, organist at the church of Sts Petr and Pavel in the Vyšehrad district (in the 1790s) and choirmaster of St Petr at Poříči (from 1 January 1801 to 31 December 1816). He was also a violinist in several Prague theatre orchestras, and served as music director or répétiteur for some. In this capacity he was also active in Leipzig (autumn 1797 to 30 March 1798), Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary) and Teplice. He conducted the first Prague performance of Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte (25 October 1792), as well as the first staging of this work in Czech (October 1794...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Pesaro, Nov 30, 1748; d Warsaw, March 27, 1812). Italian composer and conductor, active in Poland. The earliest reference to his activities in Warsaw dates from 12 April 1773, when King Stanisław August Poniatowski paid him a fee for a concert. From the middle of 1782 for about two years he was the king’s maître de chapelle, during which time his main duty was to direct concerts at both the Royal Castle and the Orangerie Theatre in the gardens of Łazienki Palace (both in Warsaw). On 17 September 1784 he conducted J.D. Holland’s opera Agatka at the court of Karol Radziwiłł in Nieśwież, and in the autumn of the same year he tried to promote an opera of his own in Vienna, but without much success. In 1785 he presented his opera Circe und Ulisses in Hamburg, and from about the middle of 1785 until the beginning of ...

Article

(b Lüneburg, March 31, 1747; d Schwedt an der Oder, June 10, 1800). German composer and conductor. His father was a baker who planned a religious career for him, so he attended both of Lüneburg’s Lateinschulen; but his interests lay chiefly with music and he frequently appeared as soloist with various school and church choirs in Lüneburg. He studied the violin, flute, keyboard and theory with the local organist J.C. Schmügel. At the age of 15 he accompanied his mother to Lüchow for a family wedding, then continued alone to Berlin, where he sought out his musical heroes C.P.E. Bach and Joseph Kirnberger to enlist their help in his musical career. He was persuaded to complete his education in Lüneburg but when he was 18 he returned to Berlin and Kirnberger accepted him as a pupil. In one of several later autobiographical sketches he complained that his three years of study with Kirnberger consisted almost entirely of the analysis and composition of chorales....

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Berlin, Dec 11, 1758; d Berlin, May 15, 1832). German composer, conductor and teacher. His father George, a mason from Saxony, settled about 1750 in Berlin, where he worked as a building contractor and married Anna Dorothea Hintze, daughter of a cloth-worker; Carl Friedrich was the second of two sons of this marriage. Zelter was first taught at home and then attended the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium. At his father’s wish, he trained as a mason, becoming in 1783 a master mason and partner in his father’s business, which he took over in 1787; he remained a member of the Berlin masons’ guild until 1815. In 1787 Zelter married Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, née Kappel, who had three children by her first marriage and bore him eight more but died in 1795. A year later he married the singer Juliane Pappritz (d 1806), who bore him two children....

Article

Milan Poštolka

revised by Roger Hickman

[Pavel]

(b Nová Říše, Moravia, Dec 30, 1756; d Vienna, Sept 26, 1808). Czech composer, conductor and violinist active in Vienna, brother of Anton Wranitzky. He studied singing and the organ, violin and viola at the Premonstratensian monastery grammar school in Nová Říše, and later at Jihlava (1770–71). At Olomouc he studied theology and became an excellent violinist. At 20 he went to Vienna, where he entered the theological seminary and served as its choirmaster. He continued his musical studies with J.M. Kraus (the Kapellmeister to the Swedish court, who visited Vienna in about 1783). Suggestions that he was also a pupil of Haydn remain unsubstantiated.

He served as music director for Count Johann Baptist Esterházy in the spring of 1784 and was appointed director of the newly created Kärntnertortheater orchestra in October 1785, a position he held until 1787, when he joined the Burgtheater orchestra. He was named its director in either ...

Article

Clive Brown

[Ludewig, Ludwig]

(b Brunswick, April 5, 1784; d Kassel, Oct 22, 1859). German composer, violinist and conductor.

Regarded by many contemporaries as worthy of a place beside Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven in the pantheon of the greatest composers, he has, together with Gluck and Cherubini, been allotted a considerably lower status by posterity. Mozart's Figaro and Wagner's Tristan were both composed during Spohr's lifetime; his own work looks, Janus-like, towards both the formalism and clarity of the Classical tradition, and the structural and harmonic experimentation associated with 19th-century Romanticism.

Spohr was born into a family which had been active in the vicinity of the Harz mountains, particularly as doctors and pastors, for at least five generations. Both his grandfathers were Lutheran pastors, but his father, Carl Heinrich Spohr (1756–1843), who married a cousin, Juliane Ernestine Luise Henke (1763–1840) on 26 November 1782, had reverted to his family's earlier profession of medicine. Their first child, born a year and a half later, was christened Ludewig, but in accordance with fashionable French taste he was always known as Louis. At that time Carl Heinrich was practising in Brunswick, but in ...