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Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...


George Grove

revised by John Warrack

(b Vienna, Feb 29, 1820; d Leipzig, June 21, 1887). Austrian composer, pianist and singing teacher. The son of a painter well known for his portraits of Beethoven, Weber and Spohr, he entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 16, studying the piano, composition (with Berton and Halévy) and singing (with Bordogni and Banderali). In the 1840s he travelled to Italy for further study in singing and in 1846 his opera Alessandro Stradella was produced in Florence. From 1850 to 1853 he was in London, acting as maestro al cembalo at Her Majesty's Theatre, as well as touring with Balfe, Sims Reeves and Clara Novello. While doing similar work at the Théâtre Italien Opera in Paris (1854–9), his comedy List um List was produced in Schwerin in 1858 under Flotow and became popular in several theatres in north Germany. He taught singing at the Leipzig Conservatory from ...


(b Kassel, Feb 23, 1749; d Reval [now Tallinn], Jan 20, 1833). German soprano. She was neglected in infancy and suffered from rickets, from which she never fully recovered; this marred her stage appearance later. She showed musical talent at an early age, first on the violin, and from 1755 her father, a violinist, exhibited her as a prodigy in Vienna. In 1759 she was taken to London, where she played before the queen and was urged to take up singing in preference to the violin, and took singing lessons under Paradisi. She returned to Germany in 1765 and the next year was engaged as principal singer in J.A. Hiller’s concerts in Leipzig. In her memoirs she denied the often repeated assertion that she had also been his pupil, but no doubt she learnt much from him. In 1767 she made a successful opera début in Dresden, then returning to Leipzig. In ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Glinno, nr Poznań, April 9, 1757; d Warsaw, July 23, 1829). Polish impresario, librettist, actor and singer. He was a central figure in the history of the Polish theatre. He studied in Kraków (1770–73), where he attended many theatrical and concert performances organized by Sierakowski, prompting him to change the direction of his career away from the army and towards the theatre. He probably completed his studies at the Piarist school in Warsaw. For a few months during 1778 he studied acting with L. Montbrun, a Warsaw theatrical impresario. Soon afterwards he made his début as an actor in N.T. Barthé’s comedy Zmyślona niewierność (‘Imaginary Infidelity’), and on 11 July 1778 as a singer and librettist in the première of Maciej Kamieński’s opera Poverty made Happy. In 1783 he became the director of the National Theatre in Warsaw, remaining in this position (with some breaks) until ...


Sven Hansell

(b Milan, 1758; d after 1816). Italian singer and composer. He began a career as a baritone in Milan and Genoa and may have sung in Paris in the 1780s. Touring Germany in the early 1790s, he became court singer to the Prince of Nassau Weilburg and sang at the Berlin Königliches Nationaltheater from 1792. His performances in German (including roles in Mozart’s Don Giovanni and J.M. König’s Lilla, oder Die Gärtnerin) were criticized, but those in Italian comic operas by Paisiello, Sarti, Cimarosa and Astarita were highly praised. On 16 February 1794 his own serious opera Die Insel der Alcina (2, G. Bertati; manuscript in D-SWl ) was staged at the Berlin Hoftheater, and in 1796 his pastoral intermezzo Fileno e Clorinda was given in Charlottenburg and Potsdam. Bianchi remained a member of the opera buffa company at the Prussian court until late 1797, when Friedrich Wilhelm II died. He then visited various German cities and became co-director with Krüger of an opera troupe touring Thuringia. His ballets ...


Daniel Heartz and Paul Corneilson

(b Gelsdorf, nr Bonn, bap. May 6, 1714; d Munich, May 28, 1797). German tenor. Originally educated for the priesthood, he sang in several dramas at the Jesuit college in Bonn while still a boy. After being appointed to the service of Clement Augustus, Elector of Cologne, Raaff was sent in 1736 to Munich, where he studied with Ferrandini and sang in his Adriano in Siria (1737). The following year he studied with Bernacchi in Bologna, remaining in Italy until 1741–2, when he returned to electoral service in Bonn. In 1749 he left for Vienna where he sang in several operas composed and directed by Jommelli. He was in Italy in 1751–2 when he was called to the court of Lisbon; from there he went in 1755 to Madrid, where he sang Amasi in Conforto’s Nitteti (1756). In 1759 he travelled with Farinelli to Naples....


Hermann Ullrich

[Franz (Sales); Franz Xaver (Stanislaus); Stanislaus; Stanislaus Franz (Xaver)] [Meister]

(b Steingaden, May 4, 1763; d Strasbourg, Sept 8, 1819). German composer and singer. Although baptized Stanislaus, he took the additional name Franz, often using it in place of his baptismal name. Some compositions that he signed ‘Franz’ have erroneously been ascribed to his brother Franz Xaver (1758–1822), a priest. Another brother, Felix Mathias (b 1756), was active as a singer in Augsburg. Spindler was probably educated first as a choirboy in the Premonstratensian abbey of Steingaden and later in Augsburg. According to Reichard, his career began in 1782. His Singspiel Die Reue vor der Tat had its première in Frankfurt in 1783; he was in Innsbruck in 1785–6, and in summer 1786 appeared with Emanuel Schikaneder’s troupe in Augsburg, where his Singspiel Balders Tod was performed. According to his obituary (AMZ), he was a pupil of Dittersdorf, and he was probably a member of the Prince-Bishop of Breslau’s Kapelle at Johannisberg (Jánský Vrch), near Jayernig (Javorník), in Silesia, which Dittersdorf directed. In ...


(b Milan, Aug 8, 1755; d Milan,14/15/Dec 18, 1829). Italian castrato and composer. He studied with the tenor Albuzzi and the castrato Caironi, either in Modena (Schmidl) or in Milan (Gerber), where he had entered the cathedral choir in 1765 and later studied composition with its director Fioroni. He made his theatrical début in Rome’s Teatro delle Dame, singing female roles in three comic operas (1773–4); he never again appeared in either female or comic roles. During Carnival 1775 he took minor roles at the Regio Ducal Teatro, Milan, and later sang in Venice and Treviso; in Carnival 1776 he began a six-year contract with the Munich court, but sang there for two seasons only. On 31 January 1778 he was dismissed because of retrenchments following the death of the elector (30 December 1777).

Marchesi’s emergence as one of the foremost singers in Italy dates from his engagement at the Teatro S Carlo, Naples (...


Rudolph Angermüller, Hidemi Matsushita, and Ron Rabin

(b Vienna, bap. May 15, 1759; d Vienna, Feb 1, 1824). Austrian composer, pianist, organist and singer. She was the daughter of the Imperial Secretary and Court Councillor to Empress Maria Theresa, after whom she was named (the empress was not however her godmother, as was formerly believed). Some time between her second and fifth year she became blind; Anton Mesmer was able to improve her condition only temporarily, in 1777–8. She received a broad education from Leopold Kozeluch (piano), Vincenzo Righini (singing), Salieri (singing, dramatic composition), Abbé Vogler (theory and composition) and Carl Friberth (theory). By 1775 she was performing as a pianist and singer in Viennese concert rooms and salons. Composers who wrote for her include Salieri (an organ concerto, 1773), Mozart (a piano concerto, probably k456) and possibly Haydn (a piano concerto, hXVIII:4).

On 18 August 1783 she set out on an extended tour towards Paris and London, in the company of her mother and Johann Riedinger, her amanuensis and librettist. She visited Mozart and his family in Salzburg on 27 August. After concerts in Frankfurt (...


Dieter Härtwig

(b Beierfeld, April 2, 1735; d Niederzwönitz, nr Zwönitz, July 19, 1811). German Kantor and composer. In 1749, through the assistance of G.A. Homilius, he was awarded a scholarship to the Dresden Kreuzschule, where he studied for six years. In 1755 he became Kantor and schoolteacher in Hohenstein-Ernstthal, where he remained until his retirement in 1808, having established an outstanding reputation as a Kantor and organist.

Tag was a prolific composer of Kantorenmusik in a style combining elements of the Baroque and Empfindsamkeit. At the centre of his creative output were his sacred cantatas; written between 1760 and 1780, predominantly to Pietist texts, they reflect the influence of Hasse and J.G. Naumann (a personal friend of Tag’s) and are particularly striking for their conservative adherence to fugue and their penchant for tone-painting and symbolism. The masses, of the two-movement missa brevis type with recitatives and arias, closely resemble the cantatas. After ...


Nicola Lucarelli

(b Urbania, Feb 2, 1762; d Naples, April 24, 1846). Italian soprano castrato and composer. After his studies in Bologna under Lorenzo Gibelli he made his début in 1776, in Fano, in female roles, then in Pisa (1777) and Rome (1778–9). In 1781 he played, for the first time, the role of primo uomo in Treviso. He sang in Naples (1787–9) and in the most important Italian theatres, in London (1785) and from 1798 to 1803 in Lisbon, where he was also manager of the Teatro de S Carlos. He sang in the first performances of Catone in Utica by Paisiello (1789, Naples), Amleto by Andreozzi (1792, Padua) and Gli Orazi ed i Curiazi by Cimarosa (1796, Venice). In 1805 he was in Vienna and from 1806 to 1812 in Paris at Napoleon I’s court as singing teacher to the royal family. When he returned to Italy he was appointed singing teacher at the Bologna Conservatory and from ...