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Article

John Warrack

revised by Cecelia H. Porter

(b Sulza, Thuringia, March 7, 1783; d Leipzig, Aug 27, 1846). German critic, editor, theologian and composer. The son of a Reformed pastor, Gottfried was a chorister at Naumburg. In Leipzig he studied music and theology (1804–9) and served as a Reformed pastor (1810–16), establishing and directing a theological seminary (1814–27). He also composed many songs and in 1808 began writing for the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, of which he succeeded Gottfried Christoph Härtel as editor (1827–41). He taught at the Leipzig Conservatory (1838–43) and was briefly its director in 1842.

Fink was initially neutral in the controversy between Classicism and Romanticism, and was friendly with Weber, who gave his Sechs Lieder (1812) a warm review in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and printed one song, Die Liebenden, in full. However, Fink later took up a stubborn stand against the younger Romantics. He published only half of Schumann's enthusiastic review (...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Othmar Wessely

(b Klosterneuburg, Aug 23, 1792; d ?Baden, Sept 26, 1831). Austrian writer on music. He was the son of Franz Kandler, a schoolteacher, who gave him his first singing lessons. In 1801 he became a member of the Hofkapelle of Emperor Franz II in Vienna; as a pupil at the choir school there, he studied harmony with Albrechtsberger and composition with Salieri and Adalbert Gyrowetz. He also studied at the Gymnasium from 1804, and after his voice broke he began to study philosophy (1808) and law (1810) at the University of Vienna, though he never earned a degree. After a short time as a teacher Kandler entered the service of the imperial war office (1815) and in 1817 was appointed an official at the imperial naval office in Venice (then an Austrian possession) because of his knowledge of Italian. His official duties there afforded him ample opportunity for musical activity and research. He ascertained the places of burial of Zarlino, Marcello, Antonio Lotti and Galuppi, and erected a marble monument to Hasse in the church of S Marcuola. After passing an examination in conducting in ...

Article

Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....

Article

Horst Leuchtmann

revised by James Deaville

(b Leipzig, Feb 12, 1769; d Leipzig, Dec 16, 1842). German critic, writer and editor. He was educated at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, where he studied composition and counterpoint with the Kantor, J.F. Doles. He began composing at an early age and was 17 when his cantata Die Vollendung des Erlösers was first performed. It was perhaps the impression made on him by Mozart, whom he met in Leipzig in 1789, that caused him to doubt his own talent and abandon a musical career; on his father’s advice he began studying theology, but in 1794 he chose the career of a writer, since his humble background prevented advancement in the Church. He published many stories and dramatic works, as well as popular scientific articles, most of which found recognition in his lifetime. He enjoyed close ties with Weimar: a Lustspiel by Rochlitz was performed there in 1800, performances of three other stage works soon followed and Rochlitz visited Weimar in ...

Article

[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...

Article

J.A. Fuller Maitland

revised by John Warrack

(Clemens Otto)

(b Bonn, June 27, 1833; d Koblenz, May 11, 1907). German writer on music. He received doctorates in law (1854) and philology (1858) and then taught at Bonn (1858), Düren (1869), Konitz (1874), Posen (1877), Bonn again (1883) and Koblenz (1885–1903). He contributed to Bagge’s Deutsche Musikzeitung (1861–2), and especially to the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (1863–82) and Vierteljahrsschrift für Musikwissenschaft (1888–93); among his most important essays were those on Beethoven’s dramatic compositions (1865), Schumann as writer (1865), Otto Jahn (1870), the Beethoven centenary celebration in Bonn (1871) and Max Bruch’s Odysseus (1873). He also wrote many articles on Brahms, whom he knew personally and with whom he exchanged letters; he published the first authoritative Brahms biography (...

Article

Sanna Pederson

(b Lüneburg, Dec 9, 1807; d Göttingen, Nov 8, 1885). German writer on music. After attending the University of Berlin, where he heard Hegel lecture on aesthetics, he studied at the University of Göttingen, graduating in 1830 with a dissertation on Greek music in Pindar's time. From 1833 until 1851 he taught at the Gymnasium in Emden, where he conducted the local choral society in works by Haydn and, especially, Handel. After beginning an enthusiastic correspondence with Schumann in 1838, Krüger quickly became a respected contributor to the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik with essays on early music, sacred music, music criticism and aesthetics. He dedicated his Piano Quartet of 1847 to Schumann and reviewed several of Schumann's works, but the friendship ended after Krüger's unfavourable review of Genoveva in 1851. Unsympathetic to the aims of the New German School, he stopped contributing to the journal after 1853.

In ...

Article

Howard Serwer

(b Seehof, nr Wendemark, Brandenburg, Nov 21, 1718; d Berlin, May 22, 1795). German critic, journalist, theorist and composer. Gerber claimed that Marpurg had told him that he lived in Paris around 1746; Carl Spazier confirmed this, adding that Marpurg was friendly with Voltaire, D'Alembert and others when he was secretary to a ‘General Bodenburg’. This is generally assumed to refer to Generallieutenant Friedrich Rudolph Graf von Rothenburg, a favourite of Frederick the Great and Prussian emissary to Paris in 1744–5, and the dedicatee of Marpurg's Der critische Musicus an der Spree (1749–50).

From 1749 to 1763 Marpurg devoted himself almost exclusively to writing and editing books and periodicals about music and to composing and editing lieder and works for keyboard. In 1752, at the request of the heirs of J.S. Bach, he wrote a notable preface for a new edition of Die Kunst der Fuge...

Article

[Němeček, František Xaver (Petr)]

( b Sadska, Bohemia, July 24, 1766; d Vienna, March 19, 1849). Czech teacher and music critic . Born into a large and musical family, he attended the Gymnasium in Prague (1776–82) and studied philosophy at the university. He taught poetry at the gymnasiums in Plzeň (1787–92) and in the Malá Strana district of Prague, meanwhile developing his music publishing activities. In 1800 he was awarded the doctorate, and in 1802 appointed professor of philosophy at Prague University, where he also lectured on logic, ethics and pedagogy; among his pupils was the composer Voříšek. He also served as book censor and as director of the institute for the deaf and dumb. In 1819 he sided with the dean of the philosophical faculty, who was charged with having an undesirable influence on the students; and in 1820 he was formally transferred to Vienna and there prematurely retired at his own request. His estate, which included a rich correspondence with the Mozart family, was formerly in the possession of A. Richter of Portschach, Lower Austria, but is now lost....

Article

John Daverio and Eric Sams

(b Zwickau, Saxony, June 8, 1810; d Endenich, nr Bonn, July 29, 1856). German composer and music critic. While best remembered for his piano music and songs, and some of his symphonic and chamber works, Schumann made significant contributions to all the musical genres of his day and cultivated a number of new ones as well. His dual interest in music and literature led him to develop a historically informed music criticism and a compositional style deeply indebted to literary models. A leading exponent of musical Romanticism, he had a powerful impact on succeeding generations of European composers....