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William Waterhouse

(b Dubeč, Sept 27, 1819; d Königgrätz [now Hradec Králové], Jan 19, 1896). Bohemian maker and inventor of brass instruments. Having gained experience as apprentice and journeyman in various Austro-Hungarian workshops, he established himself as brass maker in the garrison town of Königgrätz in 1842. Starting with four employees, by 1859 his workforce totalled 80. By 1867 he had opened a branch factory in Kiev, managed later by his eldest son with Russia later becoming an important export market. From 1876, now as ‘V.F. Červený & Sons’, he was joined by four of his sons and in 1880 the factory, by now employing over 100 workers, was honoured with a state visit by Emperor Franz Joseph. In 1895 no fewer than 6000 brass instruments were supplied to the Russian army. In 1907 the firm became a limited liability company and in 1928 the maker Karl Schamal took over as manager. The firm was nationalized in ...


[Jean Jacques ]

(b Vaihingen, Württemberg, 1740; d after 1809). German keyboard instrument maker. He started as a carpenter’s apprentice, but by 1760 was working with the organ builder Georg Martin Geissinger in Rothenburg. In 1777 he was in Paris, first making harpsichords for the Countess of Artois and then as court instrument maker to the king. In 1789 he introduced his anémocorde, a keyboard instrument with metal trichords (the strings overspun in the treble) initially sounded by a secret mechanism (probably a hammer action) and then sustained in vibration by jets of air from a pair of bellows, allowing dynamic gradation. After five years’ military service in France Schnell started a workshop in Ludwigsburg, and in 1799 demonstrated his anémocorde in Vienna; in 1803 he sold it to a London surgeon, Robert Robertson. Johann Christoph Schnell (fl 1788) was probably a brother or a son of Johann Jakob Schnell. In ...


Ann Griffiths and Richard Macnutt

French family of musicians, publishers and instrument makers.

(b Lichteneau, nr Paderborn, Westphalia, bap. July 20, 1734; d Paris, Feb 4, 1799). Publisher and instrument maker. Designated an ouvrier étranger on his arrival, he probably reached Paris in 1762–3. He was awarded a maker’s licence in November 1766 and in 1774 he became a master of his guild, later styling himself ‘Editeur, Luthier, Facteur de Harpes et autres instruments de musique’. One of the most important harp makers of the 18th century, he worked from premises in the Rue d’Argenteuil, where he made many single-action pedal harps equipped with a hook (à crochets) mechanism Highly ornate – carved, gilded and decorated in the Vernis Martin style – they were considered to be the most superior instruments of their time from both the mechanical and constructional points of view. In 1778 Jean Henri was officially appointed harp maker to Marie Antoinette, but of the five extant Naderman harps said to have been her property, only two – the first (...


Margaret Cranmer

Austrian firm of piano makers . It was founded in 1802 when the daughter of Johann Andreas Stein, Nannette (Maria Anna) Stein Streicher (b Augsburg, 2 Jan 1769; d Vienna, 16 Jan 1833), began building pianos independently from her brother Matthäus Andreas Stein. Stein’s children had carried on their father’s firm after his death and moved the firm from Augsburg to Vienna after Nannette’s marriage to the pianist, composer and teacher Johann Andreas Streicher (b Stuttgart, 13 Dec 1761; d Vienna, 25 May 1833) in 1794. Nannette, also a fine pianist, had learnt piano making from her father, and up to 1810 her piano actions were similar to his, being without back checks (see Pianoforte §I 3. and Pianoforte §I 5.). Her business – ‘Nannette Streicher née Stein’ – flourished, and her husband, a professor of music at Vienna, gave up his job to join her. Weber (in a letter to Johann Gänsbacher, ...


( b Voerde, nr Schwelm, Aug 21, 1766; d Elberfeld, May 9, 1829). German physician and flute designer . He studied at Dortmund, Halle and Berlin, and in 1787 qualified as a physician and surgeon in Duisburg. In addition to practising as a physician in Lünen (1788), Mülheim (...


Michael Kassler

German-English family of musicians .

(b Engelbostel, Hanover, March 21, 1756; d London, April 19, 1829). English music theorist of German birth. His father was the Engelbostel organist; an uncle, Carl Christoph Hachmeister senior, composed and was organist of the Heiligen-Geist church in Hamburg; his brother, Georg Christoph Kollmann (1758–1827), became organist of St Katharinen, Hamburg. A.F.C. Kollmann studied with the Hanover organist Böttner and in 1779 entered the Normal School there, learning ‘that methodical, and systematical manner of teaching, which has been very advantageous to him, not only for school instruction, but also in teaching music, and particularly in writing his musical treatises’. On 10 December 1781 he was appointed organist and schoolmaster of the Benedictine convent at Lüne (near Lüneburg) but left and in September 1782 became organist and schoolmaster of the Royal German Chapel in St James’s Palace, London, where he remained for the rest of his life (serving also, from ...


Pamela L. Poulin


(b Bruck an der Leitha, June 28, 1753; d Vienna, June 15, 1812). Austrian clarinettist, composer and inventor. He was a son of a Viennese musician and shoemaker, Joseph Stadler, and his wife Sophie (née Altmann). At some time after the birth of his brother Johann (Nepomuk Franz) (b Vienna, ?1755; d Vienna, May–June 1804), the family returned to Vienna. Both boys became clarinettists; the earliest evidence of a joint performance appears in a programme of the Tonkünstler-Societät (1773). In 1779 they were engaged in the imperial eight-part Harmonie (Anton initially played second clarinet because of his interest in the low register), and they played in the court orchestra on a freelance basis. In 1780, the year of Anton’s marriage to Francisca Pichler (?Bichler), the brothers were also in the service of Count Carl von Palm, while Anton was also employed by the Russian ambassador Count Dmitry Golitsïn and the order of Maria Treu. By ...


Howard Mayer Brown

revised by Lynda Sayce

(b Nuremberg, c1500; d Nuremberg, 1570). German instrumentalist, lute maker and compiler and arranger of several volumes of instrumental music. He was probably the son of Conrad Gerle (d 1521), a well-known lute maker in Nuremberg. He may be presumed to have spent his life in his native city. He may have been related to Georg Gerle who worked as an instrument maker in Innsbruck during the second half of the 16th century.

Hieronymus Formschneider of Nuremberg published three volumes of music by Hans Gerle: Musica teusch, auf die Instrument der grossen unnd kleinen Geygen, auch Lautten (1532), Tabulatur auff die Laudten (1533) and Eyn newes sehr künstlichs Lautenbuch (1552). On the title-page of the last volume the author called himself ‘Hans Gerle den Eltern’ (the elder), implying the existence of a younger relative with the same forename.

The first volume, ...