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Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...


Geoffrey Burgess

(b Strasbourg, March 18, 1781; d Paris, May 20, 1870). French oboist, teacher and composer. In 1798 he entered the class of François Sallantin at the Paris Conservatoire, and was awarded a premier prix the following year. He may also have studied composition with A. Reicha. Concurrent with his studies he served as second oboist at the Théâtre Montansier, and later he joined the orchestras of the Théâtre Italien (1800–02) and Opéra-Comique (1802–12). In 1809, after travelling to Italy and Austria as a member of Napoléon's musique particulière, he was appointed first oboe at the Opéra-Comique, and adjunct professor at the Conservatoire. He subsequently succeeded Sallantin as both principal oboist at the Opéra (1812–34), and as professeur titulaire at the Conservatoire (1816–53, thence to 1868 on the Comité des Études). Among his students were the leading oboists, oboe makers and future Conservatoire professors of the next generation: H. Brod, A. Vény, A.-M.-R. Barret, C.-L. Triébert, S.-X. Verroust, A.-J. Lavigne, A. Bruyant (who inherited Vogt's compositional output) and C. Colin. Vogt was a member of the Chapelle Royale of Louis XVIII from its establishment in ...


John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


George Grove

revised by John Warrack

(b Vienna, Feb 29, 1820; d Leipzig, June 21, 1887). Austrian composer, pianist and singing teacher. The son of a painter well known for his portraits of Beethoven, Weber and Spohr, he entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 16, studying the piano, composition (with Berton and Halévy) and singing (with Bordogni and Banderali). In the 1840s he travelled to Italy for further study in singing and in 1846 his opera Alessandro Stradella was produced in Florence. From 1850 to 1853 he was in London, acting as maestro al cembalo at Her Majesty's Theatre, as well as touring with Balfe, Sims Reeves and Clara Novello. While doing similar work at the Théâtre Italien Opera in Paris (1854–9), his comedy List um List was produced in Schwerin in 1858 under Flotow and became popular in several theatres in north Germany. He taught singing at the Leipzig Conservatory from ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Lublin, 1791; d Lwów, Nov 30, 1859). Polish violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. He began his musical studies with his father, Michał, conductor of the cathedral orchestra at Lublin. From his father's correspondence it is known that he was to begin studies at the Warsaw Conservatory in 1816, but according to other sources he studied in Vienna. From 1814, for about four years, he was conductor of the theatre orchestra in Lwów. Critical acclaim of his virtuosity came in 1818 and 1819 through a series of concerts at the Schuppanzigh winter gardens in Lwów, and in the following few years he gave concerts in Kraków, Warsaw and Kiev. In 1831 he gave a concert tour in Austria (his first concert in Vienna was on 19 April 1831) and Italy; in Venice (according to reviews in the press) his playing was favourably compared to that of Paganini. Early in ...


John Rutter

revised by Michael Musgrave

(b Koblenz, Dec 26, 1793; d Koblenz, Feb 22, 1878). German composer and piano teacher. He was the son of Daniel Hünten, court organist and piano teacher at Koblenz, who gave him his earliest musical instruction. He showed precocious talent as a composer but was discouraged by his father from taking up music; in 1819, however, he entered the Paris Conservatoire at the suggestion of his friend Herz, studying the piano with Pradher and composition with Reicha and Cherubini. On completing his studies in 1821 he settled in Paris, quickly establishing a reputation as a fashionable piano teacher with prestigious aristocratic pupils and as a composer of salon music for the piano. He was regarded as the successor to Henri Karr in the genre of lightweight music, though more lively and elegant in style. Like his contemporary Czerny, he amassed a fortune from publication and teaching. He returned to Koblenz in ...


M.C. Carr

revised by Philip E.J. Robinson and Michael Musgrave

(b Leipzig, Oct 15, 1779; d Weimar, Nov 1, 1844). German composer and teacher. He was the most celebrated of five musician children of Johann Georg Haeser (1729–1809), leader of the Leipzig ‘grosses Conzert’ (later known as the Gewandhausorchester) from 1763 to 1800. He attended the Thomasschule, Leipzig (1793–6), studied theology for a year at the University of Leipzig, and in 1797 was appointed schoolmaster and Kapellmeister at Lemgo, Westphalia. From 1806 to 1813 he accompanied his sister Charlotte Henriette Haeser (1784–1871) on her tours as a singer, mainly in Italy. He returned to Lemgo in 1813, and settled in 1817 at Weimar, where he was music master in the duke's family and chorus master at the theatre; from 1829 he was also director of music at the principal church.

Haeser's religious music includes Latin settings (one mass, two requiems and two settings each of the ...


Karel Steinmetz


(b Opavice [Tropplowitz], 1 May 1764; d Brno, 13 Oct 1855). Moravian teacher and composer of Austrian descent. As a youth he was a member of the orchestra of Count Sedlnitzky, playing wind and string instruments. On the recommendation of Dittersdorf he studied music theory with Damasus Brosmann in Weisswasser (Bílá Voda). In 1787 he left the service of Sedlnitzky and became music director of the Brno Reduta theatre, for which he composed several works including Das wütende Heer and Die Totenglocke um Mitternacht; he was also in demand as a teacher. From 1804 to 1808 he was Kapellmeister to Count Haugwitz at Namiest an der Oslawa (Náměšť nad Oslavou), where he wrote the oratorio Thirza und ihre sieben Söhne. On returning to Brno he was active as a teacher and conducted oratorio and symphony concerts. In 1828 he founded a music institute where he taught string and wind instruments, singing, and music theory; here he had about 200 pupils, among them Hynek Vojáček. Rieger was celebrated as a teacher of counterpoint, and his ...


Rose Mauro

(b Coburg, June 30, 1823; d Basle, July 16, 1896). German critic, teacher and composer. He studied the piano and cello at the Prague Conservatory and moved to Vienna in 1842, where he studied theory with Sechter and was active performing, teaching and composing. He was appointed to the Vienna Conservatory in 1852, but his high standards and outspoken critical stance led to his dismissal in 1855. In 1859 Bagge became the editor of a new journal, the Deutsche Musik-Zeitung, which opposed the ‘New German’ sympathies of Franz Brendel’s Neue Zeitschrift für Musik. He moved to Leipzig in 1863 to edit the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung (later the Leipziger allgemeine musikalische Zeitung); it closely reflected his conviction that composers should strive to imitate music of the past. Bagge’s own reviews praise music by such composers as Bargiel, Volkmann, Reinecke and Kirchner. He regarded much of Brahms’s music as undisciplined, contributing to a critical climate that may have prompted Brahms to adopt a more classically-oriented style....


Emilia Zanetti

revised by Hervé Audéon

(b Turin, Nov 18, 1781; d Paris, Dec 18, 1841). French composer, singing teacher and tenor of Italian birth. As a boy he sang in the Turin Cathedral choir and was a pupil of Bernardo Ottani. Arriving in Paris in 1799, he became fashionable as a singer, composer of salon music and singing teacher. He also opened a concert room at his home in the rue Basse-du-rempart de la Madeleine, which was run by his mother; he took part in concerts there (as did his sister Félicité, a pupil of Crescentini), notably when he was in Paris in 1810 and 1811, performing his famous romances and nocturnes. In 1810, as recorded in the Journal de l’Empire of 13 March, ‘several music-lovers who were members of the Société de la rue de Cléry’ took over the renovated concert room, which according to the Tablettes de Polymnie of January 1811...


Raymond A. Barr

(b Berlin, April 20, 1761; d Leipzig, Jan 19, 1805). German writer and composer. As a boy soprano in Berlin he appeared frequently as a soloist in churches and concerts, although he had no formal music training. Later he spent one season as singer and accompanist at the French opera house of Prince Heinrich of Prussia in Rheinsberg, where he composed his first lied collection (1781). He entered Halle University, where he studied philosophy and theology, before teaching briefly in Dessau. Accompanying a nobleman pupil he went to Göttingen (1785) and again Halle (1786) before taking up a position in the philosophy faculty of Giessen University. Ideological conflicts with his colleagues soon compelled his resignation, however, and he shortly thereafter became court councillor and professor in Neuwied am Rhein (about 1790). By 1792 he had returned to Berlin, where he contributed articles to music periodicals and edited the short-lived ...


Milton Sutter

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Friuli, ?1770; d Venice, early 1830). Italian music lexicographer, teacher and composer. He studied music in Padua with Jacopo Agnola and then went to Venice, where he taught theory and composition. There, in 1801, he published his Dizionario della musica sacra e profana, the first music dictionary in Italian, which he described as modelled on the French works by Brossard and Rousseau, and Grammatica ragionata della musica, an introduction to the elements of music and musical instruments, which included an annotated bibliography of writers on the theory and practice of music from 1500 to the end of the 18th century. Second editions of both works, the Dizionario revised and much enlarged, appeared in 1820. A reprint of this edition of the Dizionario appeared in 1830 (called the third edition on its title-page). Although much of the material in both editions of the Dizionario is superficial and incorrect, a few of the entries are useful, providing information not easily found elsewhere. In ...


[Samuel Moses]

(b Halle, May 15, 1795; d Berlin, May 17, 1866). German music theorist, critic and pedagogue. One of the most influential theorists of the 19th century, Marx named and codified sonata form. As a critic he awakened and cultivated early appreciation for the symphonies of Beethoven; as a pedagogue he worked to make music an integral part of the education of the individual and of the development of the German nation.

Marx was the son of a Jewish doctor in Halle. He entered the university there in 1812, studying law, and together with Carl Loewe also studied composition with Türk. He practised law in Naumberg from 1815 to 1821, and in 1819 converted to Protestantism, changing his forenames from Samuel Moses to Friedrich Heinrich Adolf Bernhard. In 1821 he moved to Berlin, where he increasingly gave himself over to music and studied for a short period with C.F. Zelter. The music publisher A.M. Schlesinger made him editor of the ...


Janna Saslaw

(b Dresden, Oct 13, 1792; d Leipzig, Jan 3, 1868). German composer, theorist and teacher. After studying the violin and composition with Spohr (1811), Hauptmann worked as a violinist in Dresden (1812–15). From 1815 to 1820 he was the private music teacher to Prince Repnin's household in Vienna. After two more years in Dresden he went to Kassel as court chapel violinist under Spohr and remained there for 20 years. During that time he developed a reputation as composer and theorist. In 1842 he was appointed Kantor of the Thomasschule in Leipzig, on the recommendation of Spohr and Mendelssohn. The next year he was appointed teacher of theory and composition at the newly founded Leipzig Conservatory. Also in 1843 he was editor of the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung. In 1850 he became a founder-member of the Bach-Gesellschaft; he edited three volumes and remained president of the society until his death. Hans von Bülow, Ferdinand David, Salomon Jadassohn, Joseph Joachim and C.F. Weitzmann were among his many students....


[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...


Douglas Johnson

(b Lüdenscheid, Westphalia, Nov 12, 1817; d Graz, Oct 29, 1882). German musicologist, teacher and composer . After studying in Berlin (1838–9) and in Leipzig (1840–45), where he knew and was taught by both Mendelssohn and Schumann, he moved permanently to Vienna in 1846. There he gave lessons in theory and the piano, composed, and in later years devoted himself increasingly to various scholarly activities. His circle of friends included Brahms, Joachim and many of the important scholars of his day. Although Kalbeck, in his biography of Brahms, described Nottebohm’s character in unflattering terms, Brahms and Nottebohm were frequent companions and even lodged together for a time in 1870. Brahms also referred private pupils to Nottebohm and recommended his scholarly articles to the publishers Rieter-Biedermann.

Nottebohm’s compositions, mostly small piano pieces and chamber works with piano, achieved no lasting popularity, and it is for his scholarly accomplishments that he is remembered, though the full significance of his work has become somewhat obscured. At a decisive period for musicology, he and such contemporaries as Jahn, Köchel, Pohl, Thayer, Spitta and Chrysander developed a new approach to biography, based on documentary fact rather than personal reminiscence, and a new methodology for editing music through critical evaluation of all the available source materials. Nottebohm, one of the first acknowledged experts in textual criticism, was asked by Breitkopf & Härtel in ...


[Jan Evangelista Antonín Tomáš]

(b Velvary, Dec 14, 1738; d Prague, Feb 3, 1814). Bohemian composer, Kapellmeister and music teacher, a cousin of Leopold Kozeluch. He studied music at school in Velvary, as a chorister at the Jesuit college in Březnice and in Prague with J.F.N. Seger. He then worked for a short time as Kapellmeister in Rakovník and cantor in Velvary (to March 1762). Between about 1763 and 1766 he lived in Vienna, where he studied composition with Gluck and Gassmann and recitative with Hasse. After his return to Prague he soon became renowned as a music teacher and was subsequently Kapellmeister at St František at the Crusaders’ monastery. He applied unsuccessfully for the post of cappellae magister at Prague Cathedral on F.X. Brixi’s death in 1771, but was appointed there on 2 March 1784 as successor to Anton Laube and held this position until his death. Among his pupils were Václav Praupner and Leopold Kozeluch; he also taught composition to his two sons, Wenzel Franz (...


Andrea Lanza

(b Udine, July 28, 1813; d Milan, Dec 31, 1877). Italian composer, conductor and singing teacher. He studied mathematics, intending to become an astronomer, but gave it up to study music at the Padua Conservatory. In 1834 while he was still a student his first opera, La fidanzata di Lammermoor, was performed in Padua with some success; it was followed in 1836 by Don Chisciotte in Milan. According to Fétis, he then visited Paris, where performances of Beethoven, the French operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy’s La Juive made a deep impression on him; this is reflected in his next operas, Esmeralda (1838) and I corsari (1840). Some critics had considered his earlier works too modern, and the more conservative ones now accused him of writing noisy, difficult music lacking in melody. Public reaction was mixed: Esmeralda was widely performed but not always well received, while ...


(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than 1770 he settled in Prague, where he became very influential as a music teacher and pianist. The most outstanding of his pupils were Leopold Kozeluch, Jan Vitásek and Vincenc Mašek. As a composer he appears to have had some connection with the orchestras of Count Pachta and Count Clam-Gallas. Dušek's house was an important centre of Prague musical life and was visited by many musicians from abroad. He and his wife Josefa were probably among those who invited Mozart to witness the Prague success of Le nozze di Figaro...


[Němeček, František Xaver (Petr)]

( b Sadska, Bohemia, July 24, 1766; d Vienna, March 19, 1849). Czech teacher and music critic . Born into a large and musical family, he attended the Gymnasium in Prague (1776–82) and studied philosophy at the university. He taught poetry at the gymnasiums in Plzeň (1787–92) and in the Malá Strana district of Prague, meanwhile developing his music publishing activities. In 1800 he was awarded the doctorate, and in 1802 appointed professor of philosophy at Prague University, where he also lectured on logic, ethics and pedagogy; among his pupils was the composer Voříšek. He also served as book censor and as director of the institute for the deaf and dumb. In 1819 he sided with the dean of the philosophical faculty, who was charged with having an undesirable influence on the students; and in 1820 he was formally transferred to Vienna and there prematurely retired at his own request. His estate, which included a rich correspondence with the Mozart family, was formerly in the possession of A. Richter of Portschach, Lower Austria, but is now lost....