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John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Glinno, nr Poznań, April 9, 1757; d Warsaw, July 23, 1829). Polish impresario, librettist, actor and singer. He was a central figure in the history of the Polish theatre. He studied in Kraków (1770–73), where he attended many theatrical and concert performances organized by Sierakowski, prompting him to change the direction of his career away from the army and towards the theatre. He probably completed his studies at the Piarist school in Warsaw. For a few months during 1778 he studied acting with L. Montbrun, a Warsaw theatrical impresario. Soon afterwards he made his début as an actor in N.T. Barthé’s comedy Zmyślona niewierność (‘Imaginary Infidelity’), and on 11 July 1778 as a singer and librettist in the première of Maciej Kamieński’s opera Poverty made Happy. In 1783 he became the director of the National Theatre in Warsaw, remaining in this position (with some breaks) until ...


Deane L. Root

revised by Michael Musgrave

(b Mittelhausen, Thuringia, May 17, 1800; d Leipzig, Sept 25, 1860). German choral director and composer. He was first taught music by his father, a schoolteacher, and in Leipzig from 1814 he studied music at the Thomasschule with J.G. Schicht, through whose influence he was appointed singing teacher at the Ratsfreischule (1820). In 1822 with Hemleben he established a private music institute for weekly choral rehearsals, and in 1833 founded in Leipzig a Liedertafel known as the Zöllnerverein, a male choral society modelled on Zelter’s Berlin organization, which became the model for many later groups. He formed new male choruses at Leipzig in 1840 and 1845, and in 1851 became director of the Künstlerverein. In 1854 he organized a weekly singing group from the Leipzig Kunst- und Gewerbeverein and in 1857 formed another male chorus, which (with those founded in 1845 and 1854) was to become the Zöllnerbund. By ...



(b Marktheidenfeld, nr Würzburg, July 18, 1766; d Meiningen, Nov 30, 1798). German administrator and composer. When he was 11 his father Johann Friedrich Fleischmann, a school headmaster and amateur composer, sent him to the Mannheim Gymnasium, where he studied with G.J. Vogler and Ignaz Holzbauer. After finishing courses in philosophy and law at Würzburg University, he became private secretary and tutor to the Regierungspräsident von Welden’s son at Regensburg (1786). From 1789 he was cabinet secretary to Duke Georg I of Saxe-Meiningen, where he exerted a great influence on the court’s music.

Although Fleischmann had composed music for a Singspiel Hanns und seine Frau Mama by 1785, his extant compositions belong to his Meiningen period. His principal work, the Singspiel Die Geisterinsel (after Shakespeare’s Tempest), was composed before the better-known settings of Reichardt and Zumsteeg, and produced at Weimar in 1798; the librettist Gotter had intended his work for Mozart. Fleischmann’s setting of the ...


Hubert Unverricht

(b Bonn, bap. Feb 20, 1745; d London, Nov 28, 1815). German violinist, impresario and composer, later resident in England. He was the second son of Philipp Salomon, a member of the oboe band and subsequently a court musician in Bonn. On 30 August 1758, at the age of only 13, he was appointed to a salaried position as a musician at the Bonn court. In 1761 or 1762 he went on tour, at first retaining his salary since his father deputized for him. Salomon was probably trying to gain a footing in Dresden, which at that time was the seat of government of Saxony and Poland. By summer 1764 he was at Rheinsberg as musical director to Prince Heinrich of Prussia. At the prince's second household in Berlin Salomon met C.P.E. Bach, and through him became familiar with J.S. Bach's solo violin sonatas and partitas, which he is said to have still performed in exemplary fashion during his years in London. He left Rheinsberg probably in ...


[Jan Evangelista Antonín Tomáš]

(b Velvary, Dec 14, 1738; d Prague, Feb 3, 1814). Bohemian composer, Kapellmeister and music teacher, a cousin of Leopold Kozeluch. He studied music at school in Velvary, as a chorister at the Jesuit college in Březnice and in Prague with J.F.N. Seger. He then worked for a short time as Kapellmeister in Rakovník and cantor in Velvary (to March 1762). Between about 1763 and 1766 he lived in Vienna, where he studied composition with Gluck and Gassmann and recitative with Hasse. After his return to Prague he soon became renowned as a music teacher and was subsequently Kapellmeister at St František at the Crusaders’ monastery. He applied unsuccessfully for the post of cappellae magister at Prague Cathedral on F.X. Brixi’s death in 1771, but was appointed there on 2 March 1784 as successor to Anton Laube and held this position until his death. Among his pupils were Václav Praupner and Leopold Kozeluch; he also taught composition to his two sons, Wenzel Franz (...


Milan Poštolka

[Venceslaus; Wenzel]

(b Bechyně, nr Tábor, Sept 25, 1741; d Vienna, Jan 23, 1805). Czech composer, violinist, music director and writer. He first studied music at Bechyně with the cantor Jan Pokorny. From 1752 to 1758 he attended the Jesuit college at Březnice, where he served as a singer. In Prague he was a violinist at the Jesuit seminary of St Václav and studied philosophy, theology and law at the university. In 1762 he was appointed first violinist of the Týn Church, where he studied counterpoint with the organist J.N. Seger. In 1765 he was engaged by Dittersdorf as a violinist and assistant director for the private orchestra of Bishop Adam Patachich at Nagyvárad (Grosswardein, now Oradea, Romania). After the dissolution of the orchestra in 1769 Pichl became the music director for Count Ludwig Hartig at Prague; in about 1770 he was appointed first violinist of the Vienna court theatre. On the recommendation of the Empress Maria Theresa, who preferred him to Mozart, he became the music director and ...


George J. Buelow

revised by Samantha Owens

[Cousser, Jean Sigismond; Cousser, John Sigismond]

(b Pressburg [now Bratislava], Hungary, bap. Feb 13, 1660; d Dublin, Ireland, Dec 1727). Composer and music director of Hungarian parentage, active in Germany, England, and Ireland. In 1674 he moved to Stuttgart with his parents and sister, having fled Hungary due to religious persecution. His father, the composer Johann (Ján) Kusser (1626–95), became music director at Stuttgart’s Stiftskirche and was also a teacher at the local Latin school. J.G. Walther reported that Cousser then spent six years in Paris studying with Lully, although there is no further evidence to confirm this relationship. Indeed, Cousser later claimed that he had taught himself to follow Lully’s methods (Composition de musique, 1682). In August 1680 Cousser’s name was included in a list of musicians employed by Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden, but he had returned to Stuttgart by November 1682, when he dedicated a collection of French-style overture suites to the Administrator Duke of Württemberg, Friedrich Carl. In ...