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John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Nancy Kovaleff Baker

(b Rudolstadt, Oct 10, 1749; d Rudolstadt, March 19, 1816). German theorist and violinist. He served in his youth as a violinist in the Hofkapelle at Rudolstadt and in 1772 became a court musician. He studied the violin and composition with the Kapellmeister Christian Scheinpflug and briefly continued his studies in Weimar, Dresden, Berlin and Hamburg before returning to Rudolstadt, where he remained for the rest of his life. In 1792 he was appointed Kapellmeister, but he returned voluntarily to the orchestra as a first violinist after one year. Composition and writing then occupied him until his death. He was posthumously elected to the Swedish Royal Academy of Music in 1818.

The majority of Koch's compositions were for the court: cantatas, a drama Die Stimme der Freude in Hygeens Haine (1790), instrumental works and sacred music. Except for excerpts illustrating his theoretical writings, these are now lost. Seven symphonies ascribed to ‘Koch’ and formerly held by the Hofkapelle (now in ...


Robert N. Freeman

[Johann Karl Dominik]

(b Melk, Aug 4, 1748; d Vienna, Nov 8, 1833). Austrian composer, music historian and keyboard performer. He received his earliest musical training from Johann Leuthner, bass at the Benedictine abbey of Melk. In 1758 he went as a choirboy to Lilienfeld, where he learnt the violin, clavichord and organ and made his first attempts at composition. During vacations he revisited Melk to study the music of the new organist J.G. Albrechtsberger. Stadler continued his formal education after 1762 at the Jesuit College in Vienna. In November 1766 he entered Melk as a novice, took his vows the following year and was ordained on 13 October 1772. After directing the abbey’s theological studies for eight years he served briefly as chaplain in Wullersdorf in 1783. He was elected prior of Melk on 17 November 1784.

Favoured by Emperor Joseph II during the suppression of the Austrian monasteries, Stadler was appointed abbot of Lilienfeld in ...


Margaret Grave

[Abbé Vogler]

(b Würzburg, June 15, 1749; d Darmstadt, May 6, 1814). German theorist, teacher, keyboard player, organ designer and composer. His theory of harmony influenced 19th-century approaches to music analysis, and he anticipated the Romantic period in his chromatic harmony, colouristic orchestration and melodic borrowings from folk tradition and exotic cultures. His radical concept of organ design aroused widespread interest and controversy; his writings on the reform of sacred music foreshadowed the Cecilian movement.

The son of a Würzburg instrument maker, Vogler attended a Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in humanistic studies at Würzburg University in 1763. Subsequently he studied common and canon law, first at Würzburg, then at Bamberg. During his student years he composed ballet and theatre music for university performances. In 1770 he obtained a post as almoner at the Mannheim court of Carl Theodor, the Elector Palatine. Politically resourceful, he soon attained prominence in the court’s musical life, secured the elector’s favour, and was granted the financial means to pursue musical study in Italy (from ...