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Article

Marcia J. Citron

(b Stuttgart, Dec 9, 1796; d Stuttgart, Aug 1, 1857). German composer, pianist, singer and teacher . The youngest of seven children born to the composer Johann Rudolf Zumsteeg, she studied the piano with Schlick and theory with Wilhelm Sutor. Gifted with a fine alto voice, she was soon singing and performing on the piano (e.g. at the Stuttgart Museumskonzerte). As an adult Zumsteeg mixed with leading musicians and poets. The literary ties reflected her interest in the lied, which formed the basis of her creative reputation. She also wrote several piano works, such as the early Trois polonaises, published in 1821 and favourably reviewed in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung, and sacred choral music. She occupied a central position in the musical life of Stuttgart as a teacher of voice and piano and as a leading member of the Verein für Klassische Kirchenmusik.

Zumsteeg’s lieder were still known in the late 19th century (Michaelis) but have not remained in the repertory. She composed about 60 songs. The six lieder of her op.6 received a brief but laudatory notice in the ...

Article

Geoffrey Burgess

(b Strasbourg, March 18, 1781; d Paris, May 20, 1870). French oboist, teacher and composer. In 1798 he entered the class of François Sallantin at the Paris Conservatoire, and was awarded a premier prix the following year. He may also have studied composition with A. Reicha. Concurrent with his studies he served as second oboist at the Théâtre Montansier, and later he joined the orchestras of the Théâtre Italien (1800–02) and Opéra-Comique (1802–12). In 1809, after travelling to Italy and Austria as a member of Napoléon's musique particulière, he was appointed first oboe at the Opéra-Comique, and adjunct professor at the Conservatoire. He subsequently succeeded Sallantin as both principal oboist at the Opéra (1812–34), and as professeur titulaire at the Conservatoire (1816–53, thence to 1868 on the Comité des Études). Among his students were the leading oboists, oboe makers and future Conservatoire professors of the next generation: H. Brod, A. Vény, A.-M.-R. Barret, C.-L. Triébert, S.-X. Verroust, A.-J. Lavigne, A. Bruyant (who inherited Vogt's compositional output) and C. Colin. Vogt was a member of the Chapelle Royale of Louis XVIII from its establishment in ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

George Grove

revised by John Warrack

(b Vienna, Feb 29, 1820; d Leipzig, June 21, 1887). Austrian composer, pianist and singing teacher. The son of a painter well known for his portraits of Beethoven, Weber and Spohr, he entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 16, studying the piano, composition (with Berton and Halévy) and singing (with Bordogni and Banderali). In the 1840s he travelled to Italy for further study in singing and in 1846 his opera Alessandro Stradella was produced in Florence. From 1850 to 1853 he was in London, acting as maestro al cembalo at Her Majesty's Theatre, as well as touring with Balfe, Sims Reeves and Clara Novello. While doing similar work at the Théâtre Italien Opera in Paris (1854–9), his comedy List um List was produced in Schwerin in 1858 under Flotow and became popular in several theatres in north Germany. He taught singing at the Leipzig Conservatory from ...

Article

Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Lublin, 1791; d Lwów, Nov 30, 1859). Polish violinist, conductor, composer and teacher. He began his musical studies with his father, Michał, conductor of the cathedral orchestra at Lublin. From his father's correspondence it is known that he was to begin studies at the Warsaw Conservatory in 1816, but according to other sources he studied in Vienna. From 1814, for about four years, he was conductor of the theatre orchestra in Lwów. Critical acclaim of his virtuosity came in 1818 and 1819 through a series of concerts at the Schuppanzigh winter gardens in Lwów, and in the following few years he gave concerts in Kraków, Warsaw and Kiev. In 1831 he gave a concert tour in Austria (his first concert in Vienna was on 19 April 1831) and Italy; in Venice (according to reviews in the press) his playing was favourably compared to that of Paganini. Early in ...

Article

[Anton Franz; Franz Anton]

(b Mladá Boleslav, Bohemia, April 9, 1754; d Berlin, May 15, 1823). Czech composer, pianist and teacher, grandfather of Carl Ferdinand Pohl. He attended the Piarist college at Kosmonosy (1767–74) where he probably received his first musical education. Later he studied music in Prague with Kuchař and became organist at the Minorite church of St Jakub (c1777). Having left for Germany, he worked in Brunswick (c1779–96) as organist of the Hauptkirche and Kapellmeister to the duke. Thereafter he spent several years in Bamberg as a piano teacher. About 1799 he settled in Berlin, again as a private music teacher, and remained there until his death. The Berlin newspapers (Königlich privilegierte Berlinische Zeitung, later Vossische Zeitung, and Berlinische Nachrichten von Staats- und Gelehrten Sachen, later Spenersche Zeitung, 1799–1823) provide some evidence that he was also active in public music-making. In ...

Article

Andrea Lanza

(b Udine, July 28, 1813; d Milan, Dec 31, 1877). Italian composer, conductor and singing teacher. He studied mathematics, intending to become an astronomer, but gave it up to study music at the Padua Conservatory. In 1834 while he was still a student his first opera, La fidanzata di Lammermoor, was performed in Padua with some success; it was followed in 1836 by Don Chisciotte in Milan. According to Fétis, he then visited Paris, where performances of Beethoven, the French operas of Meyerbeer and Halévy’s La Juive made a deep impression on him; this is reflected in his next operas, Esmeralda (1838) and I corsari (1840). Some critics had considered his earlier works too modern, and the more conservative ones now accused him of writing noisy, difficult music lacking in melody. Public reaction was mixed: Esmeralda was widely performed but not always well received, while ...

Article

(b Chotěborky, nr Jaroměř, Bohemia, bap. Dec 8, 1731; d Prague, Feb 12, 1799). Czech composer, pianist and music teacher. The son of a peasant, he was enabled by his patron, Count Johann Karl Sporck, to attend the Jesuit Gymnasium at Hradec Králové. Later he studied music in Prague with Franz Habermann and in Vienna with Wagenseil. Not later than 1770 he settled in Prague, where he became very influential as a music teacher and pianist. The most outstanding of his pupils were Leopold Kozeluch, Jan Vitásek and Vincenc Mašek. As a composer he appears to have had some connection with the orchestras of Count Pachta and Count Clam-Gallas. Dušek's house was an important centre of Prague musical life and was visited by many musicians from abroad. He and his wife Josefa were probably among those who invited Mozart to witness the Prague success of Le nozze di Figaro...

Article

Hans-Günter Ottenberg

(b Berlin, Dec 11, 1758; d Berlin, May 15, 1832). German composer, conductor and teacher. His father George, a mason from Saxony, settled about 1750 in Berlin, where he worked as a building contractor and married Anna Dorothea Hintze, daughter of a cloth-worker; Carl Friedrich was the second of two sons of this marriage. Zelter was first taught at home and then attended the Joachimsthaler Gymnasium. At his father’s wish, he trained as a mason, becoming in 1783 a master mason and partner in his father’s business, which he took over in 1787; he remained a member of the Berlin masons’ guild until 1815. In 1787 Zelter married Sophie Eleonora Flöricke, née Kappel, who had three children by her first marriage and bore him eight more but died in 1795. A year later he married the singer Juliane Pappritz (d 1806), who bore him two children....

Article

Margaret Grave

[Abbé Vogler]

(b Würzburg, June 15, 1749; d Darmstadt, May 6, 1814). German theorist, teacher, keyboard player, organ designer and composer. His theory of harmony influenced 19th-century approaches to music analysis, and he anticipated the Romantic period in his chromatic harmony, colouristic orchestration and melodic borrowings from folk tradition and exotic cultures. His radical concept of organ design aroused widespread interest and controversy; his writings on the reform of sacred music foreshadowed the Cecilian movement.

The son of a Würzburg instrument maker, Vogler attended a Jesuit Gymnasium before enrolling in humanistic studies at Würzburg University in 1763. Subsequently he studied common and canon law, first at Würzburg, then at Bamberg. During his student years he composed ballet and theatre music for university performances. In 1770 he obtained a post as almoner at the Mannheim court of Carl Theodor, the Elector Palatine. Politically resourceful, he soon attained prominence in the court’s musical life, secured the elector’s favour, and was granted the financial means to pursue musical study in Italy (from ...