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John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...


Barbara Chmara-Żackiewicz

(b Glinno, nr Poznań, April 9, 1757; d Warsaw, July 23, 1829). Polish impresario, librettist, actor and singer. He was a central figure in the history of the Polish theatre. He studied in Kraków (1770–73), where he attended many theatrical and concert performances organized by Sierakowski, prompting him to change the direction of his career away from the army and towards the theatre. He probably completed his studies at the Piarist school in Warsaw. For a few months during 1778 he studied acting with L. Montbrun, a Warsaw theatrical impresario. Soon afterwards he made his début as an actor in N.T. Barthé’s comedy Zmyślona niewierność (‘Imaginary Infidelity’), and on 11 July 1778 as a singer and librettist in the première of Maciej Kamieński’s opera Poverty made Happy. In 1783 he became the director of the National Theatre in Warsaw, remaining in this position (with some breaks) until ...


Hubert Unverricht

(b Bonn, bap. Feb 20, 1745; d London, Nov 28, 1815). German violinist, impresario and composer, later resident in England. He was the second son of Philipp Salomon, a member of the oboe band and subsequently a court musician in Bonn. On 30 August 1758, at the age of only 13, he was appointed to a salaried position as a musician at the Bonn court. In 1761 or 1762 he went on tour, at first retaining his salary since his father deputized for him. Salomon was probably trying to gain a footing in Dresden, which at that time was the seat of government of Saxony and Poland. By summer 1764 he was at Rheinsberg as musical director to Prince Heinrich of Prussia. At the prince's second household in Berlin Salomon met C.P.E. Bach, and through him became familiar with J.S. Bach's solo violin sonatas and partitas, which he is said to have still performed in exemplary fashion during his years in London. He left Rheinsberg probably in ...


Milan Poštolka

[Venceslaus; Wenzel]

(b Bechyně, nr Tábor, Sept 25, 1741; d Vienna, Jan 23, 1805). Czech composer, violinist, music director and writer. He first studied music at Bechyně with the cantor Jan Pokorny. From 1752 to 1758 he attended the Jesuit college at Březnice, where he served as a singer. In Prague he was a violinist at the Jesuit seminary of St Václav and studied philosophy, theology and law at the university. In 1762 he was appointed first violinist of the Týn Church, where he studied counterpoint with the organist J.N. Seger. In 1765 he was engaged by Dittersdorf as a violinist and assistant director for the private orchestra of Bishop Adam Patachich at Nagyvárad (Grosswardein, now Oradea, Romania). After the dissolution of the orchestra in 1769 Pichl became the music director for Count Ludwig Hartig at Prague; in about 1770 he was appointed first violinist of the Vienna court theatre. On the recommendation of the Empress Maria Theresa, who preferred him to Mozart, he became the music director and ...