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Clive Greated

(Adolf )

(b Würzburg, Aug 11, 1888; d Düsseldorf, Dec 20, 1956). German engineer and acoustician . He studied electrical engineering (1906–8) and law (1908–11), and received the doctorate from Karlsruhe (1921) before working in the radio industry. In 1930 he was appointed lecturer and in 1935 professor of musical acoustics at the Berlin Musikhochschule. His experiments in electronic music resulted in several instruments, including an amplified harpsichord (1936, in collaboration with Hanns Neupert), electronic bells and, most importantly, the Trautonium, developed in 1930 and used by, among others, Hindemith, Höffer, Genzmer and Julius Weismann, all of whom wrote concertos for it, Egk and Strauss. In the late 1940s Trautwein worked in Paris in aviation research; he then set up a school of composition in Düsseldorf which in 1950 became part of the Robert Schumann Conservatory. He published a trautonium method (Trautoniumschule, 1936...


Malcolm Turner

(b Bautzen, June 18, 1870; d Bautzen, Jan 4, 1941). German acoustician. After studying at the Dresden Conservatory he became Stadtkantor at Bautzen from 1898 to 1914 (from 1908 with the title of director of church music), where he organized music festivals in 1905, 1907 and 1912. He then went on to study acoustics, especially the acoustics of bells, in which field he was a pioneer, at the Technische Hochschule, Dresden. From 1916 he taught acoustics at the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, becoming professor in 1922. Meanwhile in 1918 he took up a lectureship in church music at the University of Berlin, and in 1920 became adviser on church bells and organs to the Prussian Ministry of Culture. In 1927 he set up the Institut Biehle, under the auspices of the University and the Technische Hochschule, Berlin, for the study of church buildings, organs, bells and acoustics. Further information is given in E.M. Müller, ed.: ...


Albert Wellek and Berthold Freudenberger

(b Wiesentheid, April 21, 1848; d Berlin, Dec 25, 1936). German acoustician and musicologist. Both his parents were musical, and at his various schools he learnt to play six instruments, teaching himself harmony and counterpoint. From 1865 he studied philosophy (with Brentano) and theology at Würzburg University, and philosophy and natural sciences at Göttingen University, where he took the doctorate and in 1870 completed the Habilitation in philosophy. He was professor of philosophy at the universities of Würzburg (1873), Prague (1879), Halle (1884), Munich (1889) and Berlin (1893–1928), where he founded (1893) and directed the Psychologisches Institut and the Berlin Phonogrammarchiv (1900). His many well-known pupils included Hornbostel and Abraham, with whom he founded and directed the Phonogrammarchiv, Sachs, Lachmann, Schünemann and the writer Robert Musil. He founded and edited the journal Beiträge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft...