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Lini Hübsch-Pfleger


(b 1515/1516; d Neuburg an der Donau, Dec 29, 1595). German composer and printer. A medal dated 1555 gives his age as 39. In his early youth he went to Neuburg to the court of Count Palatine Ottheinrich, whose treasurer he was in 1544. Ottheinrich had introduced the Lutheran doctrine in 1542 and he helped Kilian to establish a publishing house for reformed literature and music which issued its first publications in 1545 but which was ravaged by war in 1546 and not reopened until 1556. In the same year Ottheinrich became Elector Palatine, had Kilian as his secretary and in 1558, just before he died, awarded him an annual payment of 200 florins ‘for life’. At the same time Kilian gave up publishing. He was also interested in alchemy, and Ottheinrich left him the collection of works by Paracelsus that he had helped him assemble. Except for an isolated reference in ...


Susan Bain


(b Brussels, 1550; d Venice, 1610). Flemish copperplate engraver. One of a family of engravers, he worked in several German cities, notably Munich, and in Italy. His works include a number of devotional music publications (1584–90; some ed. in Organum, 1st ser., xix–xx, Leipzig, 1930). These engravings, sometimes known as ‘picture-motets’, show angels or biblical figures singing and playing from partbooks and may have been published in support of the Counter-Reformation. Their popularity is demonstrated by the fact that the earliest example, C. Verdonck’s Ave gratia plena (Antwerp, 1584), was reprinted at Rome in 1586 and at Antwerp in 1587. The composers, artists and engravers were all Flemish and these fine engravings, with the music complete and legible, bear witness to the thriving artistic life in Antwerp at the end of the 16th century. Although their influence on Verovio is largely conjectural, they are important in their own right as particularly beautiful and unusual examples of early music engraving. One of the finest, Pevernage’s ...


Howard Serwer

(b Winterthur, Oct 16, 1720; d Berlin, Feb 27, 1779). Swiss aesthetician and lexicographer. Following theological studies in Zürich he held posts as a vicar in a nearby town and as a tutor in Magdeburg. These positions provided opportunities for studies in the sciences and mathematics and enabled him to assimilate the poetic and aesthetic theories of Johann Bodmer and Jacob Breitinger. In 1747 Sulzer became professor of mathematics at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium in Berlin and three years later was elected to the Royal Academy of Sciences. During this period he wrote articles on philosophy and aesthetics and embarked on his most important work, the Allgemeine Theorie der schönen Künste. The work is an encyclopedia containing articles on both general and specific topics in the arts. Sulzer’s approach was eclectic, incorporating ideas assimilated from such authors as Dubos, Batteux, Lord Kames, J.A. Schlegel and A.G. Baumgarten. By the time the ...


Alec Hyatt King

(b Kiel, June 16, 1813; d Göttingen, Sept 9, 1869). German philologist, archaeologist and musicographer. After attending the universities of Kiel, Leipzig and Berlin, Jahn rapidly became one of the leading classical scholars of his day, in the study of Greek mythology, in textual criticism – he published editions of Persius and Juvenal – and in archaeology, in which he made a notable contribution to the history of Greek vase-painting. He became professor at Greifswald in 1842 and director of the archaeological museum at Leipzig in 1847, but involvement in the political unrest of 1848–9 caused his dismissal. In 1851 he edited in vocal score the second version (1806) of Beethoven's Leonore. In 1855 he went to Bonn as professor of philology and archaeology and retained this post until shortly before his death.

It is remarkable that such a dedicated career should have left Jahn any time for extended work on music, although in his youth it had rivalled his passion for the classics. While his family had wide musical contacts and he was active as a performer, he seems to have had little academic training in music, which makes his biography of Mozart all the more remarkable an achievement. The preface explains how the idea of writing it came from a conversation with Gustav Hartenstein at Mendelssohn's funeral on ...


Marie Louise Göllner

(b Hadamar, July 26, 1502; d Frankfurt, Feb 9, 1555). German printer. He enrolled as a student at the University of Mainz in 1516, probably remaining there until 1519. In 1528 he established a printing business in Strasbourg. In 1530 he moved to Frankfurt, where he was accepted as a citizen in the same year and began printing in 1530 or 1531. During the years 1538–43 he also maintained a subsidiary firm in Marburg where he was official university printer. He soon left this branch in the hands of his assistant, Andreas Kolbe, and returned to Frankfurt. After his death the firm was continued by his widow Margarethe until 1572, when she divided it among his heirs, who continued publishing under the name Egenolff until 1605.

Egenolff was the first printer of any importance in the city of Frankfurt, which was to become one of the main centres of the trade in the later 16th century. His production of about 500 works was large for his time; it included works in a great variety of fields such as medicine, science, history and the classics. His music publications, though a very small part of the total output, reflect his close ties to the humanistic movement and to the leaders of the Reformation. The earlier edition of Horatian odes (...


Victor H. Mattfeld

(b Eisfeld an der Werre, Suhl, 1488; d Wittenberg, Aug 6, 1548). German publisher. Working in Wittenberg, removed from the main centres of music publication, he became one of the most important music publishers, particularly for the Reformation church. He studied at the University of Wittenberg (1512–14), and then worked for four years in the publishing house of Johann Rhau-Grunenberg (presumably his uncle). In 1518 he left Wittenberg to become Kantor of the Thomasschule and Thomaskirche in Leipzig, a position he held until at least 1 May 1520. On 18 September 1518 he also joined the faculty of the University of Leipzig, lecturing in music theory.

Rhau may have been associated with the circle of theologians surrounding Luther in Wittenberg; as a resident of that city at the time of the nailing of the 95 theses, he was certainly aware of Luther’s position. In June 1519...


George J. Buelow

(b Erfurt, Sept 18, 1684; d Weimar, March 23, 1748). German organist, composer, theorist and lexicographer. His father was Johann Stephan Walther, an Erfurt fabric maker; his mother, Martha Dorothea, née Lämmerhirt, was a close relative of J.S. Bach’s family. Walther’s autobiography was published in Mattheson’s Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education began at the age of four with private instruction; in 1691 he entered the lower school of Erfurt. Organ lessons were begun with Johann Bernhard Bach, organist of the Kaufmannskirche, and continued with his successor, Johann Andreas Kretschmar. Walther said he learnt in less than a year to sing well enough to become a soloist in church music performances. According to Walther, his teacher was Jakob Adlung, but he probably meant David Adlung, the father of Jakob. The latter, born in 1699, became a friend of Walther in the early 1720s and later a prominent Erfurt organist and theorist....


David Nicholls and Joel Sachs

(Dixon )

(b Menlo Park, CA, March 11, 1897; d Shady, NY, Dec 10, 1965). American composer, writer, pianist, publisher, and teacher. Described by Cage as “the open sesame for new music in America,” he was an early advocate for many of the main developments in 20th-century music, including the systematization of modernist techniques, the exploration of timbral resources, and transculturalism.

Many facets of Cowell’s remarkable personality resulted from the unusual circumstances of his upbringing. His father, Harry, had immigrated to British Columbia with his brother after their own father, the Dean of Kildare’s Anglican Cathedral, bought them some land. Finding no satisfaction in farming life, Harry moved to San Francisco in search of a literary career. Henry’s mother Clara (usually called Clarissa) Dixon, a gifted writer, was the daughter of a fundamentalist Midwestern farming family. She had left the church and their community, married, and produced a son called Clarence. After he ran away from home as a teenager, Clarissa fled her stifling small-town life for San Francisco. In the Bay area, she met Harry, with whom she founded a philosophical-anarchist newsletter. As dedicated anarchists, they rejected the heavy hand of government, including what they saw as the homogenizing power of conventional public schooling. They built a little cottage on the still-rural edge of Menlo Park, where Stanford University was being constructed. Henry Cowell was born there, and Menlo Park remained his principal base until ...


Konrad Ameln

[Lechnerus, Leonardus Athesinus]

(b valley of the River Adige, South Tyrol, c1553; d Stuttgart, Sept 9, 1606). German composer and music editor of Austrian birth. He was the leading German composer of choral music in the later 16th century.

The cognomen ‘Athesinus’, which Lechner always used on the title-pages of his printed volumes and manuscripts, shows that he came from the valley of the River Adige (Athesis). He is first heard of in the accounts of the Bavarian court for 1570 as a chorister in the Hofkapelle of the hereditary Prince Wilhelm at Landshut, which was founded in 1568. It had been disbanded by 1570, and one of those dismissed was Lechner, who received a severance payment of ten florins. The first director of the Landshut Kapelle was Ivo de Vento, previously court organist under Lassus at Munich, and he was followed by Antonius Gosswin. Lechner clearly learnt a great deal from both men, but it was always Lassus whom he later referred to, with gratitude and reverence, as his teacher. Up to ...


[Jan Antonín, Ioannes Antonius]

(b Velvary, June 26, 1747; d Vienna, May 7, 1818). Bohemian composer, pianist, music teacher and publisher. He was baptized Jan Antonín, but began (not later than 1773) to use the name Leopold to differentiate himself from his older cousin of that name. He received his basic music education in Velvary and then studied music in Prague with his cousin, who probably gave him a thorough grounding in counterpoint and vocal writing, and with F.X. Dušek, whose piano and composition school prepared him mainly for writing symphonies and piano sonatas. After the success of his first ballets and pantomimes (performed in Prague, 1771–8), Kozeluch abandoned his law studies for a career as a musician. In 1778 he went to Vienna, where he quickly made a reputation as an excellent pianist, teacher and composer. By 1781 he was so well established there that he could refuse an offer to succeed Mozart as court organist to the Archbishop of Salzburg. By ...