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Article

Christian Berger

[Johannes Maria]

(b Frankfurt, June 24, 1955). German musicologist. After studying musicology in Marburg with Brinkmann and Sieghart Döhring (1977–81), he attended the Technical University of Berlin (1982–6) and took the doctorate under Dahlhaus with a study on Schreker's opera Der Schatzgräber. From 1981 to 1986 he worked as an assistant at the Hochschule der Künste in Berlin with Budde and Schnebel. In 1992 his Habilitationsschrift on the concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk during the July Monarchy was accepted by the Technical University and he became professor at the Folkwang Hochschule in Essen the same year. His main areas of study are French music from the 18th to the 20th centuries, music aesthetics in the 19th and 20th century and the history of opera. A pioneering scholar of opera, he has contributed important articles to Pipers Enzyklopädie des Musiktheaters and Metzlers Komponisten-Lexikon.

‘Mosè und Massimilla Rossinis “Mosè in Egitto” und Balzacs politische Deutung’, ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

[Christian Reinhard ]

(b Adelebsen, nr Göttingen, Aug 11, 1900; d Hanover, March 15, 1980). German theologian and musicologist. He studied the piano, the organ and the cello before taking a degree in theology and musicology with Ludwig, Schering and Abert at the universities of Göttingen and Leipzig (from 1918). In 1923 he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Scheidt. While working as a pastor and head of the administration department of the Landeskirchenamt, Hanover (1930–65), he established his reputation as a highly respected church music scholar through his teaching and many publications. He was a lecturer at Göttingen University, where he was made honorary professor in 1946 and awarded an honorary doctorate in 1948, and was co-editor of the journal Musik und Kirche (from 1929), the music collection Handbuch der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenmusik (1933–74), the multi-volume history of church music Handbuch zum evangelischen Kirchengesang...

Article

Gaynor G. Jones

(Philipp)

(b Berlin, Aug 11, 1801; d Karlsruhe, Oct 4, 1877). German theatre historian, librettist and baritone. Eduard Devrient, nephew of the actor Ludwig Devrient, had two brothers who became actors: Karl (first husband of Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient) and Emil. At the age of 17 he entered the Berlin Singakademie and studied singing and thoroughbass with Zelter. He gave his first solo public performance in 1819 in Berlin in C.H. Graun’s Der Tod Jesu and on 18 April 1819 he sang the part of Thanatos in Gluck’s Alceste; after his performance as Masetto in Don Giovanni, he was engaged as a baritone at the Royal Opera.

In 1822 Devrient went on a tour to Dresden, Leipzig, Kassel and Frankfurt (where he was influenced by J.N. Schelble). Later he visited Vienna to hear the Italian opera in which Lablache and other famous singers were performing under Barbaia’s direction. He met Mendelssohn in ...

Article

Martin Ruhnke

revised by Dale Allen Scott

(b Colditz, Saxony, c1590; d Zeitz, Sept 4, 1636). German music theorist and teacher. From 1609 he attended the Thomasschule, Leipzig, under Sethus Calvisius. About 1613 he became Kantor at Rochlitz, near his birthplace, and in 1618 at Zeitz. He is known by a school textbook, Musica nova, Newe Singekunst, so wol nach der alten Solmisation, als newen Bobisation und Bebisation (Leipzig, 1626/R). It begins with traditional elementary rules, but as early as the first theoretical part, solmization is contrasted with the new seven-step systems of bocedization (described by Calvisius) and bebization (after Hitzler), through which the difficulties of mutation could be avoided. The treatment of organ tabulation is also unusual for a school textbook. As the second, practical part Gengenbach published a self-contained collection of practice examples graded from the simple to the difficult. In the third part, which became a pattern for numerous appendixes in later school treatises, he explained Greek, Latin and Italian musical terms; he relied here on the third volume of Michael Praetorius's ...

Article

Friedrich Baser

(Robert)

(b Pforzheim, April 23, 1891; d Stuttgart, Oct 17, 1969). German musicologist, teacher and composer. He studied under Philipp Wolfrum at Heidelberg (1909–11) and under Riemann at Leipzig (1911–13), where he took the doctorate in 1913 with a dissertation on musical form. In 1914 he studied composition with Bodanzki in Mannheim, and after war service he taught at the Röhmeyer Conservatory, Pforzheim (1919–23). He was lecturer in music theory at Gurlitt’s musicology institute at Freiburg University (1923–5), deputy director of the Academy for Speech and Music, Münster (1925–7), director of the music department of the Folkwang-Schule at Essen (1927–35) and director of the Folkwangschulen for Speech, Dance and Music (1935–43). His final post was as director of the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Stuttgart (1943–5, 1952–6), where he taught composition. His works include several large-scale choral pieces, folksong cantatas, string quartets, violin sonatas, songs and choruses. His writings, mostly designed for teaching purposes, have had a more lasting influence and show, in his dissertation as in his final book, a penetrating understanding of form. His practical gifts, which he was able to develop in Münster, are reflected in his textbooks on harmony and orchestration....

Article

Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller

(b Strasbourg, c1478–80; d Freiburg, Sept 5, 1537). German theorist and composer. He studied from 1494 to 1496 in Heidelberg, later in Leuven and, from 1505, in Vienna. There he took organ lessons from the cathedral organist, Wolfgang Grefinger. Luscinius particularly admired the playing of Hofhaimer, the imperial organist, praising him in his Musicae institutiones and discussing his pupils, among them Hans Buchner and Kotter. Luscinius continued his studies (which were not only in music) in many centres in Europe and the Near East, and gave music lectures at Vienna University. In 1510 he met Virdung at the Reichstag in Augsburg. Further journeys took him to Konstanz and Melk. Between 1511 and 1514 he studied Greek and theology in Paris and then returned to Strasbourg, where he was organist at St Thomas from 1510 to 1520. In 1519 he took the degree of Doctor of Canon Law from Padua University. As a result of the Reformation he lost his organist’s post and was prevented from obtaining a canonry. In ...

Article

Konrad Boehmer

(b Erfurt, April 21, 1864; d Munich, June 14, 1920). German social economist and sociologist . He held professorial appointments in economics and sociology at the universities of Berlin (1893), Freiburg (1894), Heidelberg (1897–1903) and Munich (1920). He is regarded as the founder of comprehensive sociology which he developed from the social theories of Hegel, Comte and Marx and the historical philosophies of Dilthey, Windelband and Simmel. He avoided monocausal interpretations and stressed the concrete relationships between a spiritual climate and the corresponding material (economic and political) historical data. The range of his writings reflects his sharp distinction between the sociologist’s freedom of evaluation and socially relevant comment (which he considered a non-scientific process and not a task of the sociologist), for the conservative outlook of his political writings frequently conflicts with the perspective of his scientific works. In his only substantial musico-sociological work, ‘Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik’ (Eng. trans., ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Karl-Heinz Schlager

(b Kronstadt [now Braşov], Romania, Oct 31, 1927). German musicologist . He studied musicology with Thrasybulos Georgiades, Greek philology with Otto Regenbogen and philosophy with Hans Georg Gadamer at Heidelberg University (1948–54). He took the doctorate at Heidelberg in 1956 with a dissertation on the Vatican organum treatise. From 1958 to 1961 he was an assistant lecturer in the musicology department of Munich University, and subsequently, as the holder of an award from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, he concentrated on research in ancient music and contributed to the 12th edition of the Riemann Musik Lexikon. Between 1968 and 1991 he was director of the historical department of the Staatliches Institut für Musikforschung of the Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Berlin, where he edited a comprehensive history of music theory; in 1973 he also became a lecturer in musicology at the Free University and in 1982 at the Technical University of Berlin. Among the publications he has edited are ...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(b ?Reate [now Rieti], 116 bce; d 27 bce). Roman scholar and poet . During four decades he took an active part in political life, but his passion was for scholarship. Educated at Rome and Athens, he made available to his countrymen much of the entire range of Hellenic and Hellenistic erudition. Varro is the first Roman example of the polymath, and he remained deeply Roman. His eclecticism continued to be subservient to an abiding concern for the virtues of earlier generations, even as his prodigious learning was lightened and made palatable for ordinary readers by a strong feeling for earthy realities. He has been called the ‘most learned of the Romans’.

The 55 known titles constitute but a partial list of Varro's major works. Of these, only On Farming survives in a complete form; six books remain of the 25 originally comprising the systematic treatise On Latin, as well as 600 fragments of his ...

Article

Lorenz Welker

(b Ottobeuren, Aug 10, 1947). German musicologist , son of the musicologist Ernst Fritz Schmid. Born to a musical family (he is also related to the composers Emil Kauffman and Ernst Friedrich Kauffman) he studied the violin with Koeckert at Augsburg Conservatory, musicology with Croll and Georgiades at Salzburg and Munich universities respectively, and music theory with Peter Förtig at the Freiburg Musikhochschule. He took the doctorate in Munich in 1975 with a dissertation on Mozart and the Salzburg musical tradition. After a period as assistant lecturer at Munich University, he became curator of the instrument collection of the Munich Stadtmuseum in 1979. He completed the Habilitation in 1980 at Munich University with an investigation of works by Weber, Schumann and Wagner. He was appointed professor of musicology at Tübingen University in 1986. He is chairman of the Musikhistorische Kommission of Das Erbe deutscher Musik and the Deutsches musikgeschichtliches Archiv, Kassel, and is a member of the advisory committee for the Gesellschaft für Musikgeschichte in Baden-Württemberg; he is also founder and editor of the journal ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Berlin, Dec 29, 1925; d Detmold, Germany, March 10, 2011). German musicologist. He was educated in Berlin: from 1947 to 1950 he studied music (with the piano as his main subject) at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory and the Hochschule für Musik; from 1950 he studied musicology with Gerstenberg, Adrio and Dräger at the Freie Universität, where he took the doctorate in 1957 with a dissertation on the late works of Praetorius. From 1956 to 1960 he was director of the department of music education at the John Petersen Conservatory, Berlin, and from 1959 to 1967 he was an assistant lecturer in the musicology department of the Free University, where he completed his Habilitation in musicology (1967) with studies on musical thought in the early 19th century. From 1960 to 1969 he was also a lecturer at the Berlin-Spandau School of Church Music. In 1972 he was appointed professor at the Music Academy of Detmold. He founded a music department in ...

Article

Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller

(b Lüneburg, c1542; d Hanover, Jan 8, 1623). German composer and theorist. He matriculated at the University of Wittenberg on 12 July 1565, but he took no degree. On 28 March 1568 he was appointed Kantor of the Lateinschule and of the Marktkirche, the two most important musical positions in Hanover, and he held them until he retired in 1616. His output reflects his activities in these posts. His three masses, which are parody masses, and his motets (1572 and 1581) show that he was a competent composer of polyphony, and his three-part songs (1594) are more contrapuntal than such pieces often were. His primer of 1599, dedicated to 54 of his pupils, including the infant Melchior Schildt, contains 14 canons as exercises.

Article

Cecil Adkins

(b Meissen, nr Dresden; fl 1614). German theorist. He was a teacher at Beuten. His Musica mathematica was published at Altenburg in 1614 as the second part (pp.89–175) of Heinrich Zeising's Theatri machinarum. Bartolus's treatise is basically speculative in nature. He relied heavily on the horoscope in his interpretation of the effects of music, suggesting that the composer's choice of tonalities, as well as their effect on the listener, could be determined astrologically. Although the monochord tuning which he propounded had been devised by Andreas Reinhard in his ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Münster, May 29, 1906; d Münster, Nov 26, 1982). German musicologist. He studied mathematics, natural sciences and musicology at the universities of Freiburg and Münster (1924–6) and musicology, art history and philosophy at the University of Berlin (1926–8), where he took the doctorate under Johannes Wolf in 1928 with a dissertation on harmony in the early 15th century. He then became an assistant lecturer in the musicology department of Heidelberg University (1928–31) under Besseler. In 1932 he completed his Habilitation in musicology at the University of Münster with a study of early 15th-century Italian music; in the same year he succeeded Fellerer as director of the musicology department at the University of Münster. In 1937 he was appointed reader, and, despite a negative judgment in the denazification proceedings, was promoted to professor in 1946. He had previously occupied briefly the chairs of musicology at the universities of Göttingen and Marburg....

Article

Mary Berry

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255 he entered the order of friars minor. Guy de Foulques (later Pope Clement IV), then Archbishop of Narbonne, wrote about 1265 asking him to outline a syllabus for the reform of learning – a sign of the high esteem in which Bacon and his teaching were held. Bacon responded by composing the three summaries known as the Opus maius, the Opus minor and the Opus tertium, submitting them to the pope in 1268. Clement died, however, that same year, before he had had time to study or implement them. During the next decade Bacon produced further writings on mathematics, science and language, including Greek and Hebrew grammars and a ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Fürstenberg, Mecklenburg, late 16th century). German theorist . He referred to himself as ‘S. S. Theol. et Lib. Art. Studiosus et P[oeta] L[aureatus] C[aesareus]’. In 1622 he published in Berlin Nucleus musicus de modis seu tonis, ex optimus … musicorum abstrusioribus scriptus, which he revised and expanded as Opusculum bipartitum de primordiis musicis (Berlin, 1624, 2/1625). It is the latter treatise which establishes him as a significant contributor to German music theory in the 17th century.

The Opusculum consists of two major parts, ‘De tonis sive modis’ and ‘De compondendi regulis’. Thuringus provided a list of the authorities from which he obtained much of his material. Most of them were German; they include Alsted, Burmeister, Calvisius, Henning Dedekind, Eichmann, Heinrich Faber, Galliculus, Glarean, Eucharius Hoffmann, Listenius, Nucius, Rhau and the composers Josquin and Senfl. As Feldmann has shown, much of the volume comes from the treatise by Nucius, ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

revised by Matthias Brzoska

(b Witten, Ruhr, March 19, 1936). German musicologist. From 1955 he studied musicology, philosophy, and Protestant theology at the universities of Münster and Kiel and the Free University of Berlin, where his teachers included Dräger, Friedrich Blume, and Wiora. He took the doctorate at Kiel in 1962 with a dissertation on the vocal music of Buxtehude and the early Pietists. After a period as consultant to Kiel University on Schleswig-Holstein customs (1961–2), he became an editor of the Wagner collected edition in Munich (1966–70). Since then he has been adviser in music education to the publishing house of Ernst Klett in Stuttgart, for whom he edits the Curriculum Musik. In 1975 he completed his Habilitation in Dortmund and the following year became professor of musicology at the city’s university. He has worked on German music history of the 16th century to the 19th, with particular reference to Buxtehude, Bach, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Wagner. In his work he seeks to replace traditional methodologies used in historiology with a more modern, critical approach. In ...

Article

Gilbert Reaney

[Morino]

(fl mid-14th century). Theorist. He was the author of the short treatise De motettis componendis (CoussemakerS, iii, pp.124–8; partial critical edn in Leech-Wilkinson, i, 18–20). In most sources this is combined with the Tractatus de diversis figuris, usually attributed to philippus de Caserta but considered as the work of Egidius in three out of four manuscripts in this integrated form. Hoppin and Clercx discovered an Egidius Morini who was a bachelor in civil law and student at the University of Orléans. He received a canonicate with expectation of a prebend at Le Mans in 1337. This date would fit quite well with the style of the music discussed in the treatise on motets, though another man of the same name received a canonicate at Nivelles in the Liège diocese in 1378; he came from Amiens. The place name Morino or Murino refers to the diocese of La Thérouanne in northern France....

Article

James W. McKinnon and Joseph Dyer

[Aurelius Augustinus]

(b Thagaste, Nov 13, 354; d Hippo, Aug 28, 430). Saint, churchman, and scholar. He was perhaps the most influential figure in the history of Christian thought, rivalled only by Thomas Aquinas and possibly Origen. Born in North Africa to a pagan father and Christian mother, the sainted Monica, he studied rhetoric in Carthage where he lost his boyhood Christian faith. In 373 his reading of Cicero's Hortensius inspired him to pursue the life of a philosopher, which he experienced first as a devotee of Manicheism. He served as professor of liberal arts for several years in his native Thagaste, moving in 383 to Rome and then in 384 to Milan, as professor of rhetoric. In Milan he came under the influence of the Christian neoplatonist Simplicianus and St Ambrose. He was led gradually through Neoplatonism to Christianity and, after a period of retreat at Cassiciacum, was baptized on Easter Eve of ...

Article

Klaus Wolfgang Niemöller

(b ?Fulda, c1445; d Wittenberg, 1505). German composer and theorist. Until about 1490 he was at the Benedictine monastery of Vornbach, near Passau, but he had to leave it when he married. In 1490 he entered the service of Frederick the Wise of Saxony, working first as a singer, then as a historiographer (from 1492), finally becoming Kapellmeister by 1498. In 1502 he matriculated at the newly founded University of Wittenberg. Between 1503 and 1504 he wrote his chronicle of Saxon history undertaken at Frederick’s suggestion in 1492, and after Adam’s death (of the plague) in 1505, it was completed by Johannes Trithemius, Abbot of Würzburg.

In 1490 Adam finished his famous treatise De musica (GerbertS, iii, 329), in which he described himself as ‘Musicus ducalis’. The manuscript was burnt in 1870 but the text had already been printed by Gerbert in 1784. In it he noted that Du Fay’s music extended Guido’s musical system by three degrees, and upheld Busnoys as a model to be emulated. Adam inveighed against minstrels (‘ioculatores’) and artless folksingers (‘laici vulgares’), for, he said, they had no knowledge of the art of music-making. He was the first theorist to distinguish between vocal and instrumental music in the modern sense. He also wrote some religious verses which were published by Wolff Cyclopius as ...