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Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

[Marcus Fabius Quintilianus]

(b Calagurris, Spain, 30–35 ce; d Rome, after c94 ce). Roman orator and writer on rhetoric. He may have begun his studies in Spain; he completed them at Rome and there went on to gain both fame and wealth. In recognition of his remarkable skill at teaching rhetoric, he received a regular income from the imperial treasury, the first of his profession to be granted this honour. The literary testimonial to his gifts is the Institutio oratoria (completed c95 ce), a treatise in 12 books on the training of the ideal orator from earliest childhood to maturity. In this one surviving work the references to music form an unusual commentary, since they are based on wide reading and sympathetic interest rather than deep knowledge.

The recognition of a relationship between music and rhetoric goes back to earlier Roman writers such as Marcus Tullius Cicero, and beyond them to ...

Article

Konrad Boehmer

(b Erfurt, April 21, 1864; d Munich, June 14, 1920). German social economist and sociologist . He held professorial appointments in economics and sociology at the universities of Berlin (1893), Freiburg (1894), Heidelberg (1897–1903) and Munich (1920). He is regarded as the founder of comprehensive sociology which he developed from the social theories of Hegel, Comte and Marx and the historical philosophies of Dilthey, Windelband and Simmel. He avoided monocausal interpretations and stressed the concrete relationships between a spiritual climate and the corresponding material (economic and political) historical data. The range of his writings reflects his sharp distinction between the sociologist’s freedom of evaluation and socially relevant comment (which he considered a non-scientific process and not a task of the sociologist), for the conservative outlook of his political writings frequently conflicts with the perspective of his scientific works. In his only substantial musico-sociological work, ‘Die rationalen und soziologischen Grundlagen der Musik’ (Eng. trans., ...

Article

Warren Anderson

revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen

(fl Rome and Alexandria, c200 ce). Greek physician and head of the sceptical school of philosophy during its final phase. His writings are divided into two major groups: the Outlines of Pyrrhonism, comprising three books summarizing sceptical doctrines and criticizing other philosophical systems, and Against the Professors, consisting of 11 books, the last five of which are sometimes known collectively as Against the Dogmatists. The first six books of Against the Professors present refutation of ta mathēmata, including grammar, rhetoric, geometry, arithmetic, astrology and music. Initially (Against the Professors, i.8), Sextus intimates that he will criticize music, to which the sixth book, Against the Musicians, is devoted, by questioning the existence of its fundamental constituents, sound and time (phōnē, chronos). He does so in the latter half of his discussion (vi.29–51, ed. Greaves), employing the paradoxical methods of disproof developed by his predecessors to further their questing examination (...

Article

Thomas S. Grey

(b Prague, Sept 11, 1825; d Baden, nr Vienna, Aug 6, 1904). Austrian music critic, aesthetician and historian. Sensing his vocation as a critic and writer on musical topics early on, he became one of the first widely influential music critics in the modern sense; he was also among the first to receive an official university appointment in music, as professor of the history and aesthetics of music at the University of Vienna, in 1861. His early treatise on questions of musical form and expression (Vom Musikalisch-Schönen, 1854) challenged a long tradition of aesthetic thought that located the essence and value of music in a loosely defined ‘expression of feelings’, and it has remained a touchstone in musical-aesthetic debates to the present day. As a critic he covered a huge cross-section of musical life in the second half of the 19th century. His journalism – trenchant and entertaining in style – remains of great interest for the historical as well as critical insights it offers....

Article

M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

revised by Dorothea Baumann

( b Basle, Sept 18, 1889; d Basle, Nov 15, 1952). Swiss musicologist and critic . He studied classical philology, and then musicology with Karl Nef at the University of Basle and with Rezniček, Kretzschmar and Johannes Wolf in Berlin. In 1915 he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Hans Kotter’s organ tablature. He became a critic and later music editor (1920–51) of Basler Nachrichten. In 1921 he completed the Habilitation with a study of the keyboard music of the German colourists and was appointed lecturer at the University of Basle; he was subsequently appointed reader (1930) and full professor (1935). He was the first secretary of the IMS (1927–48) and, after having organized its first international congress in Basle in 1924, president of the Schweizerische Musikforschende Gesellschaft (1935–46); later he became an honorary member of both societies. In ...

Article

Thomas M. Langner

revised by Pamela M. Potter

( b Potsdam, Oct 6, 1891; d Cologne, June 24, 1971). German musicologist and journalist . He studied musicology with Sandberger and Kroyer at Munich University (1910–12), with Riemann and Schering for one term in Leipzig, and with Kretzschmar and Wolf in Berlin (1912–14); he also had some practical training at the Stern Conservatory. He took the doctorate in 1914 with a dissertation on Christian Boxberg and the music history of Ansbach, and then as assistant to Kretzschmar at the musicology institute of Berlin University he catalogued old music in archives and libraries in Germany and Italy (1915–17); he was subsequently the first director of the Musikarchiv Deutscher Volkslieder (1917–34). In 1921 he completed the Habilitation at the Berlin Technische Hochschule with a study of new musical methods of research into folksong, and in 1927 he became a reader at the Technische Hochschule. During his years (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(Filler )

(b New York, April 2, 1945). American musicologist and critic . He studied at Columbia University, taking the doctorate in 1975 with a dissertation on Russian opera in the 1860s. He taught at Columbia from 1973 until 1987, when he became professor at the University of California, Berkeley; he was named Class of 1955 Professor of Music in 1997. A wide-ranging scholar, Taruskin has written on the 15th-century chanson, the Early Music movement (of which he is a trenchant critic, seeing it more as an outcome of 20th-century taste than as truly re-creative), on theoretical aspects of Stravinsky and, above all, on Russian music, from the 18th century to the present. His writings, original, highly perceptive and frequently controversial, include articles dealing with views of Russian musical history and textual, technical and interpretative questions in the operas of Musorgsky and Prokofiev. Taruskin is also a vigorous, forthright critic, and is a regular contributor to the ...

Article

Marta Ottlová, Milan Pospíšil, John Tyrrell and Kelly St Pierre

[Friedrich]

(b Leitomischl, Bohemia [now Litomyšl, Czech Republic], 2 March 1824; d Prague, 12 May 1884). Czech composer, conductor, teacher, and music critic often described as the ‘father’ or ‘inventor’ of Czech national music. While his first language was German and his first nationalist compositions were based on Swedish narratives, Smetana asserted himself as composer of specifically Czech music from the 1860s, and his music posthumously became synonymous with a Czech national musical style. Today, Smetana’s eight operas, including Prodaná nevěsta (‘The Bartered Bride’), as well as his cycle of symphonic poems Má vlast (‘My Fatherland’) form the foundation of the Czech classical musical canon. His opera Libuše is also frequently cited as an ‘apotheosis’ of Czech music, especially in conjunction with the first movement of Má vlast, entitled ‘Vyšehrad’.

After his death, Smetana was transformed in the minds of his audiences and advocates from a composer of nationalistic music to a national symbol himself; he and his works became enduring points of reference for Czechs’ ever-shifting borders, politics, administrations, ethnicities, and imagined futures through the 20th century. For this reason, the actual Smetana in many ways has become inseparable from the myth of ‘Smetana’, as later critics and historians molded his life and work to match their needs. The composer’s supposed greatness, genius, Czechness, tragic deafness, and heroism all give voice to the shifting needs, anxieties, and interests of his audiences as much as to the composer himself....

Article

John Daverio and Eric Sams

(b Zwickau, Saxony, June 8, 1810; d Endenich, nr Bonn, July 29, 1856). German composer and music critic. While best remembered for his piano music and songs, and some of his symphonic and chamber works, Schumann made significant contributions to all the musical genres of his day and cultivated a number of new ones as well. His dual interest in music and literature led him to develop a historically informed music criticism and a compositional style deeply indebted to literary models. A leading exponent of musical Romanticism, he had a powerful impact on succeeding generations of European composers....