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Article

Hans Klotz

(b Hanover, bap. Oct 11, 1679; d Hanover, Jan 25, 1756). German organ and harpsichord builder . He learnt organ building from his father, Martin Vater, is known to have worked for Arp Schnitger as journeyman in 1697 and 1700, and he set up on his own in about 1702. He became organist to the court of the Elector of Hanover (later King George I of England) in 1708–9, and court organ builder in 1714. By 1716–17 he had to his credit ‘33 organs, some new-built, some renovated’. Most of his work was done in the electorate of Hanover, the bishopric of Osnabrück and the county of Oldenburg, but he also worked for the landgraves of Kassel and Darmstadt, and in Amsterdam he built a new organ for the Oude Kerk (1724–6) and rebuilt an instrument in the Westerkerk (1726). Like his brother Anton in Paris, Christian Vater was in demand as a builder of harpsichords and clavichords. His son Johannes succeeded him as organ builder to the court of Hanover....

Article

Walter Hüttel

(b Friedericia, c1647; d Mehlis, Thüringer Wald, March 3, 1700). German organ builder of Danish birth. Holbeck established his workshop in Zwickau but worked also in Hamburg, Lübeck, Copenhagen and Stockholm. From 1690 he also held office at the court of the Prince of Gotha-Altenburg. The parochial register of Zwickau describes him as a greatly respected figure and a most distinguished citizen; the account for his organ at Waldenburg refers to him as a famous organ maker. Holbeck’s daughter, Maria Margarethe, married in 1701 the organ builder and clavichord maker Johannes Jacobus Donati, who took over the court appointment and business of his father-in-law.

In the last quarter of the 17th century Holbeck supplied instruments to churches in Saxony, Thuringia and Bavaria, including St Michael in Hof (1679) and St Moritz in Zwickau (1700). In Delitzsch his work was opposed by the examining church musicians, but in general there was no lack of praise and recognition for his achievement as a master craftsman. The comparatively large organ at Schneeberg (St Wolfgang-Kirche, ...

Article

[Johannes; Hans von Basel]

(b Basle, c1460; d Basle, summer 1519). Swiss organ builder. He was the son of a Basle gunsmith and matriculated at Basle University, 1476–7. By about 1500 he was one of the most important organ builders in Switzerland and south-west Germany. He appears to have worked in Mantua Cathedral in 1503. He built new organs in Basle (1487, 1496–9 and before 1510), Mainz (before 1496, perhaps 1490), Brugg (1493 and the following years), Zürich Grossmünster (1505–7), Colmar (before 1513) and Biel (1517–19). He also rebuilt and repaired organs in Basle (1482), Konstanz Cathedral (1489–90; he may also have built a small organ there in 1490–91), Zürich Grossmünster (1511–13), Mainz Cathedral (1514), Berne Minster (1517–19) and Colmar (1513, 1518).

Tugi should not be confused with the German organist Johannes Gross (...

Article

Edward H. Tarr

[Neuschl, Neischl, Neyschl, Meuschel]

German family of brass instrument makers . The oldest Nuremberg dynasty of brass instrument makers, it was founded by Hans Neuschel the elder (d Nuremberg, 1503 or 1504). The city awarded him the title of master coppersmith in 1479 and in 1487 he is recorded as having made a trumpet and slides (Ziehstücke) for either trumpets or trombones.

Hans Neuschel the younger (d Nuremberg, 1533), a son of Hans the elder, was the most famous member of the family – the Meuschelstrasse in Nuremberg is named after him. He was both an instrument maker and a trombonist. A document from 1491 in which he was appointed Stadtpfeifer (confirmed in 1499), attributed by Jahn to his father, probably applies to him. In 1493 he additionally became a master coppermith. He is said to have improved the art of trombone making in 1498. His instruments carried the hallmark of the imperial crown. By order of Emperor Maximilian I, in ...

Article

Kurt von Fischer

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

(d c1415). Italian composer and organist. A relatively large amount of information about Andreas’s life is available, because of the important position he held in the Order of the Servi di Maria, which he entered in 1375. From 1380 until 1397, with interruptions, he was prior of the monastery of the SS Annunziata in Florence; in 1393 he was prior in Pistoia and from 1407 to 1410 he was the leader of the Tuscan Servites. Andreas was closely associated with Landini and worked with him on the construction of the organ at both the SS Annunziata and Florence Cathedral, in 1379 and in 1387. Moreover, the names ‘Cosa’ and ‘Sandra’, which occur in ballata texts that he himself probably set to music and in works by Landini (and Paolo da Firenze), point to these composers sharing a social environment. Andreas was the teacher of the Florentine composer Bonaiuto Corsini who is known for several ballatas. It is uncertain whether a Maestro Andrea who was commissioned in ...

Article

Michael Kassler

German-English family of musicians .

(b Engelbostel, Hanover, March 21, 1756; d London, April 19, 1829). English music theorist of German birth. His father was the Engelbostel organist; an uncle, Carl Christoph Hachmeister senior, composed and was organist of the Heiligen-Geist church in Hamburg; his brother, Georg Christoph Kollmann (1758–1827), became organist of St Katharinen, Hamburg. A.F.C. Kollmann studied with the Hanover organist Böttner and in 1779 entered the Normal School there, learning ‘that methodical, and systematical manner of teaching, which has been very advantageous to him, not only for school instruction, but also in teaching music, and particularly in writing his musical treatises’. On 10 December 1781 he was appointed organist and schoolmaster of the Benedictine convent at Lüne (near Lüneburg) but left and in September 1782 became organist and schoolmaster of the Royal German Chapel in St James’s Palace, London, where he remained for the rest of his life (serving also, from ...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Grossfurra, Thuringia, Oct 25, 1643; d Gotha, Feb 20, 1676). German composer and writer. After initially going to school in his native town he was sent in 1656 to Eisenach for three years. There he attended the town school, the staff of which included Theodor Schuchardt, a highly respected teacher of music and Latin. From 1659 to 1662 Agricola studied for his school-leaving examination at the Gymnasium of Gotha; the headmaster there was Andreas Reyher, who was the co-author of the Gothaer Schulmethodus, an educational work which set an example for the teaching of music too. In 1662–3 Agricola studied philosophy at Leipzig University and from 1663 to 1668 theology and philosophy at Wittenberg, where he was awarded a master's degree by the faculty of philosophy. His four recorded scholarly essays dating from this period are lost. He had begun to learn the fundamentals of music during his school years, and he may also have been a pupil of the Kantor of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, Sebastian Knüpfer. He continued his musical training at Wittenberg, completing the study of composition under the guidance of Italian musicians resident there. Returning to his native Thuringia he was able to turn his musical abilities to good use in the Kapelle of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen court until in ...

Article

Kurt von Fischer

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

[Landino, Franciscus; Magister Franciscus de Florentia; Magister Franciscus Coecus Horghanista de Florentia; Francesco degli orghani; Cechus de Florentia]

(b ? Fiesole or Florence, c1325; d Florence, Sept 2, 1397). Italian composer, poet, organist, singer and instrument maker of the second generation of Italian Trecento composers.

Only a few dates relating to Landini’s life can be established with any certainty. There is no record of his date of birth, which Fétis gave as c1325 and Pirrotta as c1335. Fiesole was stated as his place of birth, but by only one authority: the Florentine humanist Cristoforo Landino (1429–98), Landini’s great-nephew, in his Elogia de suis maioribus. Most of the available biographical information derives from Filippo Villani’s Liber de origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus: the chapter that concerns certain of the Trecento composers (Bartholus, Giovanni, Lorenzo and Jacopo) was written after 1381 but still within Landini’s lifetime (see Villani, Filippo). The name Landini (Landino), according to Pirrotta, descends from Francesco’s grandfather, Landino di Manno, who can be traced in Pratovecchio (Casentino) from ...

Article

Edward R. Reilly

revised by Andreas Giger

(b Oberscheden, Hanover, Jan 30, 1697; d Potsdam, July 12, 1773). German flautist, composer, writer on music and flute maker.

Quantz’s autobiography, published in F.W. Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge, i (1754–5), is the principal source of information on the composer's life, centring on his activities in Dresden (1716–41) and at the court of Frederick the Great in Berlin and Potsdam (from 1741).

The son of a blacksmith, he began his musical training in 1708 with his uncle, Justus Quantz, a town musician in Merseburg. After Justus’s death three months later, Quantz continued his apprenticeship with his uncle’s successor and son-in-law, J.A. Fleischhack, whom he served as a journeyman after the completion of the apprenticeship in 1713. During his apprenticeship, Quantz achieved proficiency on most of the principal string instruments, the oboe and the trumpet. Taking advantage of a period of mourning for the reigning duke’s brother in ...