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Leon Stefanija

(b Ljubljana, Oct 20, 1954). Slovenian composer . After taking degree in music education at Ljubljana University (1975), he continued to study composition, mostly as a self-taught practitioner. In the 1980s he attended composition courses led by Polish composers Bogusław Schäffer, Krzystof Meyer and Kotoński, and in 1995 he took a higher degree in music education. He has hitherto focussed primarily on vocal (especially choral) genres and on music for theatre and film. His musical idiom encompasses a variety of styles, ranging from folklike melodic expressiveness (as in his earlier choral works) and picturesque tone poems to the new simplicity of works such as Post Art or Look, Wolgang is Writing to You for piano and strings (1991).

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Alla Vladimirovna Grigor′yeva

(b Moscow, 3/Feb 16, 1910; d Moscow, Dec 25, 1988). Russian composer, pianist and teacher. He graduated from the Moscow Conservatory (1936) having studied composition with Myaskovsky, with whom he remained as a postgraduate. His name is listed on a marble plaque as one of the most talented students of the Conservatory. In his early years, besides composing, Golubev was a choral conductor, pianist and on the editorial board of Muzgiz, the state music publishers. From 1944 to the end of his life he taught composition and polyphony at Moscow Conservatory, becoming a professor in 1947. Among his students were Eshpay, Golovin, Kholminov, Todor Popov and Schnittke.

Golubev's connections with the musical traditions of both Russia and Western Europe determined the aesthetic values of his music. Skill in polyphony, taste and professionalism were important qualities to this composer, for whom classical logic was essential to his musical thinking. In his large-scale forms the composer aimed, by means of architectural proportions and other Beethovenian symphonic principles, to give the maximum prominence to his ideas, incorporating bold strokes, dynamic development of the musical material and dramatic integrity (5th, and 7th symphonies and the piano concertos). His chamber works are characterized by mastery of the technical and expressive possibilities of particular instruments, virtuoso working of the most complex textures, often enriched with polyphonic motifs, and a subtly original harmonic language. His knowledge of folklore – Russian, Ukrainian, and of the peoples of the far north – is evident in the oratorio ...


Lada Brashovanova

(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...


Dorothea Redepenning


(b Sontsovka, Bakhmutsk region, Yekaterinoslav district, Ukraine, 11/April 23, 1891; d Moscow, March 5, 1953). Russian composer and pianist. He began his career as a composer while still a student, and so had a deep investment in Russian Romantic traditions – even if he was pushing those traditions to a point of exacerbation and caricature – before he began to encounter, and contribute to, various kinds of modernism in the second decade of the new century. Like many artists, he left his country directly after the October Revolution; he was the only composer to return, nearly 20 years later. His inner traditionalism, coupled with the neo-classicism he had helped invent, now made it possible for him to play a leading role in Soviet culture, to whose demands for political engagement, utility and simplicity he responded with prodigious creative energy. In his last years, however, official encouragement turned into persecution, and his musical voice understandably faltered....