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Henry Stobart

and ‘female’ erkes (without drums) to perform melodies, which are sometimes pentatonic. Exceptionally, the smaller ‘female’ size is played by a woman. Secondly, the erke exists as a side-blown trumpet, 2 to 6 metres long, made of cane, with a bell made from the dried skin of a cow's tail, animal horn or metal. It plays impressive fanfare-like figures, rarely moving outside a four-note compass (the major triad and its lower dominant). Performance is usually confined to the dry winter months as its sound is sometimes said to attract frosts. The erke or corneta



Beryl Kenyon de Pascual and John M. Schechter

clairon it is sometimes applied loosely to the bugle ( corneta ). The instrument is used particularly in cavalry formations to embellish the calls of the trompeta . (2) A valveless trumpet of Oaxaca, Mexico. (3) A side-blown, straight trumpet up to 2 metres long, similar to the Erke , used in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. The Peruvian instrument has a body made of a single piece of bamboo and a calabash or metal bell. Played in open spaces, it is used to animate religious festivals and communal labour (particularly wheat-threshing in Cajamarca). In Chile it joins with


John M. Schechter

At the wider end a cow horn is attached with plant fibres or leather as a resonator. Metal instruments, made from gas- or water-pipes, are known among the Mapuche of Lanalhue, Chile. The trutruka is similar in construction to the Argentine Erke , but has a diagonal cut at the tip which serves as a mouthpiece, whereas the erke is side-blown or uses a single reed. It is played, together with other instruments, at the elüwún funeral rite for a shaman, in the ngillatún ceremony when Araucanians meet to supplicate their gods for protection against calamities and