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Article

Mary Berry

revised by Franklyn Gellnick

Stephen Harding. In 1112 Bernard, later the founder and Abbot of Clairvaux, entered Cîteaux with a band of 30 young friends and relations. With the accent on manual labour, the Cistercians undertook the cultivation of vast areas of hitherto untilled land, and to do this they instituted the life of the lay brothers. Another important innovation of the White Monks was their unified structure in the relationship between founding monasteries and daughter houses, described in a remarkable document, the Carta caritatis (‘Charter of charity’) of St Stephen Harding. All

Article

Andrew Lamb

(Vienna, 1971, 2/1980) F. Bruyas : Histoire de l’opérette en France, 1855–1965 (Lyons, 1974) G. Bordman : American Musical Theatre: a Chronicle (New York, 1978, 2/1992) A. Hyman : Sullivan and his Satellites: a Study of English Operettas, 1860–1914 (London, 1978) J. Harding : Folies de Paris: the Rise and Fall of French Operetta (London, 1979) V. Klotz : Bürgerliches Lachtheater (Munich, 1980, 2/1987) G. Bordman : American Operetta from ‘HMS Pinafore’ to ‘Sweeney Todd’ (New York, 1981) C. Dufresne : Histoire de l’opérette (Paris, 1981)

Article

David Fallows

was ever manufactured. Among several other new machines of those years, most of which are known only from a brief reference or description, are: a time-keeper by John Chancellor (Coggins, c 1822 ); a chronometer by Henry Smart, brother of Sir George Smart (Coggins, illustrated in Harding, 1938 , pl.18), built after the manner of a barrel organ and probably deriving from Eckhardt’s machine; a machine in the shape of a pocket-watch made by Sparrevogn of Copenhagen ( 1817 ); a new pendulum by Despréaux (described by Fétis as representing no advance on Loulié’s original

Article

March  

Erich Schwandt and Andrew Lamb

marches] C. Pierre : Musique des fêtes et céremonies de la Révolution française (Paris, 1899) H.G. Farmer : The Rise and Development of Military Music (London, 1912/ R ) M. Brenet : La musique militaire (Paris, 1917) J.P. Sousa : Marching Along (New York, 1928) R.E.M. Harding : The Origins of Musical Time and Expression (London, 1938) R. Blesh and H. Janis : They All Played Ragtime (New York, 1950, 4/1971) M. Reimann : ‘Materialien zu einer Definition des Terminus und des Begriffs der Intrada’, Mf , 10 (1957), 337–64 B.A. Labash : The March:

Article

house band of the mid-1930s was led by Marion Sears, brother of Al Sears, and included at times Buster Harding, Earle Warren, Freddie Webster, Tadd Dameron, and Bullmoose Jackson. A later band was led by Tadd Dameron’s brother Caesar Dameron. From the mid-1940s until the late 1960s the club featured local jazz groups. Chatterbox. 5123 Woodland Avenue. Open from 1949 to 1959 , it featured mostly rhythm-and-blues, but in the mid- to late 1950s it presented James Moody and a number of jazz singers: Jimmy Rushing, Betty Carter, Carmen McRae, Billie Holiday, and Dinah

Article

Central Public Library, Henry Watson Music Library, St Peter’s Square, Manchester M2 5PD ( Mp ). Library holdings include the Newman Flower Collection of Aylesford Handel MSS. Oxford Bodleian Library, Oxford OX1 3BG ( Ob ). The library acquired the Harding Collection of sheet music and opera vocal scores in 1974 . There is further operatic material in the Tenbury Collection ( T ), previously in the possession of St Michael’s College, Tenbury, and originally belonging to F. A. G. Ouseley. The John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera

Article

Dance  

Julia Sutton, E. Kerr Borthwick, Ingrid Brainard, Jennifer Nevile, Rebecca Harris-Warrick, Andrew Lamb and Helen Thomas

Stantipes/Stampita’, L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento: Convegno II: Certaldo and Florence 1969 [ L’Ars Nova italiana del Trecento , 3 (Certaldo, 1970)], 399–410 B. Rudolph : ‘The Medieval Tanzhaus: a Checklist of Writings’, Theatre Documentation , 2/1–2 (1969–70), 121–3 A. Harding : An Investigation into the Use and Meaning of Medieval German Dancing Terms (Göppingen, 1973) J.M. Ward : ‘The Maner of Dauncynge’, EMc , 4 (1976), 127–42 F.A. Gallo : ‘Il “ballare lombardo” (circa 1435–1475)’, Studi musicali , 8 (1979), 61–84 I. Brainard : The Art of Courtly

Article

Raoul F. Camus

Interlochen, Michigan, the most famous of the many summer music schools. As early as 1919 Harding had invited school band directors to observe his rehearsals at the University of Illinois and to discuss specific problems and repertoire. In 1930 he began a series of band clinics that became so successful and influential that Harding may rightfully be called the “Dean of University Band Directors.” When the American Bandmasters Association was organized in 1929 , Harding was the only educator included among the service and professional band directors. By 1941

Article

Rhythm  

Justin London

(Paris, 1922) C. Koechlin : ‘Le temps et la musique’, ReM , 7/7–8 (1926), 45–62 A.N. Whitehead : Process and Reality: and Essay in Cosmology (New York, 1929) H. Mersmann : ‘Zeit und Musik’, Zeitschrift für Ästhetik und allgemeine Kunstwissenschaft , 25 (1931), 216 R. Harding : Origins of Musical Time and Expression (London, 1938) P. Souvtchinsky : ‘La notion du temps et la musique’, ReM , nos.188–91 (1939), 70–80, 309–20 G. Brelet : Le temps musical (Paris, 1949) S. Langer : Feeling and Form (New York, 1953) A. Briner : Der Wandel der Musik

Article

Kenneth Levy, John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham, David Hiley and Bennett Mitchell Zon

early documents of Cistercian history, Robert, abbot of Molesme, together with 21 monks broke away from the monastery because of ‘hindering circumstances’ and founded a community at Cîteaux, near Dijon. For the next 40 years, during the tenures of Alberic ( 1099–1109 ) and Stephen Harding ( 1109–32 ), practically nothing is known of musical practice, except that the Carta carita prior of 1119 called for uniformity in all liturgical books and chanting. After 1140 the picture begins to change. Two unique musical statements – a prologue, Bernardus humilis Abbas

Article

Warren Vaché Sr

( 1941 ). In May 1940 he played with Buster Harding, and in July of that year he rejoined Waller. After Waller’s death in 1943 he made several appearances with former members of Waller’s Rhythm under the direction of the pianist Pat Flowers. At the same time he led a trio of his own, and in 1944 he worked as a sideman in a trio led by Clarence Profit. Casey also recorded under his own name for Capitol ( 1945 ) and as a freelance with Edmond Hall and Coleman Hawkins (both 1943 ), Pete Brown, Earl Hines, and James P. Johnson (all 1944 ), Big Sid Catlett and Herbie

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

their own careers with the assistance of the Internet or hiring smaller scale, independent managers. Bibliography A.L. Bernheim et al.: The Business of the Theatre; Prepared on Behalf of the Actors’ Equity Association by Alfred L. Bernheim, Assisted by Sara Harding and the Staff of the Labor Bureau, Inc. (New York, 1932) C. Bode : The American Lyceum, Town Meeting of the Mind (New York, 1956) P. Hart : Orpheus in the New World: The Symphony Orchestra as an American Cultural Institution—its Past, Present, and Future (New York, 1973),

Article

Michael Fitzgerald

Don Byas and Buster Harding alongside standards by Victor Herbert and Billy Strayhorn. Carter has consistently supported deserving colleagues who are not well known. In addition to working as a leader, he has participated actively as a guest performer with others. Bibliography L. Birnbaum : “Wynton and Lester Agree… on James Carter,” DB , 61/11 (1994), 34–7 E. Enright : “Deep & Lowdown,” DB , 67/8 (2000), 40–42 N. Chinen : “Big Hat’s Odyssey from D-Town to Lady Day,” JT , 33/10 (2003), 64–70 E. Nemeyer : “Interview: James Carter,” Jazz Improv

Article

Ray Pratt

including President Ronald Reagan, as a patriotic anthem, and by others, including Springsteen, as a statement about the mistreatment of Vietnam veterans. Among the most striking songs of the entire period was Bob Dylan’s “All along the Watchtower,” from the 1968 album John Wesley Harding . The song gained momentum with Jimi Hendrix’s cover on Electric Ladyland ( 1968 ), and Dylan performed the song for decades much as Hendrix had. On first hearing, the lyrics are seemingly not directly about the war; its lyrical images instead convey tortured confusion. Suggesting