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Mary Berry

revised by Franklyn Gellnick

Stephen Harding. In 1112 Bernard, later the founder and Abbot of Clairvaux, entered Cîteaux with a band of 30 young friends and relations. With the accent on manual labour, the Cistercians undertook the cultivation of vast areas of hitherto untilled land, and to do this they instituted the life of the lay brothers. Another important innovation of the White Monks was their unified structure in the relationship between founding monasteries and daughter houses, described in a remarkable document, the Carta caritatis (‘Charter of charity’) of St Stephen Harding. All


Kenneth Levy, John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham, David Hiley and Bennett Mitchell Zon

early documents of Cistercian history, Robert, abbot of Molesme, together with 21 monks broke away from the monastery because of ‘hindering circumstances’ and founded a community at Cîteaux, near Dijon. For the next 40 years, during the tenures of Alberic ( 1099–1109 ) and Stephen Harding ( 1109–32 ), practically nothing is known of musical practice, except that the Carta carita prior of 1119 called for uniformity in all liturgical books and chanting. After 1140 the picture begins to change. Two unique musical statements – a prologue, Bernardus humilis Abbas