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Article

Keith Polk, Janet K. Page, Stephen J. Weston, Armin Suppan, Raoul F. Camus, Trevor Herbert, Anthony C. Baines, J. Bradford Robinson and Allan F. Moore

University ( 1896–1929 ), soon replaced student directors. Albert Austin Harding sought to give the University of Illinois Band a symphonic sound by making greater use of woodwind instruments (and in greater variety) and using french horns instead of alto (tenor) horns. Since arrangements for such a band did not exist, he made almost 150 transcriptions of orchestral works for it. The artistic standard of the University of Illinois Band soon equalled that of the best professionals bands, and Harding's work was widely emulated. World War I brought a renewed interest

Article

David Fallows

was ever manufactured. Among several other new machines of those years, most of which are known only from a brief reference or description, are: a time-keeper by John Chancellor (Coggins, c 1822 ); a chronometer by Henry Smart, brother of Sir George Smart (Coggins, illustrated in Harding, 1938 , pl.18), built after the manner of a barrel organ and probably deriving from Eckhardt’s machine; a machine in the shape of a pocket-watch made by Sparrevogn of Copenhagen ( 1817 ); a new pendulum by Despréaux (described by Fétis as representing no advance on Loulié’s original

Article

Edwin M. Ripin, Stewart Pollens, Philip R. Belt, Maribel Meisel, Alfons Huber, Michael Cole, Gert Hecher, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, Cynthia Adams Hoover, Cyril Ehrlich, Edwin M. Good, Robert Winter and J. Bradford Robinson

Sohmer piano brands names, pioneered a digital instrument, and both Baldwin and Bösendorfer have produced similar systems. Bibliography A: General literature ClinkscaleMP D. Spillane : History of the American Pianoforte (New York, 1890/ R ) R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-Forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R ) E. Closson : Histoire du piano (Brussels, 1944; Eng. trans., 1947, rev. 2/1974 by R. Golding) A. Loesser : Men, Women and Pianos: a Social History (New York, 1954/ R )

Article

Cynthia Adams Hoover

while on most instruments it extends over only the top octave. Stewart’s instruments are of fine workmanship and were praised in their day as ‘unrivalled in tone, touch, and action’. Bibliography D. Spillane : History of the American Pianoforte (New York, 1890/ R ), 30ff R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978)

Article

Serpent  

Reginald Morley-Pegge

revised by Philip Bate and Stephen J. Weston

upright instrument with a forward-facing bell of true serpent shape, rather than the ophicleide-type bell which is a feature of the ophimonocleide, among other instruments. Late 20th-century makers of the serpent included Christopher Monk (who was succeeded by Keith Rogers), and David Harding of Abingdon. 4. Players. Although the serpent, with its very low normal register, does not lend itself to virtuoso display, there have been a few players whose exceptional skill attracted notice. Abbé Aubert, serpent player at Notre Dame, Paris, from about 1750 to 1772 , was said

Article

Laurence Libin, Arnold Myers, Barbara Lambert and Albert R. Rice

Northumbrian Bagpipes: their Development and Makers (Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1933 ) W.A. Cocks and F. Bryan: The Northumbrian Bagpipes ( 1967 ) Newcastle upon Tyne Hancock Museum, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: c 85 ethnological incl. W.A. Cocks collection. Northleach Keith Harding’s World of Mechanical Music Oxford Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford: European art string and keyboard, 17th-century non-European, and some archaeological, incl. W.E. Hill & Son and J. Francis Mallet collections. T. Dart: ‘The Instruments in the Ashmolean Museum’, GSJ , vii

Article

Margaret Cranmer

Bibliography Jurors' Reports [XVI: Musical Instruments], International Exhibition, London, 1862 (London, 1862) E. Pauer : A Dictionary of Pianists and Composers for the Pianoforte with an Appendix of Manufacturers of the Instrument (London, 1895) R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-forte: its History traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R )

Article

Margaret Cranmer and Peter Ward Jones

Fantasy, as well as songs and piano works. In several cases the English editions were the first to appear, and often contain significant minor variants compared with the continental ones. Bibliography ClinkscaleMP Humphries-SmithMP Waterhouse-LangwillI R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-Forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R ) L. Plantinga : Clementi: his Life and Music (London, 1977/ R ) A. Tyson : The Authentic English Editions of Beethoven (London, 1963) R. Burnett : ‘English Pianos at

Article

Margaret Cranmer

ik ) and a Venetian swell operated by a knee-lever; one is preserved at the Cobbe Foundation, Hatchlands Park, Surrey. William’s son, John Southwell, took an active part in the business from 1800 . Bibliography ClinkscaleMP P. James : Early Keyboard Instruments from their Beginnings to the Year 1820 (London, 1930/ R ), 139 R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-Forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R ) T. de Valera : ‘Two 18th-Century Dublin Musical Instrument Makers’, Dublin Historical Record , 36/4 (1982–3), 122–31 A. Cobbe

Article

Derek Adlam and Cyril Ehrlich

1862 (London, 1862) List of Pianofortes … Exhibited by John Broadwood and Sons, International Exhibition, London 1862 (London, 1862) A.J. Hipkins : A Description and History of the Pianoforte and of the Older Keyboard String Instruments (London, 1896/ R , 3/1929/ R ) R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-Forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R ) A. Loesser : Men, Women and Pianos: a Social History (New York, 1954/ R ) C. Ehrlich : The Piano: a History (London, 1976, 2/1990) D. Wainwright : Broadwood by Appointment

Article

Rolfe  

Margaret Cranmer

the Consolidated Rates for the parish of All Hallows, Honey Lane. James Longman Rolfe (relationship not certain) joined the firm in 1836 . The firm ceased production in 1888 . In 1797 , with Samuel Davis, Rolfe patented (no.2160) the earliest specification for ‘Turkish music’ in pianos, where a hammer strikes the soundboard to produce the sound of a drum. The hammer action, based on the English single action ( see Pianoforte §I 4. and fig. ) and operated by a pedal, is illustrated in Harding (p.135). The patent also specifies that instead of using the soundboard

Article

Stodart  

Margaret Cranmer

had an older brother, William ( b London, 6 July 1792 ), but the extent of his involvement in the business is not known. Manufacture ceased in 1861 . Bibliography BoalchM ClinkscaleMP W. Pole : Musical Instruments in the Great Industrial Exhibition of 1851 (London, 1851) R.E.M. Harding : The Piano-Forte: its History Traced to the Great Exhibition of 1851 (Cambridge, 1933/ R , 2/1978/ R ) M. Cole : The Pianoforte in the Classical Era (Oxford, 1998)