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(b Vienna, Nov 22, 1937). Austrian musicologist. He studied with Schenk and Wessely at the University of Vienna, taking the doctorate there in 1962 with a dissertation on Ignaz von Mosel; in 1967 he spent a year of study with Remo Giazotto in Italy. From 1963 to 1999 he was a research musicologist for the Music Research Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Concurrently he was secretary of the Gesellschaft zur Herausgabe der Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Österreich (1963–74), becoming director of publications (from 1998). He also served the newly created Österreichische Gesellschaft für Musikwissenschaft as general secretary (from 1973), vice-president (from 1984) and president (1990–96). In 1979 he was appointed a reader at the University of Vienna. He was elected a corresponding member (1984) and later a full member (1995) of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. He became editor in ...


Christoph Petzsch

revised by Martin Kirnbauer

(b Sülzbach, nr Weinsberg, Württemberg, 1420; d Sülzbach, 1472–9). German poet and Meistersinger. After training under his father, a weaver, he entered the service of the imperial chamberlain, Konrad von Weinsberg, as a singer (‘fürtreter’) in the 1440s. He named as his models Muskatblüt, whom he probably met in Konrad's household, and Heinrich von Mügeln. He performed his own songs mostly at royal and noble households in southern Germany in which he was employed: the court of Albrecht Achilles, Margrave of Brandenburg, in Ansbach (1449–53, interrupted by a Scandinavian journey that took him to Copenhagen and Trondheim); the Bavarian court in Munich (1453–4); the court of King Ladislaus of Bohemia in Prague and Vienna (1455–7); in Austria, for Duke Albrecht VI (1454, 1458) and at the court of the Emperor Frederick III in Vienna (1459–65); and finally the court of the Elector Palatine Frederick I (...


Paula Morgan

revised by Joost van Gemert

(b Arnhem, Aug 5, 1936; d Loenen aan de Vecht, June 2, 2005). Dutch musicologist. He studied with Bernet Kempers and Smits van Waesberghe at the University of Amsterdam (1959–65), where he received the doctorate in 1969. From 1968 to 1970 he taught at the University of Tübingen. In 1970 he was a Fellow of the Istituto Storico Olandese in Rome, and then joined the faculty of Syracuse University, New York, first as a visiting professor in September 1971, then as a professor of the university’s foreign course at Poitiers. He taught at the Free University of Amsterdam (1973–5) and was a research fellow at Utrecht University (1975–88). In 1988 he was appointed professor of modern and contemporary music history at the University of Pavia.

Dunning concentrated his research mainly on 18th-century music. As well as writing monographs on two Dutch music publishers and on Pietro Antonio Locatelli, he identified Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer as the author of the six ...


Rudolf Klein

revised by Pamela M. Potter

(b Salzburg, May 5, 1902; d Vienna, Oct 11, 1974). Austrian musicologist. He studied theory and the piano at the Salzburg Mozarteum (and later at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst), and from 1920 musicology with Sandberger at the University of Munich, where he took the doctorate in 1925 with a dissertation on Paganelli. He then went on a study trip to Italy, returning to further training in musicology with Adler and Lach in Vienna, and with Wolf and Schering in Berlin. After a short period as a teacher and librarian at the Salzburg Mozarteum (1925–6) and as press officer to the Salzburg Festival (1927), he completed the Habilitation in 1929 at Rostock University with a work on the trio sonata in Germany after Corelli. In 1936 he founded, and until 1940 directed, the musicology department at Rostock. In 1940 he was appointed successor to Lach at Vienna University and during the war he worked on projects in Italy with the SS-Ahnenerbe and consulted with the music division under the Nazi ideologue Alfred Rosenberg on various publishing and educational projects. He became a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in ...


Susan Forscher Weiss


(b c1440–45; d Vienna, Nov 19, 1547). Composer. He may have been at least 100 years of age when he died at the Schottenkloster in Vienna. In 1510 he was appointed court composer in Elector Ludwig V’s Hofkapelle in Heidelberg, a position he retained for about ten years. During this period he came into contact with Andreas Ornithoparchus who included Lapicida in his list of recognized composers in Musicae activae micrologus (Leipzig, 1517). In 1521 Lapicida was granted a benefice in the Schottenkloster, Vienna, by Archduke Ferdinand Karl of Austria, where he remained until his death. Here he met Joseph Zanger who recorded a dispute between Lapicida, Arnold von Bruck and Stephan Mahu in his Practicae musicae praecepta (Leipzig, 1554).

Lapicida’s output consists primarily of motets and lieder that are transmitted in German as well as Italian sources. Several of his works survive in publications by Petrucci. These include four motets, a setting of Lamentations, the frottola ...


Israel J. Katz

(b Vienna, Aug 1, 1901; d New York, July 28, 1988). American musicologist of Austrian birth . He attended the Berlin Hochschule für Musik (graduated 1924) and the universities of Berlin, Graz, Göttingen, Prague and Vienna, simultaneously studying composition (with Busoni, Reitsch and Schreker), musicology (with Adler, Fischer, Lach, Ludwig, Sachs, Schünemann and Wolf) and Judaic studies. He took the doctorate in musicology (Strasbourg, 1928), with Théodore Gérold. Werner taught at Saarbrücken Conservatory (1926–33) and the Jewish Theological Seminary in Breslau (1935–8).

In 1938 he fled the Nazi regime, emigrating to the USA where in 1939 he joined the faculty at Hebrew Union College (Cincinnati) as A.Z. Idelsohn’s successor. There he drew upon the magnificent Eduard Birnbaum collection for his early research on Jewish music. At Cincinnati he conceived the idea for a school of sacred music in New York to be linked with the Jewish Institute of Religion (founded in ...


Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Graz, Aug 6, 1911; d Mainz, Germany, May 1, 2014). Austrian musicologist. After studying the piano and theory in Graz he attended the Vienna Music Academy, where he studied under Richard Stöhr and took a diploma in conducting in 1936. He then studied privately under Alban Berg, Oswald Jonas and Emil von Sauer. At Vienna University he studied musicology under Orel and Lach, and in 1936 he took the doctorate there with a dissertation on chordal and harmonic structure in early motets of the Trent Codices. In 1937 he became state librarian in the Austrian library service. He completed the Habilitation in 1944 at Graz University with a study of musical form. He then taught there as a lecturer and from 1951 as professor of musicology. In 1962 he was appointed director of the musicology institute of Mainz University. As an editor he has been in charge of the series Musik Alter Meister (...



Theophil Antonicek, Derek Beales, Leon Botstein, Rudolf Klein and Harald Goertz

(Ger. Wien)

Capital city of Austria. Originally a Celtic settlement, it later became a Roman military town and finally the capital of the Duchy of Austria in the 12th century. It came under Habsburg rule in 1278 and expanded greatly as the capital of the vast Austro-Hungarian Empire, which was dissolved after World War I; since that time the city has been the capital of the Federal Republic of Austria.

Theophil Antonicek

Long stretches of Vienna's history, particularly that of its music, are shrouded in obscurity; only for the modern period is the picture reasonably complete. Since Josef Mantuani (1904), the literature has been based largely upon analogies and assumptions, a failing due as much to the state of the historical data as to the loss of source materials and lack of systematic research, which is in turn the consequence of an overemphasis on the apparent highpoints of musical development....



Hellmut Federhofer, Wolfgang Suppan and Bernhard Günther

(Ger. Österreich)

Country in Europe. This article deals with the area of the Republic of Austria, comprising the federated provinces (Länder) of Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Burgenland, Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Vienna and Vorarlberg. For the remaining successor states to the Danube monarchy, see Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania; see also Germany, Federal Republic of for the period up to 1806.

Prehistoric signal pipes, musical instruments and iconographical representations of musical activities from the Hallstatt Period (1000–500 bce) and the Roman occupation testify to the antiquity of Austrian civilization. The development of a musical culture from the beginning of the Middle Ages has essentially been determined by Austria’s geographical position in the centre of Europe, its Alpine terrain, the coming of Christianity and the settlement by Germanic tribes. External influences, especially of the races at its borders – the Latin peoples, the Slavs and the Magyars – further affected the area’s cultural evolution. Although each province has a place in Austria’s cultural history, the musical centres have always been the cities of Salzburg and Vienna....


Lawrence E. Bennett

(b probably Verona, 1672; d Vienna, Sept 23, 1738). Italian composer. His earliest known work is the oratorio La sete di Cristo in croce, a sepolcro written for Innsbruck in 1691. At the begining of 1692 he may have lived in Rome, where his earliest secular dramatic works were produced. By spring 1692 he was a court composer at Innsbruck. He gained the enthusiastic patronage of Eleonora Maria (1653–97), widow of both King Michael Wisniowiecki of Poland and Duke Charles of Lorraine, and stepsister of Emperor Leopold I. Besides the 1691 oratorio, Badia composed for Innsbruck two operas in 1692, as well as two sepolcri for Holy Week 1693. With the support of Eleonora Maria, who moved to Vienna late in 1693, and with a recommendation from the King of Poland, he was appointed Musik-Compositeur at the imperial court on 1 July 1694, receiving an initial monthly salary of 60 florins retroactive to ...


Tim Carter and Geoffrey Chew

( Giovanni [Zuan] Antonio )

(b Cremona, May 15, 1567; d Venice, Nov 29, 1643). Italian composer. The most important musician in late 16th- and early 17th-century Italy, he excelled in nearly all the major genres of the period. His nine books of madrigals consolidated the achievement of the late Renaissance masters and cultivated new aesthetic and stylistic paradigms for the musical Baroque. In his operas for Mantua and Venice he took the experiments of the Florentines and developed powerful ways of expressing and structuring musical drama. His three major collections of liturgical and devotional music transcend the merely functional, exploiting a rich panoply of text-expressive and contrapuntal-structural techniques. Although he composed little or no independent instrumental music, his writing for instruments was genuinely innovative. Schrade’s famous assessment (1950) of Monteverdi as ‘creator of modern music’ may be exaggerated, but his significant place in music history is assured.

Tim Carter

Monteverdi was baptized (on ...


revised by Joshua Rifkin, Eva Linfield, Derek McCulloch and Stephen Baron

[ Henrich ][ Sagittarius, Henricus ]

(b Köstritz [now Bad Köstritz], nr Gera, bap. Oct 9, 1585; d Dresden, Nov 6, 1672). German composer. He was the greatest German composer of the 17th century and the first of international stature. Through the example of his compositions and through his teaching he played a major part in establishing the traditions of high craftsmanship and intellectual depth that marked the best of his nation’s music and musical thought for more than 250 years after his death.

Joshua Rifkin and Eva Linfield

Schütz came from a prominent bourgeois family of Franconian origin that had resided in Saxony since the mid-15th century. His birthplace belonged to the principality of Reuss and lay close to Gera, capital of the region. Albrecht Schütz, his paternal grandfather, owned a local inn, ‘Zum goldenen Kranich’; Christoph Schütz, Heinrich’s father, served as a town clerk in Gera during the mid-1570s, then took over the inn at Köstritz on behalf of Albrecht, who had moved to Weissenfels in ...


C. Matthew Balensuela

This article focusses on anonymous music theory texts written during the Western Middle Ages and early Renaissance (to about 1600), currently assumed to be anonymous and not closely associated with a known person, which have been edited and published in modern times.

Numerous artefacts of music have survived to modern times without clearly identifying their author. These include musical works, pictures, court records, theoretical treatises, and other documents. The corpus of anonymous theoretical works, therefore, comprises only a portion of all anonymous works in the history of music. In music theory, anonymous sources primarily span the time from antiquity to the early Renaissance, when texts were copied by hand. After the advent of printing, few theoretical works were transmitted anonymously.

Several groups of anonymous treatises are excluded from this article, such as works of ancient Greek, Byzantine, or Arabic music theory, works closely associated with named writers, and unpublished anonymous works. In addition, several significant anonymous works, such as the ...