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Susan Wollenberg

(b Hof, Moravia [now Dvorce, Czech Republic], c1649; d Vienna, Feb 26, 1714). Austrian composer of Moravian birth. By 1678 he was active in Vienna, apparently at St Michael. From May 1685 until his retirement in 1713 he held the post of second organist at the Hofkapelle. Together with his colleague F.T. Richter he represents the generation of court organists in Vienna after Kerll and Poglietti, and his music belongs to the Viennese keyboard tradition passed down from Froberger. Two sets of keyboard pieces by him survive in a manuscript presentation copy ( A-Wn 19167; ed. in DTÖ, cxv, 1966) dedicated to Emperor Leopold I; the title-page describes him as organist at St Michael, and the allemande in the second set is subtitled ‘Dell’allegrezze alla liberazione di Vienna’, evidently referring to the Turkish siege of 1683. The dances from the second set recur among 14 anonymous suites in another source (...


John D. Arnn

revised by Dorothea Schröder

(b Augsburg, 1612; d Vienna, 11 or Feb 12, 1665). German organist and composer, active in Austria. He was appointed organist at the Stephansdom, Vienna, in 1634. Three years later he began a lifelong association with the imperial court in Vienna under Ferdinand III and later Leopold I, assuming first the position of organist of the Kapelle and becoming cathedral Kapellmeister in 1663; he was also official ballet composer.

Little of Ebner’s music is extant, which is regrettable in view of the esteem in which he was held by his contemporaries. Historical evaluations made before much of his music was destroyed in World War II support these appraisals. In 1637 he earned twice the salary of his colleague Froberger, with whom he established the important Viennese keyboard school of the 17th century, noted for its fusion of French, English and German styles. Zachow thought highly enough of Ebner to have the young Handel copy at least one composition into a notebook of ...


(b Graz, bap. Dec 11, 1676; d Vienna, inquest Jan 2, 1740). Austrian amateur composer and lutenist. He worked in the book-keeping department of the Austrian exchequer and described himself as registrar and dispatcher (Expeditor). He was also a skilled lutenist. Though described as ‘officer of the exchequer’ in a document of 1712, he is called ‘lutenist’ in one dated 1708 and ‘cavalry officer’ in another. He had a wide range of interests and left a considerable collection of paintings (see Koczirz, 63). He wrote a number of pieces for lute solo and concerto-like works for lute and strings. He was a complete master of both polyphonic and chordal writing and in his later music cultivated the French galant style. His music enjoyed widespread popularity at the time, and he was highly regarded in Austria and Bohemia in particular, even though he was only an amateur....


(b Traismauer, Feb 24, 1728; d St Florian, March 30, 1797). Austrian composer. He was a choirboy in the Vienna Jesuit hostel, where he befriended Michael Haydn and J.G. Albrechtsberger. In 1753 he entered the Augustinian monastery of St Florian; in the following year he took vows there, in 1757 was ordained a priest and from 1755 until his death served as regens chori. His works, circulated only in manuscript, show the influence of the Neapolitan and Venetian schools, although the local traditions of Vienna and Salzburg as well as the particular performance requirements of his monastery also affected his style. His early masses and requiem settings are in a strong, cantata-like idiom with many sectional divisions, although the later through-composed Missa brevis shows a preference for simpler settings (two missae brevissimae are accompanied only by continuo). He wrote two secular Singspiele which contributed to the development of the Austrian dialect farce. His contemporaries commented particularly on his command of counterpoint, and his colourful harmony and delight in formal experimentation impressed the young Bruckner. A ...


Ralph Leavis

(b Niederstetten, Württemberg, Nov 8, 1770; d Würzburg, Jan 3, 1836). German cellist and composer. From 1789 to about 1796 he was a member of the orchestra of the Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein. During this period and afterwards he travelled widely. In 1802 he wrote for Würzburg his oratorio Der leidende Heiland, which was so successful that the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg appointed him his Kapellmeister. From 1814 (when he resigned that post) to his death he was Kapellmeister at the Würzburg theatre.

Witt is now remembered for the ‘Jena’ Symphony. In 1909 Fritz Stein found at Jena a copy of a symphony in C, with Beethoven's name on two of the parts, and published it as a probable early work by Beethoven. This attribution remained doubtful, however, until Robbins Landon discovered a better copy of the symphony at Göttweig under Witt's name (a second copy has since been found at Rudolstadt). The work is in fact a piece of plagiarism, put together almost with scissors and paste from reminiscences of Haydn. Two other symphonies by Witt reprinted ...


(b Kitzbühel, bap. Feb 21, 1665; d Passau, bur. Jan 24, 1742). Austrian composer. His main appointment was in Passau, where he succeeded Georg Muffat as court Kapellmeister in 1705. He spent his early years in Vienna, where he may have been a pupil of Johannes Ebner (a member of the well-known family of organ players and son of Wolfgang Ebner) whom he declared his model. Apparently he came into contact with members of the Viennese nobility, and he may have been employed at a court. In a letter of 1724 to Prince-Bishop Lamberg, while complaining about the quality of the violinists in Passau, Aufschnaiter claimed to have had in Vienna, where he spent many years, ‘16–18 excellent musicians’ at his disposal. His op.1 (of which no copy is extant) was dedicated to Count Ferdinand Ernst von Trautmannsdorf, who may have been his employer. In 1695 his op.2 appeared in Nuremberg with a dedication to Archduke Joseph (later Emperor Joseph I). Under the title ...


(b Dobřany, Nov 3, 1689; d Dobřany, June 28, 1742). Bohemian composer. His father was mayor of Dobřany. From about 1717 to 1720 Brentner lived in Prague, where he published several of his works. He seems to have been connected with the religious brotherhood of St Nicholas in the Malá Strana, Prague, for which he wrote his German mourning motets. His Offertoria solenniora op.2 was dedicated to his patron Raymund Wilfert, abbot of the Premonstratensian monastery at Teplá.

Brentner’s music is in late Baroque concerto style, with occasional simple songlike motifs. Many of his arias are in da capo form, and those of Hymnodia divina are remarkable for their concertante treatment of accompanying solo instruments, especially the violin. Brentner’s works continued to be performed at the monastery at Strahov, Prague, until the 1840s.

printed works published in Prague


Peter Branscombe

(b Vienna, 1746; d Meidling, nr Vienna, June 8, 1796). Austrian composer, conductor and viola player, father of Michael Umlauf. His name first appears as fourth viola player in the Vienna court orchestra in 1772, from which year his Singspiel Die Insul der Liebe probably dates. By 1775 he had advanced to the post of principal viola player in the German Theatre orchestra, and by 1778 he was highly enough regarded to be given the commission to write the first work for Joseph II’s new ‘German National Singspiel’, Die Bergknappen, to a libretto by Joseph Weidmann. Umlauf was appointed Kapellmeister to the new venture at a modest 600 florins a year, less than some of the singers received. Four further works by him were given before the first closure of the Singspiel company in 1783, including Die schöne Schusterin oder Die pücefarbenen Schuhe (1779), which, partly because of the much-loved Marianna Weiss in the title role, had over 60 performances in 23 years and was also staged in at least four other Vienna theatres, and ...


Hans Michel

(b Vienna, Feb 5, 1711; d Bamberg, May 24, 1762). Austrian composer. According to the parish register in St Stephen’s, Vienna, he was the second of five children of the court painter to the widowed Empress Anna Amalia of Austria. He was probably educated in Vienna. In 1749 he held an appointment in Dresden as musical director at the court of Count Brühl, where he became acquainted with J.A. Hasse and J.C.F. Bach. On 20 October 1752 he was appointed Kapellmeister and court composer to the Prince-Bishop J.P. von Frankenstein and his successor in Bamberg. The following years, up to his death, were his most creative.

Umstatt composed in nearly all the forms of his time, both sacred and secular, and his works demonstrate the gradual change from Baroque polyphony to the Classical style. This can be seen in his masses (which include cantata masses in several movements, of both the ...


Uwe Harten

(b Marbach, Lower Austria, Jan 30, 1756; d Vienna, Oct 26, 1823). Austrian composer, organist and theorist. After early music instruction from his father, who was organist at Marbach, he was, from 1763, a choirboy at Mariazell, Styria, where he was taught organ and composition by F.X. Widerhofer. In 1772 he was appointed organist at the orphanage in Vienna by Propst Ignaz Parhamer. He completed his training in Vienna under Albrechtsberger, the influence of whose teaching method is apparent in Preindl's important theoretical work, the posthumously published Wiener Tonschule (1827). In 1775 he became organist at the church of Maria am Gestade; in 1783 he was organist of the Carmelite church in Vienna-Leopoldstadt where Albrechtsberger was regens chori. In 1787 he moved to the Michaelerkirche where he remained until 1793 when he became Kapellmeister at the Peterskirche. From 1795 he was also vice-Kapellmeister at the Stephansdom and from ...


Judith Leah Schwartz

(b 1726; d Vienna, June 24, 1782). Austrian composer, brother of Matthias Georg Monn. He was a music teacher in the employ of Count Kinsky in Prague in autumn 1750. J.A. Hiller reported him to be flourishing in Vienna in 1766 as a freelance keyboard player, teaching students ‘with much success and acclaim’. His only work known to have been published in his lifetime, a keyboard sonata, appeared in a 1765 collection in which he was recognized as a ‘virtuoso di musica in Vienna’. He died in impoverished circumstances.

An evaluation of Monn’s music has been hindered by the confusion of his works with those of his brother, whose style his resembles. Less prolific than Matthias, he composed some orchestral and chamber music, but was best known for his keyboard works, of which 15 sonatas, 20 minuets and trios, and a ‘ballo’ survive. The sonatas surpass those of his brother in variety and virtuosity. They are in three to six movements, and eight sonatas have four movements, including a minuet and quick finale. Some bear characteristic titles, such as ‘Balletto’, ‘Aria scocese’ or ‘Andante siciliano’. Attractive themes and short phrases contribute to the ...


David Young

(Ignaz Augustin)

(b Vienna, bap. Aug 26, 1726; d Vienna, Aug 6, 1784). Austrian lutenist and composer. His father, Jakob Karl Kohaut was a court musician to Prince Adam von Schwarzenberg. Like his contemporary Karl von Ordonez, Kohaut pursued a dual career as civil servant and musician. He entered the civil service in 1756 or 1757 as an official in the state chancellery and by 1778 had reached the position of court secretary. Highly regarded at the Viennese court, he accompanied Joseph II on several missions abroad; he was chosen to compose an elaborate two-part musical entertainment, Applausus Mellicensis, for the occasion of Joseph’s two visits to Melk monastery during March and April 1764. He participated as a violinist in performances of quartets by Haydn and Mozart organized by Gottfried van Swieten. It was as a lutenist, though, that he was most widely admired. He appeared as soloist in a performance of one of his own lute concertos at an academy of the Tonkünstler-Societät on ...


Hans Radke

revised by Tim Crawford

(b Steyr, bap. April 28, 1676; d Munich, March 26, 1754). Austrian lutenist. He was the son of Wolff Jacob Lauffensteiner, towerkeeper in Steyr, and Anna Susanna Werfferin. By 1709 he had settled in Graz as a lutenist. From 1712 he was a valet and lutenist in the service of the Bavarian court, and was in the service of the Bavarian princes during their internment in Graz; he taught them the lute and other instruments. In 1715 he went with the prince's retinue to Munich, entering the private service of the prince, Duke Ferdinand; as valet he accompanied his master in the field and on his travels. In 1739, on the duke's death, he was granted a pension. For his services to the electoral House of Bavaria Duke Clemens August, Archbishop of Cologne, appointed him chamber counsellor (Hofkammerrat).

Lauffensteiner's works include several ensemble concertos in suite or partita form. His music as a whole is highly idiomatic for the lute, in a style uniting traditional French forms, textures and ornaments with a tendency towards italianate cantabile melody over a supporting bass line. In this his pieces, of which over 100 movements survive, come close to those of S.L. Weiss, to whom his music is frequently misattributed in manuscript sources – a measure of its high quality in the estimation of his contemporaries....


Robert N. Freeman

[Johannes Evangelist]

(b Vienna, Dec 8, 1737; d Oberweiden, Dec 5, 1799). Austrian composer and teacher. He was educated as a student and choirboy by the Benedictines at Melk Abbey, Lower Austria, from 1748 until 1754, when he took his vows. As a novice he was sent to Vienna to study composition with Joseph Haydn, perhaps from 1756 to 1758, but more certainly from November 1760 until April 1761, during which time he was exposed to keyboard works by C.P.E. Bach, F. Nicolai and G.M. Rutini and vocal music by Galuppi, C.H. Graun and Pergolesi. He then returned to Melk as music director, 1761–77; he spent the last 22 years of his life as a minister in the parishes of Getsdorf, Weikendorf and Oberweiden.

Kimmerling's solid reputation as a composer rested primarily on his stage works produced in connection with visits of the imperial court to Melk in 1764 and especially with the nuptial visit of Marie Antoinette in ...


Herbert Seifert

(b Florence, July 15, 1638; d ?Pistoia, after 1692). Italian composer and violinist. He was a violinist at the court at Innsbruck at least between 1656 and 1660. From 1672 to 1676 he was director of the court music at Innsbruck, which, after the extinction of the Tyrolean Habsburgs, had come under the control of the emperor. In publications of 1678 he still described himself as holding this position. But during the opera season in Venice from 1677 to 1678 his arrangement of Cavalli’s Scipione affricano and his own opera Astiage were performed, which suggests that he must have been there, and in 1678 at the Oratorio di S Marcello in Rome he directed an oratorio in which Corelli and Pasquini participated. He was probably elevated to the nobility in the same year, since he subsequently designated himself ‘Nobile del Sacro Romano Imperio’. Between 1678 and 1679 and ...


Susan Wollenberg


(b Passau, bap. April 25, 1690; d Vienna, Dec 9, 1770). German composer and organist, son of Georg Muffat. He was the leading keyboard composer in Vienna in the early 18th century.

Muffat led a more stable existence than his father, entering the musical establishment at the Viennese court early in his career and remaining there for over half a century. It may be assumed that as a child he was taught by his father. He probably did not leave Passau before 1704, the year of his father's death. The first report of his presence in Vienna dates from 1711, when he became Hofscholar under the supervision of J.J. Fux (some sources incorrectly give the date as 1706). The education of scholars at the imperial court included performance on the organ and other instruments, continuo playing, singing and counterpoint. Muffat was appointed official court organist in 1717...


Theodore Karp, Fabrice Fitch, and Basil Smallman

(Missa pro defunctis, Missa defunctorum)

In the Roman Catholic rite, a votive Mass on behalf of the dead. It may be sung on the day of burial and on succeeding anniversaries, as well as on the third, seventh and 30th days following interment. (In the 4th century commemorations occurred on the ninth and 40th days in certain places.) It is celebrated also in memory of the faithful departed on All Souls' Day, 2 November. The name derives from the first word of the best known of the introits for such occasions: Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine.

Theodore Karp

The celebration of the Eucharist in honour of the dead is mentioned as early as the late 2nd century Acta Johannis, and in a Smyrnese document (Martyrium Polycarpi) of similar date; the roots of this practice are likely to be much older still. Yet no texts for the musical portions appear in surviving 8th- and 9th-century textual sources for the gradual. The earliest sources for the chants are ...


Monique Rollin

French family of lutenists. They were active in the 17th century. Jacques and Pierre, who were also composers, were considered by their contemporaries to be among the most accomplished players of their time.

(b 1625–30; d 1684). Lutenist and composer. He was known as ‘vieux Gallot d'Angers’ and he was maître de luth in that town about 1663. Four pieces are attributed to him in René Milleran's manuscript lutebook ( F-Pn Rés.823) which was compiled in about 1690.

(d Paris, c1690). Lutenist and composer, brother of (1) Alexandre Gallot. He was known as ‘vieux Gallot de Paris’. He was a pupil of Ennemond Gaultier. His Pièces de luth composées sur differens modes (Paris, n.d.) includes a brief method for the lute. The inclusion of minuets and the arrangement of pieces by keys and forms anticipate the later suite. In addition to this collection most of the pieces in an untitled lute manuscript (...


[Carlo d’]

(b Vienna, bap. Aug 16, 1734; d Vienna, Sept 6, 1786). Austrian composer and violinist. Although an entry in Count Karl von Zinzendorf’s diary (23 April 1775) describes him as the ‘fils naturel de M. de Buquoy’, the baptismal and other archival records describe him as the son of Johann Baptist Christoph von Ordonez – an infantry lieutenant and former owner of property in Neuschloss (now Nové Zámky), Moravia – and his wife Anna Maria Theresa. Ordonez spent the whole of his life in Vienna and, like his contemporary Karl Kohaut, served a dual career as civil servant and musician. His career with the Lower Austrian administration began in 1758 with appointment as an unpaid assistant in the regional court and culminated in 1780 with appointment as Registrant with a salary of 1000 gulden. As a violinist Ordonez took part in chamber music performances in the salons of the aristocracy (see Burney and Zinzendorf), and he was also connected with the court chamber music (described by Hiller), although salaried appointment to that body, at 250 gulden per year, did not come until ...


Shelley Davis

(b Schweissing [now Svojšín], c1722; d Ehrenbreitstein, July 17, 1798). German composer of Bohemian descent. As a youth he studied the keyboard and violin in Prague. In 1746 he began service in the orchestra of the Prince-Bishop of Augsburg (Joseph, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt). After mid-1749 he embarked on a three-year trip to Italy and for a year studied counterpoint at Naples with Francesco Durante and Girolamo Abos. By 1758 he was Konzertmeister of the prince-bishop's orchestra. In 1768 Clemens Wenzeslaus, Elector of Trier, succeeded to the bishopric of Augsburg and took over the orchestra, moving some of its personnel to Ehrenbreitstein, his electoral residence; Lang was made Konzertmeister there in 1769 and remained even after the elector moved across the Rhine into the new palace at Koblenz in 1786. Lang's official duties included leading the strings and advising the elector's Musikintendant, Baron von Thünnefeld, on orchestral administration. In ...