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[Josephus Antonius]

(b Murnau, July 4, 1710; d Munich, June 17, 1743). German composer. The eldest of eight children of Joannis and Maria Anna Camerloher, he attended the Ritterakademie in Ettal and was trained as a violinist. Between 1734 and 1741 he wrote nine Fastenmeditationen (now lost) for the Congregatio Latina BV Mariae in Munich. He was Cammer-compositeur (chamber composer) at the Munich court from 1739 until his death, possibly after two years as Cammermusicus; the libretto of his opera La clemenza di Tito refers to him as Concert-Meister.

Much of Camerloher’s music was formerly attributed to his brother Placidus. His known surviving works include 43 symphonies, 20 trio sonatas, one flute sonata (Duo), eight sacred works and one opera. Of the instrumental works only 11 symphonies (now in A-Gd ; some also in the published sets) bear his full name, but documentary and stylistic evidence indicate that other works bearing only his surname are his too. The four-movement trio sonatas (for two violins and continuo), and sacred works are firmly grounded in the Baroque; the symphonies, mostly in three movements and scored for strings, look forward to the Classical era with their harmonic schemes and their differentiation of thematic material. Camerloher was admired for his two ...


Elizabeth Roche

(b nr Königgrätz [now Hradec Králové], March 31, 1717; d Mariazell, April 24, 1758). Austrian composer. About 1740 he entered the Benedictine monastery of St Lambrecht in Styria. From 1749 until his death he was choir director at the pilgrimage church of Mariazell, which was under the care of his monastery, and composed music for special services there. Joseph Haydn may have sung under Wrastill when he joined the Mariazell choir during a visit there in 1749.

Wrastill's output consists largely of festive masses with orchestra and settings of the litany (the types of liturgical music most often used at a Marian shrine). His style is typical of the minor church composers of the time. (R. Federhofer-Königs: ‘Zur Musikpflege in der Wallfahrtskirche von Mariazell/Steiermark’, KJb, xli, 1957, 117–35, esp. 120)


(b Schwandorf, bap. Aug 15, 1727; d Munich, Sept 7, 1775). German violinist and composer. He was a supernumerary violinist in the Munich court orchestra (1751–2), and soon afterwards (c1752) became a chamber virtuoso in the orchestra of Duke Clemens Franz von Paula in Bavaria. In 1759 the duke sent him to study the violin and composition with Tartini in Padua. After his return in 1762 his technical prowess was admired, but he was said to lack ‘noble taste’. He composed concertos and symphonies for the Munich court and undertook several concert tours, including a trip to Frankfurt with the horn player Joseph Leutgeb (1769–70), and one to the court of Ansbach with the bassoonist Felix Rheiner (1771). After the death of Duke Clemens in 1770, Holzbogen received a pension but rejoined the Munich court orchestra in 1771. He had fewer opportunities to appear as a soloist there, but in ...


Robert N. Freeman

[Johannes Evangelist]

(b Vienna, Dec 8, 1737; d Oberweiden, Dec 5, 1799). Austrian composer and teacher. He was educated as a student and choirboy by the Benedictines at Melk Abbey, Lower Austria, from 1748 until 1754, when he took his vows. As a novice he was sent to Vienna to study composition with Joseph Haydn, perhaps from 1756 to 1758, but more certainly from November 1760 until April 1761, during which time he was exposed to keyboard works by C.P.E. Bach, F. Nicolai and G.M. Rutini and vocal music by Galuppi, C.H. Graun and Pergolesi. He then returned to Melk as music director, 1761–77; he spent the last 22 years of his life as a minister in the parishes of Getsdorf, Weikendorf and Oberweiden.

Kimmerling's solid reputation as a composer rested primarily on his stage works produced in connection with visits of the imperial court to Melk in 1764 and especially with the nuptial visit of Marie Antoinette in ...


Friedrich W. Riedel

revised by David Wyn Jones

(b Gleisdorf, April 9, 1716; d Stein an der Donau, June 7, 1778). Austrian composer and organist. He held posts as organist at the Benedictine abbey of Göttweig, Lower Austria (1736–43), and choral director of St Veit, Krems an der Donau (1746–53); between 1743 and 1746 he apparently studied philosophy and theology, and at some time between 1750 and 1752 he was ordained priest. In 1753 he was appointed to the charge of the Chapel of All Saints at Stein an der Donau, a sinecure which allowed him to devote the rest of his life exclusively to composition.

Zechner was a leading figure in a group of composers who wrote for the monasteries and the nobility in Lower Austria. His compositions were distributed in all the Habsburgian countries and in southern Germany. His extensive output of liturgical music covers almost all contemporary genres and he was one of the first to feature extensive solo writing for the organ in some of his ...


Howard Picton

[Steffan/Stephan, Joseph Anton; Steffani/Stephani, Giuseppe Antonio]

(b Kopidlno, Bohemia, bap. March 14, 1726; d Vienna, April 12, 1797). Czech composer, keyboard teacher and virtuoso, active in Austria. His musical gifts were probably first nurtured by his father, who was organist and schoolmaster in Kopidlno. When the Prussian army invaded Bohemia in 1741, the boy fled to Vienna, where he sought the patronage of the lord of the Kopidlno estate, Count František Jindřich Šlik [Franz Heinrich Schlick]. He studied the violin with the count’s music director, Hammel (whom he later succeeded), and became an early harpsichord and composition pupil of the court composer G.C. Wagenseil. Štěpán distinguished himself as a gifted composer and as one of the most brilliant harpsichordists in Vienna. He enjoyed a considerable reputation as a teacher, and throughout his career composed didactic pieces. On 14 July 1766 he was appointed Klaviermeister to the young archduchesses Maria Carolina (later Queen of Naples) and Maria Antonia (later Queen of France), but by ...


Walter Senn

revised by T. Herman Keahey

[Malzahn, Malzard, Maltzath, Maltzbach]

Austrian family of musicians of Moravian origin .

( b Pirnitz [now Brtnice], 1723; d Vienna, Nov 25, 1760). Composer and violinist . He is believed to have gone to Vienna in 1745, possibly in the service of Count Haugwitz; in 1747 he was musicus primarius at the Dominikanerkirche and in 1757 musicus at the Stephansdom. He was probably the Malzat listed as a violinist in the Burgtheater orchestra. Works attributed to him include a partita ( D-KA , ed. J. Trojan, Prague, c 1981), a sinfonia ( A-Gd ) and a quartet, a flute concerto and three symphonies listed in the Breitkopf catalogues.

( b Vienna, April 21, 1749; d Innsbruck, May 13, 1787). Composer and choirmaster , son of (1) Josef Malzat. He attended the grammar school in Kremsmünster, where he was a chorister and possibly also a cellist (see Weiss). He was subsequently a teacher in the abbeys of Stams in the Tyrol (...


Eugene K. Wolf, Fritz Kaiser and Jean K. Wolf


Bohemian family of musicians. The family can be traced back to Marburg an der Drau in Styria (now Maribor, Slovenia). From there Martin Stamitz emigrated to the Bohemian town of Pardubice, where his name is first recorded in 1665. About 1710 Martin’s son Antonin Ignác (1686–1765) moved to Německý Brod, where he was appointed organist and choirmaster of the Dean’s church and later became a wealthy landowner and town councillor. In 1714 he married Rosina (Rozyna) Böhm von Loisbach; the third of their 11 children, and the first to survive, was (1) Johann Stamitz.

The spelling of the name in contemporary sources is extraordinarily erratic, the most common variants being Stamiz, Steinmetz, Steinmez, Stammiz, Stametz, Stammitz, Staimitz, Stamits and Stammetz. Every known signature by a member of the family uses the form Stamitz, even in documents in which the language and the forms of the first names are Czech....


Member of Mozart family

(b Augsburg, Nov 14, 1719; d Salzburg, May 28, 1787). Composer, violinist and theorist.

He was the son of an Augsburg bookbinder, Johann Georg Mozart (1679–1736), and attended the Augsburg Gymnasium (1727–35) and the Lyceum adjoining the Jesuit school of St Salvator (1735–6), where he frequently performed as an actor and singer in various theatrical productions; he was also an accomplished organist and violinist. In 1737 Leopold broke with his family and matriculated at the Salzburg Benedictine University, studying philosophy and jurisprudence. He took the bachelor of philosophy degree the next year, with public commendation, but in September 1739 he was expelled for poor attendance and indifference. Shortly after, he became a valet and musician to Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, Salzburg canon and president of the consistory; it was to Thurn-Valsassina that Mozart dedicated his ...


Margaret Grave and Jay Lane

[Ditters, Carl]

(b Vienna, Nov 2, 1739; d Neuhof [now Nový Dvůr], nr Sobĕslav, Bohemia, Oct 24, 1799). Austrian composer and violinist. After promising early success in Vienna, he settled for a modest career as a provincial Kapellmeister and administrator. He composed voluminously despite the official responsibilities that occupied him for much of his life, and his generally high standard of craftsmanship earned him recognition as a leading figure of the Viennese Classical school.

Born to Paul Ditters, costumier at the imperial court and theatre in Vienna, and his wife Anna (née Vandelin), Ditters enjoyed the benefits of a Jesuit school education, private tutoring and, from the age of seven, violin lessons. About 1750 he began studies with the violinist J.P. Ziegler, and before long he was accepted into the orchestra of the Schottenkirche. Soon afterwards he was recruited as a Kammerknabe by Prince Joseph Friedrich von Sachsen-Hildburghausen, whose Kapelle was one of the best in Vienna; from ...


Bruce Alan Brown and Julian Rushton

(b Erasbach, Upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714; d Vienna, Nov 15, 1787). Bohemian composer. He was long in Habsburg service in Vienna. More successfully than any of his contemporaries, he translated the widespread agitation for reform of opera and theatrical dance on the part of European intellectuals into actual works for the stage, first in pantomime ballets and Italian serious operas for Vienna and then in operas of various sorts for Paris. His long experience in setting Metastasian drammi per musica and his work in Vienna as music director of the Burgtheater (court theatre) were not without utility in these more innovative efforts.

Bruce Alan Brown

Gluck's earliest traceable ancestor is his great-grandfather, ‘Simon Gluckh von Rockenzahn’; (i.e. from Rokycany), as he is called in the marriage-contract (1672) of his son, Johann (or Hans) Adam (b c1649; d 1722). The surname Gluck (variously spelt Gluckh, Klugh, Kluch, etc.) probably derives from the Czech word ...