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Hellmut Federhofer

(b Udine, 1550–55; d after 1626). Italian composer and singer, active mainly in central Europe. He himself said that he served the house of Habsburg from early youth, probably first as a chorister in the Graz court chapel of Archduke Karl II, in whose domestic chapel he was then employed as an alto from 1572 with a monthly salary of a mere six guilders. On the archduke’s recommendation he became the domestic chaplain of the cathedral at Aquileia in north-east Italy on 16 March 1573, and he was ordained priest on 2 February 1575. He left Aquileia for health reasons in 1583 and thanks to the good offices of Simone Gatto, Kapellmeister at the Graz court, was readmitted to the chapel there in 1584. He served at Graz until the death of the archduke in 1590, acting as court chaplain. From 1591 to 1594 he was employed as court chaplain and alto at the Bavarian court chapel at Munich. There is evidence that in ...


Hellmut Federhofer

(b Judenburg, Styria, c1545–50; d ?Graz, Styria, May 1582). Austrian singer and composer. He was chorister in the Stephansdom, Vienna, and in 1559 was admitted to the university there. In 1572 his name appears last in a list of five basses employed at the Graz court household of Archduke Karl II of Inner Austria. At the express wish of the archduke he took holy orders and in 1579, when he accompanied his master to Munich, he was nominated first court chaplain. He himself used the title ‘Elimosinarius’ (almoner) in 1581. All that has survived of his work is a Magnificat à 6, A la fontaine du pris (in A-Gu , D-Kl and SI-Lu, ed. in DTÖ, cxxxiii, 1981), based on the chanson with the same title by Willaert. This work shows Zweiller to have been among the earliest composers to write parody Magnificat settings, a style with which he had presumably become familiar through contact with Lassus at Munich....


Hellmut Federhofer

(b Venice, c1540; d Graz, bur. Feb 2, 1611). Italian composer and singer. He was probably educated in Venice, and he became a canon at S Salvatore there. On 1 November 1578 he was appointed a tenor in the Graz Hofkapelle, to which he belonged for the rest of his life. In 1580 he became court chaplain and in 1595 Hofkapellmeister; by then he was also principal court chaplain and almoner. His appointment to both posts resulted from the Graz court’s efforts in support of the Counter-Reformation. Bianco resolutely continued the italianization of the Hofkapelle, a task already begun by Annibale Padovano; in order to recruit musicians and obtain music, he visited Venice several times, and Venetian music became the most important influence on music at the Graz court. Bianco attracted musicians such as Georg Poss, who was trained in Venice, and Giovanni Gabrieli’s friend Francesco Stivori and pupil Alessandro Tadei. His testimonials on the Graz court musicians (in ...


Hellmut Federhofer

(b Venice, c1550; d probably Graz, 1605). Italian composer and organist. He is traditionally said to have studied with Claudio Merulo and Giovanni Gabrieli. It is, however, unlikely that the latter taught him, for Stivori was, if not somewhat older, at least the same age as Gabrieli, who described him in a document of 16 October 1604 as ‘mio cordialissimo amico’. The title-pages of printed collections show that from 1579 to 1601 he was town organist at Montagnana, near Padua. He went to Graz, apparently in 1602, to serve as organist at the court of Archduke Ferdinand of Inner Austria. He held this post, with the exceptionally high salary of 45 guilders a month, until his death. Costanzo Antegnati praised him in his L'arte organica (Brescia, 1608). Though Stivori was a prolific and influential representative of the Venetian school, his works have not yet been studied as they deserve. Through his manuscript collection of eight-part hymns (in ...


Hellmut Federhofer


(b Venice, 1540–50; d ?Graz, before Feb 1, 1595). Italian composer, trumpeter and trombonist, active also in Austria. In 1565–6 he served as a trombonist at Padua Cathedral. Leaving Venice, where presumably he had been trained, he went to the court at Munich, where from 1568 to 1571 he was active as a trombonist and in 1568 helped to improvise a comedy with Lassus, Massimo Troiano and others. Apparently he then returned to Venice but soon went as trombonist and trumpeter to the court of Archduke Karl II at Graz, where he pursued a successful career. By 1577 he had become superintendent of the court instrumentalists and on 1 August 1581 was appointed Kapellmeister in succession to Annibale Padovano (who had died six years earlier). He recruited singers in Venice (e.g. Giovanni Battista Galeno in 1584) and was responsible for the purchase of instruments. After the death of Archduke Karl in ...


Mirosław Perz

[Nicolaus de Radom]

(b Radom; fl first half of the 15th century). Polish composer. A number of references to individuals named Mikołaj who came from Radom are found in Polish records from between around 1380 and 1480, especially in those from Kraków. These individuals (some of whom may be identical) included a student at Prague University in 1379; a priest endowed with incumbencies in the presbytery of Kraków by Pope Boniface IX in 1390 (the composer's style and technique owed much to Antonius Zachara de Teramo, who worked at Boniface's court); a graduate and bachelor of laws who was vicar of Droginia, near Kraków; the donor of four manuscripts to the library of Kraków University, two of them dating from the second half of the 15th century; and various students at Kraków University between 1420 and 1470.

There are two further contemporary references to musicians called Nicolaus, but these do not specify any place of origin: ‘Nicolaus clavicembalista dominae reginae Poloniae’ was mentioned in ...


Elżbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

( fl ?15th century). Polish theorist . He studied in Paris and was the author of Tractatus musicalis ad cantum gregorialem brevis et utilis ( A-Gu 873), a concise introduction to the art of singing. Reference to his nationality and studies in Paris is found in a colophon to the treatise. Attempts to identify him with the composer Mikołaj Radomski remain unsubstantiated....


Albert Dunning

(b Kleve, 1528–9; d Augsburg, July 15, 1582). Netherlandish composer and singer. Earlier uncertainty about his place of birth – whether it was Flanders, Blois or Kleve – has now been resolved in favour of Kleve. His Cantiones seu harmoniae sacrae (1579–80) is prefaced by laudatory poems in which he is called ‘Clivensis’, and among the works in the volumes is an elegy on the death of Duke Karl Friedrich of Kleve. ‘De Cleve’, however, appears to have been a common name, and the composer has proved difficult to identify in his earlier years. For example, a court musician called Cleve was referred to in the accounts of the Liebfrauenzunft at Bergen op Zoom in 1547. The presence of works by Johannes de Cleve in choirbooks dated 1549 of St Pieterskerk, Leiden, and in anthologies by Susato in 1553 would seem to indicate that he was living in the Netherlands in the mid-16th century. In ...


Lothar Hoffmann-Erbrecht

(b ?Roclenge-sur-Geer, Liège, c1505; d Dresden, before April 1577). Flemish composer . Kade's early hypothesis that he had at one time been active in Milan, and was identical with Mathias Hermann Werrecore, also known as Mathias Fianergo, was refuted by Haberl. A manuscript ( A-Gu 13), which was apparently taken to Graz from Munich in 1573, supports Sandberger's conjecture that the ‘Mathesz Nidlender’ reported in the Munich court chapel is Le Maistre. Furthermore, two Munich choirbooks are unique sources for several masses and motets by him. In 1554 he succeeded Johann Walter as Kapellmeister of the Dresden Kantorei, then consisting of 40 musicians. Since he had lost the patrimony of his old home on his conversion to Protestantism, the elector compensated him in 1565 with a grant for life. Additional income came from compositions dedicated to the authorities of Zwickau. He suffered from illness for some years before his retirement in ...


[Carolus, Charles, Karl]

(b Antwerp, 1557/8; d Prague, Aug 1620). Flemish composer and organist. He spent nearly all his life in the service of the Habsburg imperial chapel in Vienna and Prague. In 1566 he was recruited as a chorister for the court of the Emperor Maximilian II in Vienna; his music teachers there may have been Jacobus Vaet, Alard du Gaucquier and Philippe de Monte, while he must have studied the organ either with the first court organist Wilhelmus Formellis or with one of the sub-organists, Wilhelm von Mülin or Paul van Winde.

On leaving the chapel on 30 July 1571 after his voice changed, Luython was given the usual honorarium of 50 guilders. He travelled to Italy to work and further his education, as had other imperial court singers such as Jacob Regnart. On 18 May 1576 he returned to the employ of the imperial court as a ‘chamber musician’ (probably as organist rather than singer) with a salary of 10 guilders a month. He was one of the first members of the newly founded ...


Pierre M. Tagmann and Michael Fink


(b 1541/42; d Mantua, Oct 7, 1597). Italian organist and composer. He was sent to Venice in 1570 to study with Merulo and others. In 1573, his hymns, now lost, were sung in the ducal chapel of S Barbara in Mantua; this is the first record of him as a composer. His name first appears on the salary lists of the Mantuan court in 1577, and on 1 May 1582 he was appointed court chapel organist to Archduke Carl II in Graz, where his duties included the musical education of the archduke's children. His monthly salary of 25 florins was a primary reason for his remaining at Graz, in spite of efforts to recall him to Mantua. He was evidently appreciated, since Wilhelm V of Bavaria attempted unsuccessfully to obtain his transfer to his own court. After the archduke's death in 1590, Rovigo returned to Mantua to serve as organist in S Barbara, and in ...


José Quitin and Richard Marlow

[Saive, Saibe, Sainne, Sayfe, Seave, Seef, Seyve]

South Netherlandish family of musicians and clerics. The first member known is Raskin de Seave, a burgher of Liège, whose two sons were musicians.

José Quitin

(b ?Liège, c1540–50; d ?Bohemia, 1619). Singer and composer, elder son of Raskin de Seave. He was appointed second succentor at the collegiate church of St Martin-en-Mont, Liège, on 9 July 1571, and held the post at least until 1588. By 1 January 1590 he was an alto in the chapel of Emperor Rudolf II in Vienna, and in 1593 he was Monte’s deputy as choirmaster. According to Vannes he was choirmaster in Salzburg from 1606 to 1608, after which he rejoined the imperial chapel until 30 September 1617. It seems likely he died in Bohemia late in 1619. He published his five-voice Liber primus motectorum in Prague in 1595, and one motet and two odes by him appeared in collections (1604...


David Hiley

(from Lat. clavis: ‘key’)

In Western notation the sign placed at the beginning of a staff to denote the pitch of one of its lines, and hence of the other lines. Apart from instances in theoretical writings of the late 9th century, clefs were first systematically used in functional liturgical manuscripts of the 11th century, where they take the form of simple letters. F and c clefs were always the most widely used, the letters soon becoming formalized to take on their early shapes as ‘clefs’. The g clef became increasingly common in the 15th century, when the range of part-writing expanded upwards. With the general adoption of F (for the left hand) and g(for the right) clefs for keyboard music at the end of the 18th century, the c clef became less common. The F and g clefs came to be known as the ‘bass clef’ and ‘treble clef’ respectively.

For the sake of clarity, ...


R.B. Lenaerts and E. Harrison Powley

[Florii, Florio, Florius]

Dutch family of musicians, active in Italy and Germany. Apart from the five separately discussed below, a sixth member of the family, Gregorio, is known from a motet for seven voices (in RISM 160915).

(b ?Maastricht; d Munich, 1588). Music copyist and composer. He entered the Munich court chapel in 1556 and in April 1557 received a lifelong appointment there as a singer. From about 1565 he worked as a scribe alongside the court copyist Johannes Pollet, and he took over from him in 1570. Flori was the copyist of several choirbooks belonging to the Munich court chapel and to the Jesuit College in Munich. His compositions are indistinguishable from those of (2) Francesco Flori (ii).

M. van Daalen: ‘Der Utrechter Lasso-Codex aus der bayerischen Hofkapelle in München’, TVNM, 30 (1980), 85–112

(d Innsbruck, 1583). Singer and ...


Allen B. Skei

revised by Danilo Pokorn and Marko Motnik

[Jacob, Jakob]

(b possibly Ribnica or Idrija in Carniola, between 15 April and 31 July 1550; d Prague, 18 July 1591). Composer, probably of Slovene origin, resident in Austria, Moravia, and Bohemia. As one of the most skilful contrapuntists of his time and a prolific composer of polychoral works, his music presents a fusion of the styles and techniques of the day.

Handl’s career can be reconstructed by means of prefaces to his printed collections. Although no documents verify his birthplace, scholars have proposed either Ribnica (Reifnitz) or Idrija (Idria). It has been assumed that he received his early formal education at the Cistercian monastery at Stična (Sittich) in Lower Carniola. It is not known at what time he left his homeland to move to the North. The statement often found in the literature on Handl, that in 1574 he was a choirboy at the imperial chapel of Emperor Maximilian II in Vienna, has been refuted. In the preface to his fourth book of Masses dedicated to Johannes Rueff in ...


Milton Steinhardt

(b Kortrijk or Harelbeke, c1529; d Vienna, Jan 8, 1567). Flemish composer. The year of his birth is deduced from a document dated 1543 which gives his age as 13 and records his acceptance as a choirboy at Onze Lieve Vrouwkerk in Kortrijk. Although the church records state that he came from Kortrijk, in the matriculation registers of the University of Leuven his name appears as ‘Jacobus Vat de Arelbecke’. When his voice changed in 1546 the church gave him a scholarship, and he entered the university on 29 August 1547. His name appears in a roll of benefices given to members of the chapel of Emperor Charles V in 1550; according to it he was a tenor, and already married. By 1 January 1554 he had become Kapellmeister to Charles’s nephew, Archduke Maximilian of Austria (later Emperor Maximilian II), a position that he held until he died. His relationship with Maximilian was evidently a close one, and his broadside motet ...



Hellmut Federhofer, Wolfgang Suppan, and Bernhard Günther

(Ger. Österreich)

Country in Europe. This article deals with the area of the Republic of Austria, comprising the federated provinces (Länder) of Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Burgenland, Carinthia, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Vienna and Vorarlberg. For the remaining successor states to the Danube monarchy, see Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia and Romania; see also Germany, Federal Republic of for the period up to 1806.

Prehistoric signal pipes, musical instruments and iconographical representations of musical activities from the Hallstatt Period (1000–500 bce) and the Roman occupation testify to the antiquity of Austrian civilization. The development of a musical culture from the beginning of the Middle Ages has essentially been determined by Austria’s geographical position in the centre of Europe, its Alpine terrain, the coming of Christianity and the settlement by Germanic tribes. External influences, especially of the races at its borders – the Latin peoples, the Slavs and the Magyars – further affected the area’s cultural evolution. Although each province has a place in Austria’s cultural history, the musical centres have always been the cities of Salzburg and Vienna....


Rudolf Schnitzler and Herbert Seifert

(b Rimini, probably between Jan 17, 1634 and Jan 16, 1635; d Vienna, Jan 16, 1700). Austrian composer, administrator and librettist of Italian birth, possibly a brother of Giovanni Battista Draghi. He was one of the most prominent musicians in Vienna during the last third of the 17th century and an exceptionally prolific composer of operas, oratorios and other theatre music.

Rimini is given as Draghi’s place of descent not only in the first known biographical sources at Padua, but also in the marriage records of the Stephansdom, Vienna, in 1661. The death certificate dated 18 January 1700 gives his age as 65, so he seems to have been born in Rimini about 1634. In November 1645, aged about 11, he entered the service of the basilica of S Antonio, Padua, as a soprano singer, together with his uncle and probably music teacher Francesco Florido (a clergyman who seems to have been active at the cathedral of Urbania as ...



David Fallows


An extended song form cultivated particularly in the 13th and 14th centuries. The stanzas – if the poem can be divided in that way – are each in a different form and therefore have different music. Though the number of surviving examples is small compared with the total extent of medieval song these works occupy a special position for several reasons: the very irregularity of the poetic form led to large metrical and rhyming patterns that have caused the lai and its German equivalent the Leich to be described as the major showpieces of medieval lyric poetry; and there is much truth in Spanke’s useful distinction (1938) between songs that are primarily metrical in their formal concept (i.e. nearly all medieval strophic song) and those that are primarily musical (the lai and the sequence), a distinction that almost inevitably brings with it the suggestion that the lai and related forms represent by far the earliest surviving attempts at continuous extended musical composition outside the liturgy. In general it is true to say that in the 13th century the form could be extremely free, with highly irregular rhyme schemes and lines of uneven length, but that in the 14th century lais became enormously longer, with the French tradition developing a standard pattern with each stanza following a double-versicle scheme (often refined to an apparent quadruple-versicle) and a 12-stanza form in which the first and last could be related musically or even have the same music at different pitches....


Michel Huglo

(from Lat. liber processionalis, processionale, processionarium)

A small portable liturgical book of the Western Church, containing the chants, rubrics and collects appropriate to liturgical processions. It is of particular musical interest since it contains antiphons, verses, rhymed Preces and even polyphonic chants that do not occur in other liturgical books. Like the pontifical, it was a comparatively late addition to the repertory of official liturgical books, originating in the 10th and 11th centuries; the processional antiphons are much older, and formerly occurred in the gradual.

Processions occur in most ancient religions. Essentially, they consist of a communal progress on foot for the purpose of petition, penitence or even protocol (as in the processions of the Byzantine court), and the singing of chants. The latter may be very diverse in style – syllabic, melismatic or in litany form (i.e. a series of invocations or petitions, to each of which the congregation makes a brief response).

The oldest known processionals (books containing the processional chants) date from the 12th century, although a book of the chants for the Rogationtide procession at Metz Cathedral (...