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Craig Wright


(fl c1400–15). Franco-Flemish composer. On 23 June 1412 he was appointed succentor at the church of St Donatian in Bruges, where he remained until 1415. Earlier he had been a pupil of the Parisian composer Johannes Tapissier (d c1410), since a Gloria by him in ...


[Jean Baptiste]

(b Augsburg, 1723; d Eichstätt, May 18, 1782). German cellist and composer. The son of a flautist at the Augsburg court, he worked in the service of the prince-bishop and at the seminary of St Moritz in Augsburg (1742 and 1749). After the prince’s death in 1768 he undertook a series of concert tours in England, Holland, Sweden, Denmark and Germany. For some time he lived in Amsterdam, and about 1774 published a cello tutor in The Hague entitled Instructions de musique, théorique et pratique, à l’usage du violoncelle. In 1775 he was appointed to the royal orchestra in Stockholm but never took up the post. He was nevertheless elected to the Swedish Academy of Music the following year. He then undertook further concert tours, including one to Hamburg. In 1777 he played with the flautist Ludwig Gering first in Augsburg and then in Salzburg, where he visited Leopold Mozart. He then travelled to Vienna to play before the Imperial Court. In ...


Othmar Wessely

(b Vienna, Jan 16, 1743; d Vienna, Sept 20, 1814). Austrian composer. His father Anton Ignaz Ulbrich (b Bohemia, c1706; d Vienna, 14 Dec 1796) was a trombonist in the Hofkapelle of Empress Elisabeth Christine from 1741 to 1750, and a trombonist and bass singer in the Hofkapelle of Empress Maria Theresa from 1750 until his death (though occasionally replaced as a singer by J.M. Vogl after 1794); he was also a composer and author of religious writings, patriotic poems and the oratorio text ‘Das durch den Tod erhaltene Leben von dem wunderthätigen Blut-Zeug Jesu Christi Johann von Nepomuk’ (Vienna, 1759), set to music by Christoph Sonnleithner. Maximilian Ulbrich attended the Jesuit seminary in Vienna, and studied harmony and composition under G.C. Wagenseil and the organ and sacred music under J.G. Reutter. He entered the service of the Lower Austrian Stände (estates of the realm) as an accountant in ...


Lisa Szeker-Madden


(b Rome, 1740; d Rome, Jan 1809). Italian composer.

Mango’s father, Antonio, was a Neapolitan impresario who worked in Rome at the Capranica theatre between 1729 and 1740, after which time he returned to Naples with his family. The earliest references to Girolamo Mango himself do not occur until the Roman carnival season of 1758 with the premiere of his intermezzo, La pedina alla moda, at the Pallacorda di Firenze theatre. Mango was very active in Rome, composing music for intermezzos, pasticcios, and oratorios at a number of theatres and churches.

On 26 March 1760 he accepted a post at Eichstätt as Hofkapellmeister for Prince Bishop Raimondo Anton von Strassoldo. The Prince Bishop was the first Italian to serve at Eichstätt, and he brought true Italian culture to Bavaria. Besides his Kapellmeister, he imported a number of professional Italian singers and musicians. Under Strassoldo, Mango transformed musical life at Eichstätt, moving it from a late baroque style into the early classical. He increased the size of the orchestra to include timpani as well as more woodwinds and brass. His symphonies reflect the early classical predilection for the three-movement Neapolitan opera overture form, and his instrumental writing displays a refined use of wind instruments. Concerti also feature transverse flutes and oboes as solo instruments, in keeping with contemporary musical trends and the preferences of his patron. Likewise, musical theatre at Eichstätt was considerably improved under Mango’s direction. The amateur Jesuit dramas presented at court prior to Mango’s tenure gave way to Metastasian opera seria and opera buffa. Mango was in fact required to present a new opera seria every year as part of the New Year’s celebrations at court for Strassoldo and his invited guests. Extant comic arias reveal that Mango’s buffa style favours cheerful, lightly ornamented melodies with simple harmonies and homophonic accompaniment. The high esteem and favour that Mango enjoyed at the Eichstätt court peaked with his receipt of the honorific ‘...


Günter Thomas

Italian and Austrian family of composers and musicians.

(b Pesaro, June 22, 1741; d Eisenstadt, April 25, 1808). Violinist and composer. He was engaged in 1757 as a manservant by Prince Paul Anton Esterházy, who had become acquainted with him on a journey to Italy. In 1759 he was sent to Venice for further musical training but was soon ordered to return to Vienna. It is uncertain whether he was a pupil of Leopold Mozart in Salzburg (as has been assumed from the latter’s letter of 21 June 1763), and it can only be presumed that he later received composition lessons from Haydn. In summer 1761, when Haydn was appointed assistant Kapellmeister, Tomasini was already first violinist in the Esterházy Hofkapelle, and later he was awarded the title Konzertmeister, a post he held until his death. In 1767 he was in the retinue of Prince Nicolaus (I) Esterházy on a journey to Paris. When the Vienna Tonkünstler-Societät, of which Tomasini had been a member since its inception, gave the première of Haydn’s oratorio ...


Rudolph Angermüller

revised by Ron Rabin

[Bon, Josephus Johannes Baptizta; Bono, Josef]

(b Vienna, Jan 29, 1711; d Vienna, April 15, 1788). Austrian composer of Italian origin. The son of an imperial footman from Brescia, he received his first musical instruction from the court composer and Kapellmeister of the Stephansdom, J.G. Reinhardt. In 1726 Charles VI sent Bonno to Naples, where he remained for ten years, studying composition (primarily of church music) with Francesco Durante and dramatic composition with Leonardo Leo; he also had singing lessons. In 1732 he made his début as a composer with the pastorale Nigella e Nise (text by G.C. Pasquini).

In February or March 1736 Bonno returned to Vienna. On 26 July of that year his festa di camera in one act, L’amore insuperabile, was performed to celebrate the name-day of the Archduchess Maria Anna, and on 1 October Trajano was performed, the first of several stage works written for the birthday of Charles VI. The following year he applied unsuccessfully for the post of court composer. Kapellmeister J.J. Fux, who judged him ‘as yet insufficiently trained in the rudiments of counterpoint’, recommended instead that he be appointed as a ‘court scholar in composition’, with himself providing the necessary instruction. On ...



(b Florence, April 7, 1739; d ?Venice, ?1815). Italian composer and director of music, active also in Russia. Son of the oboist Melchior Stabinger, he presumably received his early musical instruction from his father and other members of the grand duke's ensemble in Florence; as a flautist, he was probably a pupil of Nicolas Dôthel. In 1772 he directed the concerts of the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Lyons, and is also mentioned as a composer and a solo flautist (not clarinettist). From 1778 to 1781 he was successful as a ballet composer and direttore d'orchestra per i balli in Milan, Venice, Rome and Palermo. After taking up appointments as maestro di cembalo in Warsaw and with the Mattei-Orecia troupe in St Petersburg, he went to Moscow, where he directed the Italian opera company at the Petrovsky theatre (Maddox's). There he produced an opera and the oratorio La Betulia liberata...


(b 1700/01; d Milan, Jan 15, 1775). Italian composer, brother of Giuseppe Sammartini. He was a leading figure in the development of the Classical style.

Sammartini was the seventh of eight children of Alexis Saint-Martin, a French oboist who immigrated to Italy, and Girolama de Federici. He was probably born in Milan, the city in which he lived all his life. Since in his death certificate he is said to have been 74, he was presumably born in 1700 or the first two weeks of 1701. His earliest musical instruction probably came from his father. In 1717 Giuseppe and G.B. Sammartini were listed as oboists at S Celso, Milan, and in 1720 the ‘Sammartini brothers’ were listed as oboists in the orchestra of the Regio Ducal Teatro there. Sammartini’s first known composition is an aria (lost) for the oratorio La calunnia delusa, performed in 1724, to which Giuseppe and other composers also contributed. His first set of vocal works which is known (also lost) dates from 1725: five cantatas for the Fridays in Lent written for the Congregazione del SS Entierro, which met in the Jesuit church of S Fedele. Sammartini became ...



(b Vienna, bap. April 6, 1708; d Vienna, March 11, 1772). Austrian composer, son of Georg Reutter. He was the 11th of 14 children born to Georg Reutter (i) and received his early musical training from his father, assisting him as court organist. A period of more formal instruction from Antonio Caldara ensued, leading to the composition of an oratorio and, in 1727, his first opera for the imperial court, Archidamia. On three separate occasions during this period Reutter applied for a position as court organist and was each time rejected by Fux. At his own expense he travelled to Italy in 1730 (possibly in 1729); in February 1730 he was in Venice and in April 1730 in Rome. He returned to Vienna in autumn 1730, and early in the following year he successfully applied for a post as court composer, the formal beginning of a lifetime of service at the Habsburg court....


Linda Tyler, Caryl Clark and Hilary Donaldson

[Dolcevillico, Francesco Saverio]

(b Schwanenstadt, Upper Austria, 1766; d Vienna, Sept 17, 1803). Austrian composer. He studied music as a boy with his father, a teacher and choirmaster in Schwanenstadt. In 1779 he moved to the monastery school at Kremsmünster and later studied philosophy and law at the Ritterakademie there. While a student he participated in services at the abbey church as a singer, violinist, and organist, and took composition lessons from local teachers. Beginning in or around 1785 he composed several operas that were performed in the monastery theatre. In the late 1780s he moved to Vienna, where he performed occasionally in the Hofkapelle and Burgtheater. He began occasional studies in composition with Mozart in 1790 or 1791, subsequently working for him as a copyist, possibly assisting him in composing the secco recitatives for La clemenza di Tito, and completing the Requiem at Constanze Mozart’s request. After Mozart’s death he studied with Salieri. Several of Süssmayr’s early operatic projects in Vienna were undertaken for Schikaneder’s Theater auf der Wieden; then, in ...


Peter Branscombe

revised by David J. Buch

(b Vienna, Dec 5, 1768; d Vienna, Nov 26, 1822). Austrian composer, Kapellmeister and organist. He succeeded his father as organist at the Schottenstift in Vienna, and by late 1789 had joined Schikaneder’s company at the Theater auf der Wieden (later the Theater an der Wien) as Kapellmeister and composer. He probably coordinated and certainly contributed to a number of successful collaborative operas at that theatre, particularly the series Der dumme Gärtner aus dem Gebirge, and numerous fairy-tale singspiels such as Der Stein der Weisen (1790) and Der wohltätige Derwisch (1791). He also arranged a number of foreign-language operas in German translation for the theatre. He supervised rehearsals of Die Zauberflöte during Mozart’s absence in Prague and conducted the opera from the third performance. From 1797 he had an able co-director in Seyfried. Apart from his own works, he arranged the piano scores of the Süssmayr-Schikaneder ...


Theophil Antonicek

revised by Jennifer Williams Brown

(b Venice, c1653; d Vienna, Jan 22, 1715). Italian composer, partly active in Austria, nephew of Pietro Andrea Ziani. Towards the end of the 17th century he was a leading composer of opera for Venice, and he was a major figure at the imperial court in Vienna early in the 18th century.

The most important influence on Ziani's early life was probably his uncle, with whom he may have studied. Certainly Pietro Andrea's reputation and connections, particularly in Venice and Vienna, must have aided Ziani throughout his life. Marc’Antonio began his career as an opera composer in 1674 by adapting older works for the Venetian stage. In 1677 he acted as an intermediary for his uncle (who was in Naples) during negotiations with S Marco concerning the latter's post as first organist; after Pietro Andrea resigned, Marc’Antonio boldly applied for the position, but was passed over. Pietro Andrea may have arranged for his nephew's first opera, ...


Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[antiphonal, antiphonary] (from Lat. antiphona; antiphonarius [liber], antiphonarium, antiphonale)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the antiphons and other choir chants sung at the services of the Divine Office .

Although the word antiphona as a term for a liturgical chant can be traced back to the 3rd century, the term antiphonarius (rarely also antiphonale – see below) for a book of chants first appears in the 8th century. In his Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis Archbishop Egbert of York (d 766) refers to an ‘antiphonarium’ and even ‘antiphonaria’ of Gregory the Great (d 604), which he had seen in Rome in the 730s ( PL , lxxxix, 440–42). The term was also used in Carolingian library catalogues from the end of the 8th century:Catalogue from St Wandrille de Fontenelle in Normandy, compiled between 787 and 806 (‘antiphonarii romanae ecclesiae’; G. Becker: Catalogi bibliothecarum antiqui, Bonn, 1885/R, §4, no.21);Catalogue from St Riquier in Picardy, in 831 (‘antiphonarii sex’: ibid., §11, no.238);Catalogue from Cologne, in the 9th century (ibid., §16, nos.7, 18, 33);Catalogue from St Gallen in the mid-9th century (‘antiphonarii III et veteres II’; ...


Kenneth Levy, John A. Emerson, Jane Bellingham, David Hiley and Bennett Mitchell Zon

[plainsong] (from Lat. cantus planus; Fr. plainchant; Ger. Choral; It. canto plano)

The official monophonic unison chant (originally unaccompanied) of the Christian liturgies. The term, though general, is used to refer particularly to the chant repertories with Latin texts – that is, those of the five major Western Christian liturgies – or in a more restricted sense to the repertory of Franco-Roman chant (Gregorian chant). A third meaning refers to a style of measured ecclesiastical music, often accompanied by a bassoon, serpent or organ, cultivated in Roman Catholic France during the 17th to 19th centuries (see Plain-chant musical). This article is concerned with the chant of the Roman and derived rites considered historically, including its place within Christian chant as a whole and its relationship to the liturgy that it serves.

Kenneth Levy

The roots of the liturgical chant of the Christian Churches lie partly in established Jewish Synagogue practice of the apostolic period, partly in new developments within early Christianity itself and partly in pagan music at the diverse centres where the first churches were established (...


Lowell Lindgren

Member of Bononcini family

( b Modena, July 18, 1670; d Vienna, July 9, 1747). Composer and cellist , son of (1) Giovanni Maria Bononcini (i).

Giovanni Bononcini moved to Bologna when his father's death made him an orphan at the age of eight. There he studied counterpoint with G.P. Colonna at S Petronio; at the age of 15 he published three instrumental collections and was accepted into the Accademia Filarmonica on 30 May 1686. During the next two years he published three more collections, was engaged at S Petronio as a string player and singer, composed two oratorios which were performed in both Bologna and Modena, and succeeded G.F. Tosi as maestro di cappella at S Giovanni in Monte. For this church he wrote the double-choir masses that were printed as his op.7 in 1688. He composed a new oratorio for Modena in 1690, and in 1691 dedicated his op.8, consisting of well-wrought vocal duets, to Emperor Leopold I and played in the orchestra of the papal legate, the Roman Cardinal Benedetto Pamphili....