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Eva Badura-Skoda

Town in Austria, near Vienna. It is notable for its Augustinian abbey. Founded in 1108 by the Babenberg margraves, it was originally a collegiate chapter, close to the residence of St Leopold, Margrave of Austria. Although the residence was subsequently moved to Vienna, Klosterneuburg's commanding position on the Danube near the capital enabled the monks to participate fully in the cultural life of Vienna, especially during the Middle Ages. In 1133 the Augustinian canons were installed and from the first cultivated Gregorian chant, especially psalmody. The cantor was responsible for the quality of the singing at Vespers (the musical ability of novices could apparently determine their acceptance into the convent) and during the Middle Ages he took charge of the monastery in the prelate's absence, an indication of the importance of his position. The Babenberg dukes, who had a lively interest in the abbey, secured vast estates and a valuable library for it. The large number of important manuscripts in neumatic notation includes the oldest psalter in the library (...


Norbert Böker-Heil

(fl c1550). Composer. He may have lived in Austria and known Arnold von Bruck; his Salve regina (in A-KN 70, which contains most of his works) has the following dedication: ‘Casparus Copus in gratiam Arnoldi de Bruck 1550’. Only 11 sacred vocal pieces (in RISM 1564...


(b nr Konstanz, c1492; d Schalckstetten, nr Ulm, 1544). German composer and Protestant pastor. He has historically been confused with two other musicians: Benedictus Appenzeller and Benedictus de Opitiis. Appenzeller has long been known to be a different person, and is now considered the composer of nearly all the music attributed simply to ‘Benedictus’ without surname. But until recently it was possible to regard Ducis and Opitiis as the same man, as Opitiis disappeared from the records in 1522 and Ducis was first recorded 10 years later. Now, however, a little more is known about Ducis's early life, and he is clearly distinct from Opitiis as well as Appenzeller.

Ducis's birth near Konstanz was mentioned in a letter of 12 June 1532 from Martin Frecht, a pastor in Ulm where Ducis had recently sought a pastorate without success, to Ambrosius Blauer. In another letter Frecht stated that Ducis had lived with Simon Grynäus in Austria and Styria, and that Grynäus had said that Ducis was a close acquaintance of the great humanist Joachim Vadian. This had suggested his presence in Vienna during the second decade of the 16th century; now the matriculation records of Vienna University show that Ducis was there even earlier than this. ‘Benedictus Ducis de Constancia 5 augusti p[auperus]’ is entered for the winter semester of ...


Othmar Wessely

revised by Walter Kreyszig

[Pruck, Arnold de; Arnoldus Brugensis]

(b Bruges, ?1500; d Linz an der Donau, Upper Austria, Feb 6, 1554). South Netherlandish composer. It has been assumed that he was born between 1480 and 1490, but from the evidence of his will and of documents concerning his relatives, it seems that he was born somewhat later. He began his musical career as a choirboy in Charles V's chapel, where he probably remained until about 1519, and must have been a pupil of Marbrianus de Orto. Bruck does not appear to have been in the chapel by the time Maximilian became emperor, or to have served any other member of the Habsburg family. In 1527 he was ordained in the Thérouanne diocese (Pas-de-Calais). It was probably at this time that he arranged Févin's four-part Sancta Trinitas for six voices. He held an office at Archduke Ferdinand's court before he succeeded Heinrich Finck as court Kapellmeister in the second half of ...


Uwe Harten

(b Marbach, Lower Austria, Jan 30, 1756; d Vienna, Oct 26, 1823). Austrian composer, organist and theorist. After early music instruction from his father, who was organist at Marbach, he was, from 1763, a choirboy at Mariazell, Styria, where he was taught organ and composition by F.X. Widerhofer. In 1772 he was appointed organist at the orphanage in Vienna by Propst Ignaz Parhamer. He completed his training in Vienna under Albrechtsberger, the influence of whose teaching method is apparent in Preindl's important theoretical work, the posthumously published Wiener Tonschule (1827). In 1775 he became organist at the church of Maria am Gestade; in 1783 he was organist of the Carmelite church in Vienna-Leopoldstadt where Albrechtsberger was regens chori. In 1787 he moved to the Michaelerkirche where he remained until 1793 when he became Kapellmeister at the Peterskirche. From 1795 he was also vice-Kapellmeister at the Stephansdom and from ...


Judith Leah Schwartz

[Johann; Georg Matthias]

(b Vienna, April 9, 1717; d Vienna, Oct 3, 1750). Austrian composer. The elder son of a coachman, Jakob Mann, and Catherina Päsching Mann, he was baptized Johann Georg but used the names Matthias Georg instead, possibly to avoid confusion with his younger brother Johann Christoph Monn. His preferred spelling, ‘Monn’, may be understood as a Lower Austrian dialect version of the family name Mann. He apparently sang in the choir at Klosterneuburg monastery in 1731–2 and at an early age (but not before 1738) became organist at the new Karlskirche in Vienna. There is little to support Gerber’s assertion that Monn was ‘Hoforganist’ at Melk Abbey or that he gave J.G. Albrechtsberger his first lessons in thoroughbass there. Albrechtsberger’s alleged reverence for Monn as a teacher (described by Sonnleithner) has not been proved, but a surviving set of thoroughbass exercises by Monn ( A-Wn 19101) suggests that he devoted part of his career to teaching....


John Stevens, Richard Rastall, David Klauser and Jack Sage

John Stevens, revised by Richard Rastall

The many Latin terms used by medieval writers to refer to dramatic representations include ordo, officium, ludus, festum, miraculum (rare), misterium and, most frequently, representatio. Each vernacular has an equivalent variety. None of these terms is used consistently, nor is any used exclusively (cf English ‘play’) to denote a drama. The terms ‘tragedy’ and ‘comedy’ are very rare and are not applicable in their traditional meanings. Of the above terms, ordo and officium are commonly used to describe liturgical ceremonies as well as plays; this draws attention to a fundamentally important but elusive distinction between ritual and drama. When describing vernacular plays, medieval writers used the terms ‘miracle’ and ‘mystery’ without distinction; in this article, ‘miracle’ denotes a play based on the life of a saint, ‘mystery’ a play on a biblical or apocryphal subject. These may both be categorized as ‘historical’ as opposed to the ‘fictional’ character of the morality plays (see Knight, ...


Dieter Härtwig and Laurie H. Ongley

German family of musicians.

Dieter Härtwig, revised by Laurie H. Ongley

(b Blasewitz, nr Dresden, April 17, 1741; d Dresden, Oct 23, 1801). Composer and conductor. He received his first musical training at the Kreuzschule in Dresden, and in May 1757 went to Italy as travelling companion of the Swedish violinist Anders Wesström. In Padua Tartini took an interest in him, as did Padre Martini in Bologna (1762) and Hasse in Venice. In 1762 he made his début in Venice as an opera composer with the intermezzo Il tesoro insidiato. At Carnival 1764 he collaborated with two other composers in the opera buffa Li creduti spiriti, and in the same year, on Hasse’s recommendation, he was engaged as second church composer at the Dresden court. There he was promoted to church and chamber composer (1765) and then to Kapellmeister (1776). He made further visits to Italy (...


M. Elizabeth C. Bartlet

(b Givet, Ardennes, June 22, 1763; d Paris, Oct 18, 1817). French composer. He was one of the leading composers in Paris during the Revolution, Consulate and Empire. His works for the Opéra-Comique increased the range in subject and tone of the theatre’s repertory; the serious lyric drames, in particular, were influential models for his contemporaries and praised by later composers such as Weber, Berlioz and Wagner.

Méhul was the son of the Count of Montmorency’s maître d’hôtel, Jean-François Méhul. After studying the organ locally at the Franciscan convent, he took the opportunity to continue lessons with Wilhelm Hanser (who also taught him counterpoint) at the nearby abbey of Laval-Dieu. Soon he became Hanser’s assistant. In 1778 or 1779 he arrived in Paris, and had an introduction to the harpsichordist and opera composer Jean-Frédéric Edelmann, with whom he studied while supporting himself by teaching keyboard instruments and probably playing the organ. Under his teacher’s aegis, Méhul arranged popular opera ...


George Truett Hollis

(Gasparo) [Giuseppe]

(b Salò, nr Brescia, Aug 15, 1725; d Desenzano, nr Lake Garda, Dec 1, 1813). Italian composer. He studied composition with Padre Martini in Bologna. His first opera was the successful pasticcio La vedova accorta, first performed in Florence in 1745. It was repeated in Venice (1746) and elsewhere in Europe. The Venetian libretto identifies Bertoni as the composer of ‘La Musica de' recitativi, e delle [9] arie’. His first serious opera, Il Cajetto, was staged privately, with puppets, in 1746. He composed two more opere serie within the year for commercial theatres in Venice, but was more successful in the comic genre: Le pescatrici (1751), on a Goldoni libretto, had 14 productions in 17 years throughout Europe, including Dresden (1754), London (1761) and Madrid (1765) in a Spanish translation by Ramón de la Cruz. La moda (...


Ian D. Bent, David W. Hughes, Robert C. Provine, Richard Rastall, Anne Kilmer, David Hiley, Janka Szendrei, Thomas B. Payne, Margaret Bent and Geoffrey Chew

A visual analogue of musical sound, either as a record of sound heard or imagined, or as a set of visual instructions for performers.

This article includes a discussion of notation in society (§II), subdivided into its primary types, which are considered with reference to various notational systems. Other specialized aspects of notation are considered in separate entries: Braille notation; Cheironomy; Ekphonetic notation; Pitch nomenclature; Shape-note hymnody; Solmization; Tablature; and Tonic Sol-fa. For non-Western notational systems see, in particular, China, People’s Republic of, §II, China, People’s Republic of, §IV; Indonesia; and Japan, §III, 4. Other related entries on technical subjects include Conducting; Improvisation; Mode; Psychology of music; Scale; and Tuning.

Whereas Western notation is considered as such in §III, a discussion of musical documents as sources – their physical make-up and production, their format, the layout and presentation of the music, the ordering of their contents – will be found in ...


Michel Huglo

revised by David Hiley

[antiphonal, antiphonary] (from Lat. antiphona; antiphonarius [liber], antiphonarium, antiphonale)

Liturgical book of the Western Church containing the antiphons and other choir chants sung at the services of the Divine Office .

Although the word antiphona as a term for a liturgical chant can be traced back to the 3rd century, the term antiphonarius (rarely also antiphonale – see below) for a book of chants first appears in the 8th century. In his Dialogus ecclesiasticae institutionis Archbishop Egbert of York (d 766) refers to an ‘antiphonarium’ and even ‘antiphonaria’ of Gregory the Great (d 604), which he had seen in Rome in the 730s ( PL , lxxxix, 440–42). The term was also used in Carolingian library catalogues from the end of the 8th century:Catalogue from St Wandrille de Fontenelle in Normandy, compiled between 787 and 806 (‘antiphonarii romanae ecclesiae’; G. Becker: Catalogi bibliothecarum antiqui, Bonn, 1885/R, §4, no.21);Catalogue from St Riquier in Picardy, in 831 (‘antiphonarii sex’: ibid., §11, no.238);Catalogue from Cologne, in the 9th century (ibid., §16, nos.7, 18, 33);Catalogue from St Gallen in the mid-9th century (‘antiphonarii III et veteres II’; ...


Marita P. McClymonds, Paul Cauthen, Wolfgang Hochstein and Mauricio Dottori


(b Aversa, Sept 10, 1714; d Naples, Aug 25, 1774). Italian composer. He was important among those who initiated the mid-18th-century modifications to singer-dominated Italian opera. His greatest achievements represent a combination of German complexity, French decorative elements and Italian brio, welded together by an extraordinary gift for dramatic effectiveness.

Jommelli’s musical training began under Canon Muzzillo, director of the cathedral choir at Aversa. In 1725 he went to the Conservatorio S Onofrio in Naples, where he studied with Prota and Feo; he transferred to the Conservatorio Pietà dei Turchini in 1728, where his teachers included Nicola Fago. He was also influenced by the composers active in Naples during his student years, notably Hasse and Leo. Later, to Schubart, he admitted his debt to both Hasse and Graun. His public career began with two comic operas for Naples, L’errore amorosa in spring 1737 and Odoardo in winter 1738...