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Cliff Eisen

(b Salzburg, Feb 19, 1744; d Salzburg, June 2, 1809). Austrian composer and organist. The son of the former cathedral organist Georg Joseph Paris (1700–60), he was active in a similar capacity at the Salzburg court from 1762. He was a friend of the Mozart family and apparently figured in Leopold Mozart's negotiations with Archbishop Colloredo concerning the terms of Mozart's last appointment in Salzburg. According to Leopold's letters of 31 August and 3 September 1778, Paris was given additional pay to take over some of Wolfgang's duties as court and cathedral organist, and Wolfgang was required to play the cathedral organ only for major feasts, with Paris doing duty at other times.

Paris was an active composer, mostly of church music. For the most part his compositions are written in a modern if conservative, shortwinded and uninventive style, including his two surviving orchestral works, a symphony and a keyboard concerto. His pedagogical keyboard works, composed as part of his duties at the Kapellhaus, are lost. Paris was also active as a copyist, not only of his own works but also of works by Mozart, Hafeneder and Romanus Hofstetter, among others. He is said to have been a passionate hunter....

Article

Dwight Blazin

(b Rohrau, Lower Austria, bap. Sept 14, 1737; d Salzburg, Aug 10, 1806). Austrian composer, younger brother of Joseph Haydn. A prolific composer in many genres, he was especially admired for his sacred music.

Michael Haydn was born in the village of Rohrau on the Leitha river, near the current border of Austria and Hungary. He went to Vienna at the age of eight and entered the choir school at the Stephansdom, where he will have participated in numerous performances of sacred works by the most prominent Viennese composers, especially the Kapellmeister, Georg Reutter (ii). By his 12th birthday he was earning extra money as a substitute organist at the cathedral and had, reportedly, performed preludes and fantasies of his own composition. About 1753 his voice broke and he was dismissed from the choir school. After this he probably had some affiliation with the local Jesuit seminary; a biographical sketch of ...

Article

Jean K. Wolf

German family of musicians. They were active at the courts of Mannheim and Munich.

(b c1690; d Oct 12, 1773). Flautist and composer. The earliest known reference to him occurs in a list of the musicians at the Margrave of Baden's court in Rastatt in 1706. In Düsseldorf on 1 January 1715 he married Anna Margaretha Essers (d 1725), by whom he had four children; he served there as flautist to the Palatine electors Johann Wilhelm and (from 1716) Carl Philipp. He later moved with the court to Heidelberg (1718) and to Mannheim (1720). In 1727 he married his second wife Rosina Arnold (d 8 February 1774), who bore him five children. His name appears, in various forms, in the Mannheim orchestra lists from 1723 to 1773, although by 1756 he had retired; he earned a substantial salary and gave flute lessons to Elector Carl Theodor until ...

Article

C. Matthew Balensuela

This article focusses on anonymous music theory texts written during the Western Middle Ages and early Renaissance (to about 1600), currently assumed to be anonymous and not closely associated with a known person, which have been edited and published in modern times.

Numerous artefacts of music have survived to modern times without clearly identifying their author. These include musical works, pictures, court records, theoretical treatises, and other documents. The corpus of anonymous theoretical works, therefore, comprises only a portion of all anonymous works in the history of music. In music theory, anonymous sources primarily span the time from antiquity to the early Renaissance, when texts were copied by hand. After the advent of printing, few theoretical works were transmitted anonymously.

Several groups of anonymous treatises are excluded from this article, such as works of ancient Greek, Byzantine, or Arabic music theory, works closely associated with named writers, and unpublished anonymous works. In addition, several significant anonymous works, such as the ...