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[Hauf, Carolus von der; Hofen, Carolus von der]

(b Nuremberg, 1580; d Salzburg, May 5, 1661). German composer and organist. He was taught music by either Hans Leo Hassler or his brother Kaspar. In 1606 the Hassler brothers recommended him for a position at the court of Count Georg von Zollern at Hechingen. He probably remained there until 1609, though he may have been retained at least in name until 1611. In 1609 he was appointed chamber organist at the Salzburg court. From 1611 until his death he was court organist. He composed both sacred vocal and keyboard music. Some of the vocal works are in the Venetian style (much practised in south Germany), with two antiphonal choirs.


Josef-Horst Lederer

[Bonamico, Pietro]

(b c1580; d Salzburg, 1625). ?German composer and singer, active in Austria. He is first mentioned in 1588 as an alto in the Kapelle (which was directed by Lassus’s son Ferdinand) of Count Eitelfriedrich IV of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen at Hechingen, Baden-Württemberg. He was a member of the Kapelle of Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau at Salzburg in 1602, when Stadlmayr was its director. In 1608 he was himself promoted Kapellmeister. In 1613 the new prince-archbishop, Marcus Sitticus, replaced him with Francesco Turco, but he was back in the post a year later and remained in it until his death. Like the more famous Stefano Bernardi, his successor in Salzburg, he was an important figure in early Baroque music in Salzburg. His output consists principally of sacred works (example in Schneider, appx, no.31), including polychoral writing, and a few were still in the repertory at Salzburg in Mozart’s time. They include two motets, respectively for two and three voices and continuo (RISM, ...


Miriam W. Barndt-Webb

(b Reichenhall [now Bad Reichenhall], 1629; d Salzburg, Feb 25, 1684). Austrian composer. He attended the Benedictine University at Salzburg and then served as organist at St Lambrecht Abbey in Styria from 1651 to 1653. In 1654 he was appointed vice-Kapellmeister at the court of the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg and in 1679 was promoted to Kapellmeister, a position he held until his death. From 1666 until his death he was also Kapellmeister at Salzburg Cathedral. His pieces for solo voice suggest the influence of Monteverdi and other Italian composers who cultivated monodic music, whereas some of his larger works reflect the so-called ‘colossal’ style, as seen in the Missa Salisburgensis (formerly attributed to Benevoli, now Biber; see Hintermaier, Jaksch and Chafe).


Ulrich Konrad


(b Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], June 9, 1810; d Berlin, May 11, 1849). German composer and conductor. His opera Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor was the most successful comic opera composed in the first half of the 19th century. As founder of the Vienna Philharmonic Concerts, at that time one of the most modern concert ventures in Europe, he set new standards of orchestral playing, and he contributed significantly to the history of interpretation.

Nicolai was the first child of the composer Carl Ernst Daniel Nicolai (1785–1854) and his wife Christiane Wilhelmine (née Lauber). Because of his mother’s physical and mental illness, the marriage was dissolved a few months after Nicolai’s birth. He grew up in the care of foster-parents until 1820, when his father took on responsibility for his education. Nicolai attended the highly regarded Friedrich-Gymnasium in Königsberg, but became so strained by his father’s attempts to make a prodigy of him that at the age of 15 he suffered a complete breakdown and had to leave. In mid-...


(b Nuremberg, bap. Nov 16, 1569; d Innsbruck, Feb 28, 1609). German composer and organist. He was originally called Schneider. In his native city he attended the grammar school of St Lorenz, where one of his teachers was Leonhard Lechner. Then, as he explained in the preface to his Neue teutsche Liedlein, he went to Italy to study with some of the famous composers of the day. He probably stayed for quite some time in Rome in circles frequented by Palestrina and his pupils; one composer he probably got to know well was Ruggiero Giovannelli, on whose motet Jubilate Deo omnis terra he wrote a parody mass. By 1594 at the latest he became organist in the Hofkapelle of Archduke Maximilian II of Austria, and he held this post until his death. The archduke lived at Mergentheim, Franconia, until 1602 and thereafter at Innsbruck, and thus Sartorius must have lived principally at these two places. In ...


Giorgio Pestelli

(b Gandino, nr Bergamo, 1721; d Turin, Sept 30, 1778). Italian composer. An abbé, he studied composition first with G.A. Fioroni, maestro di cappella of Milan Cathedral, then with Martini (41 letters to Martini are in I-Bc ). According to a document in the capitular archives in Turin, he lived in Brescia, Venice (as a maestro di cappella) and Bologna, where in 1751 he became a member of the Accademia Filarmonica (test piece in I-Baf ). His opera Artaserse was performed in Milan in 1756. From 1758 he was music master to Count D’Aziano of Vercelli, travelling in his retinue to Rome and Naples. In 1759–60 he unsuccessfully sought the post of maestro di cappella at S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo. In 1760 he was named maestro di cappella of Turin Cathedral, where he worked until his death, devoting himself mainly to the religious life of the city (the ...


August Scharnagl

revised by Robert Münster

[Johannes Baptist]

(b Meran [now Merano], June 20, 1730; d Andechs, nr Ammersee, April 3, 1797). German composer, choir director and organist. He was a choirboy at the chapel of the royal convent in Hall, and sang in school comedies at the Jesuit Gymnasium there (1743–5); he continued his studies at the monastery of Polling, Bavaria, and at Freising. In 1749 he entered the Benedictine monastery at Andechs and in 1754 was ordained priest. According to his foreword to the offertories op.1, he studied at Andechs with the music director Gregor Schreyer, was the monastery's assistant director of music (1755), organist and director of the Tafelmusik (1757), leader of the Figuralchor (1760) and singing master (1761–2). In 1763, to encourage his compositional activity, Abbot Meinrad Moosmüller sent him to visit the Italian Opera in Munich. In 1767 he became the music director and leader of the boys’ classes at the Andechs monastery. In ...


Cliff Eisen

(b Eggenfelden, Lower Bavaria, Feb 1, 1718; d Salzburg, Aug 15, 1798). Austrian composer and organist. He went to Salzburg as a 14-year-old choirboy and was appointed court and cathedral organist in 1754. At first his duties were restricted largely to performance at the cathedral; only after the death of Adlgasser in 1777 did Lipp become active as an accompanist at court. Less than a year later, Leopold Mozart wrote to his son: ‘You can easily imagine how beastly things are now that … Lipp accompanies at court. Whenever Ceccarelli sings, he complains loudly and publicly’. It is probably no coincidence that on his return to Salzburg in 1779, Mozart took over Lipp's court duties.

Lipp was a prolific composer of church music; manuscripts of his works dating from 1745 to 1796 survive in numerous libraries in and around Salzburg. Of his secular music only two string trios survive. Lipp's works are written in a conservative style and despite his long composing career he made few compositional advances. Leopold Mozart at first thought favourably of Lipp; in ...


[Mattia Sigismondo]

(b Leibnitz, nr Graz, c1668; d Salzburg, Aug 27, 1743). Austrian composer and lutenist. He studied at the Jesuit university at Graz from not later than 1684 to 1687, and then moved to the Benedictine university at Salzburg, probably as a result of the election of his father’s former master and patron, Johann Ernst, Count Thun, as Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. In 1688 he entered the court Kapelle, perhaps as a solo singer. He became vice-Kapellmeister in 1703, Kapellmeister in 1706, and also taught the choristers singing for some time. In 1723 he was ennobled by Emperor Charles VI. He was appointed high steward in 1726 by the ruling Archbishop of Salzburg. It is notable that as Kapellmeister, a post he filled until his death, Biechteler was paid less than his predecessor, Heinrich Biber.

Biechteler made an important contribution to the construction of a self-contained repertory for Salzburg Cathedral. His numerous liturgical works observe the distinctions, common in Catholic sacred music, between the ...


Cliff Eisen

City in Austria. From its founding in the 8th century until the dissolution of the archdiocese in 1806, it was the seat of a series of prince-archbishops whose court was the centre of the city's musical life. Salzburg was incorporated into Austria in 1816; in the 20th century it became specially noted for its festival.

The two most important centres for the development of liturgical chant in Salzburg and its missionary districts were the abbey of St Peter, founded by St Rupert, and the cathedral, founded by St Virgilius in 774. The earliest musical sources from St Peter are in St Gallen notation; those of the cathedral follow the Messine tradition. In 798 Arno, the first Archbishop of Salzburg (798–821), instructed that services at the cathedral were to be held ‘following the tradition of the Romans’; statutes from 799 show that congregational hymns were permitted in addition to the psalm settings and songs sung by the monks. The earliest evidence for the practice of early polyphony in Salzburg is a 14th-century, gothically neumed graduale, in St Peter; a 12th-century copy of Aribo Scholasticus's ...


Peter Holman and Robert Rawson


(b ?Olomouc, c1660; d Mannheim, bur. Aug 31, 1730). Moravian viol player and composer. Georg Finger, his father or brother, was cantor at St Moriče, Olomouc. Gottfried was presumably in the service of Prince-Bishop Karl Liechtenstein-Kastelcorn, for pieces composed and copied by him survive in the prince-bishop's music collection at Kroměříž. According to Riemann, Finger was in Munich in 1682, and he was in London by spring 1687: he received a post in James II's new Catholic chapel by a warrant dated 5 July 1687, backdated to 25 March. In 1688 he published his op.1, which he dedicated to James II, stating that the music was intended for use in the Catholic chapel. Finger did not follow the king into exile in 1688, but remained in London and started a successful freelance career. He began by publishing three collections of easy and tuneful music designed to appeal to amateurs: ...


Christoph Wolff and Ulrich Leisinger

Member of Bach family

(46) (b Weimar, March 8, 1714; d Hamburg, Dec 14, 1788). Composer and church musician, the second surviving son of (7) Johann Sebastian Bach (24) and his first wife, Maria Barbara. He was the most important composer in Protestant Germany during the second half of the 18th century, and enjoyed unqualified admiration and recognition particularly as a teacher and keyboard composer.

He was baptized on 10 March 1714, with Telemann as one of his godfathers. In 1717 he moved with the family to Cöthen, where his father had been appointed Kapellmeister. His mother died in 1720, and in spring 1723 the family moved to Leipzig, where Emanuel began attending the Thomasschule as a day-boy on 14 June 1723. J.S. Bach said later that one of his reasons for accepting the post of Kantor at the Thomasschule was that his sons’ intellectual development suggested that they would benefit from a university education. Emanuel Bach received his musical training from his father, who gave him keyboard and organ lessons. There may once have been some kind of ...


Dennis Libby and Rosa Leonetti

(b Naples, ?c1725; d ?Salzburg, after c1810). Italian composer. He studied at the Conservatorio di S Onofrio under Leo and Durante. Florimo listed an opera by him, Armindo (Naples, 1742), performed when he was still a student (unless it was in fact by his father). Comic operas by him were given at Naples in 1749 and 1752 and Palermo in 1753. He then settled in Venice and began a collaboration with Goldoni that in the next four years produced four extremely successful comic operas: Lo speziale (the first of its three acts was composed by Vincenzo Pallavicini), La ritornata di Londra, Il mercato di Malmantile and Il signor dottore, all of which were widely performed in Italy and elsewhere, remaining popular throughout the 1760s.

Fischietti seems to have been in Prague by 1762, working with the Molinari opera company. He is definitely known to have been part of Bustelli’s company, which began working there in ...


Reinhard G. Pauly

revised by Ernst Hintermaier

(b Jettingen, nr Burgau, Bavaria, bap. March 27, 1702; d Salzburg, June 19, 1762). German composer and organist. He attended the Gymnasium in Augsburg, but his consuming interest in music kept him from applying himself fully to his studies. His musical education was similar to that of Leopold Mozart. As an 11-year-old boy Eberlin participated in school performances of musical plays; in later years, this kind of dramatic music occupied him frequently as a composer. Eberlin arrived in Salzburg in 1721 and was a student at the Benedictine university until 1723 but did not complete a course of study. He became fourth organist at Salzburg Cathedral in 1726 and by 1749 had risen to the rank of court and cathedral Kapellmeister.

Leopold Mozart, in his description of the Salzburg musical establishment (published in F.W. Marpurg’s Historisch-kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der Musik, iii, Berlin, 1757, 185–98), called Eberlin ‘a thorough and accomplished master of the art of composing … He is entirely in command of the notes, and he composes easily and rapidly … One can compare him to the two famous and industrious composers, [Alessandro] Scarlatti and Telemann’. Eberlin was on friendly terms with the Mozart family and with the clergy of St Peter’s Abbey in Salzburg, often composing music for special occasions there. In ...


Sven Hansell

revised by T. Herman Keahey

(Maria Baldassare)

(b nr Mantua, June 11, 1740; d Salzburg, March 1, 1817). Italian composer. He probably received his earliest musical training in Mantua, where his first opera, Alessandro nell’Indie was well received in 1768 and where he became a tenor at the church of S Barbara. The maestro di cappella, G.B. Pattoni, described him as a ‘reliable tenor … as well as a good organist and composer’ (29 January 1768). In 1770 he met the Mozarts, then on their first Italian journey, and copied one of Wolfgang’s masses (probably k66). In 1773 he competed unsuccessfully to become Pattoni’s successor and on 16 July 1779 was appointed vice-maestro of S Barbara. For the inauguration of the Teatro Scientifico, the private theatre of the Reale Accademia of Mantua, he wrote the cantata Virgilio e Manto (1769). He served the academy as secondo maestro until 1783...


Member of Mozart family

(b Augsburg, Nov 14, 1719; d Salzburg, May 28, 1787). Composer, violinist and theorist.

He was the son of an Augsburg bookbinder, Johann Georg Mozart (1679–1736), and attended the Augsburg Gymnasium (1727–35) and the Lyceum adjoining the Jesuit school of St Salvator (1735–6), where he frequently performed as an actor and singer in various theatrical productions; he was also an accomplished organist and violinist. In 1737 Leopold broke with his family and matriculated at the Salzburg Benedictine University, studying philosophy and jurisprudence. He took the bachelor of philosophy degree the next year, with public commendation, but in September 1739 he was expelled for poor attendance and indifference. Shortly after, he became a valet and musician to Johann Baptist, Count of Thurn-Valsassina and Taxis, Salzburg canon and president of the consistory; it was to Thurn-Valsassina that Mozart dedicated his ...